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Alan Ali Saeed
This is the latest edition of a stalwart textbook for teaching English for Academic Purposes (EAP). It is a stand-alone volume, unlike many EAP books that have become a series differentiated by stages of student ability (for example, the Oxford EAP series or Longman Academic Writing). The advantage is that Bailey's textbook accompanies the student through their courses, from beginner to advanced, rather than requiring several separate books. The book is systematic and thorough, with varied examples of material, and it is broken into logical sections and subsections like a science or engineering textbook. The emphasis is on students practicing and completing writing throughout, rather than a more theoretical approach.
Journal of NELTA
In order to write for academic purposes, all novice ESL and EFL writers must be well-informed about the fundamentals of academic writing (AW) in English. Developing academic writing skills for all students is crucial because they must produce good writing skills to meet the standards of college and university course writing assignments. The typical college and university writing assignments include descriptive writing, analytical writing, persuasive writing, critical writing, and inquiry writing. In the meantime, it is also crucial for them to understand that writing is a recursive process involving various stages, such as generating ideas, outlining, planning, drafting, revising, editing, and sharing. During the writing process, the writers should not only consider the elements of AW, comprising content, organization, purpose and audience, critical thinking, word choice, grammar, and mechanics, but also its basic conventions, including objectivity, formality or style, citation styl...
Mark Steven A . Pandan
2023, Some Notes on Academic Writing
Abstract: This content by Mark Steven A. Pandan, a faculty member at Holy Name University's College of Education, delves into the nuances of academic writing, addressing challenges commonly faced by students and scholars. The material explores the definition of academic writing and the reasons behind the struggles encountered by individuals in mastering this skill. Tara's insights on the genres within academic writing (analytical, critical, descriptive, and persuasive) are presented, along with practical advice to enhance writing proficiency. The content further delves into the importance of individual sentences, the dance between form and content, and the solutions to common pitfalls. Additionally, it provides a comprehensive guide to drafting, revising, and editing a thesis, offering strategies to overcome challenges and improve overall clarity. The significance of reading and editing during the writing process is emphasized, with practical tips for self-assessment. The material also incorporates expert advice from James Hayton and Tara Brabazon, adding depth to the discussion. Overall, this content serves as a valuable resource for educators, students, and researchers seeking to enhance their academic writing skills.
Juan José Prat Ferrer
2003, Teaching academic writing in European higher …
Areen A Muhammed
The current research investigates the problems experienced by Kurdish students when developing their academic writing at the English Language Teaching Centre (ELTC) at the University of Sheffield. The aim of the study is to find out the major and minor problems faced by Kurdish students when undertaking academic writing. Moreover, it also aims to identify the relevant factors underlying their problems. Such an understanding of their problems and the proposed solutions will be beneficial for both Kurdish teachers and students. For this purpose, four research questions were proposed and the answers to these questions were provided and discussed. The scope of the study is to collect data from both teachers and Kurdish students from the ELTC. The data for the study were gathered through different mixed-methods: questionnaires, interviews and the collection of essays from the Kurdish students at the ELTC. The questionnaire and interview findings revealed that the students’ major problems are grammar, vocabulary and content knowledge. Moreover, their secondary problems are organisation, structuring, and sometimes spelling, as can be seen in the essays. Their minor problems are style and referencing. Additionally, the teachers in the interviews claimed that the Kurdish students are more descriptive than critical. Furthermore, according to the interview, the Kurdish students are similar to Eastern students in terms of their writing problems and they are not different from them. Moreover, the students’ writing ability developed dramatically during their stay in the UK and their period of study at the ELTC. Finally, according to the interview data, the best solution and a good suggestion for improving the non-native speakers’ (NNS’) writing could be through reading and practising the language independently.
Ann Hewings , Mary Jane Curry
2004, Changing English
1996, College Composition and Communication
Writing has become one of important skills in English language acquistion since a long time ago. Without leaving aside the importance of using active English to communicate, the passive one also plays important role to convey the message. Writing, as a way to explore our passive English is not merely intended to describe any topic without purposes. In this case, writing is a progressive activity. Oshima and Hogue (1997:2) explain the meaning of progressive in writing is when we want to start the first step to write about a certain topic, actually we have already known what we are going to write and how we explore it. After that, we read over our writing than we will do some corrections and also changes. In short, in order to have a better writing we should never stop only in one step. The more particular and specific urgency in writing is how to make our writing academic. This is what the most college students face in their writing tasks such as essays and final projects which become the requirement for them to finish their study in a university. In fact, academic writing is not as easy as the students think that they will just ask to write a passage freely. In this case, academic writing gives full description and complete guidance on how to make their writing sounds academic. So that is what the researcher tried to explained to the readers especially for students who need to shape their ability to in doing such academic writing.
Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics , Ariyanti Ariyanti
Mike Hannay , Dirk Siepmann , Lachlan Mackenzie
Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) , Joseph Mallia
Non-native English-speaking students at, or about to enter British Universities and other Western universities where the language of instruction is English may experience challenges with academic writing, often one of the most important means of assessing students. Pre-sessional and in-sessional English academic writingcourses have been developed to aid students, and traditionally covered a range of topics. This paper discusses essential 'pre-writing' tasks. It then outlines some of the essential elements of academic writing; these often focus on paragraph structure, basic components of an essay, and different functional types of essays. Other features covered by this paper include aspects of language such as level of formality, cohesive devices, caution and hedging, supplying evidence, and avoiding plagiarism, amongst others. This paper also emphasizes the growing importance of collaborative learning, critical thinking and autonomous leaning which may be insufficiently familiar to students from non-Western learning environments where traditionally factual recall is given the greatest importance. Inductive and deductive approaches to paragraph organization, and also essay development have also been introduced. These approaches may also contrast with the rhetorical features familiar to non-native students from various cultures around the world and require special attention. Contemporary pre-sessional courses are also becoming more specialized, targeting English suitable for specific sets of disciplines at the undergraduate at postgraduate level. For example, courses focusing in STEM subjects (science technology, engineering and mathematics) are replacing more 'generic' academic English courses. Introduction to academic writing and style Non-native English-speaking students at, or about to enter British Universities and other Western universities where the language of instruction is English may experiencelinguistic challenges. They may also encounter a series of broader academic expectations that may differ to some,or a greater extent than the models experienced in the home country.Pre-sessional and in-sessional course courses are aimed to help non-native students understand and improve language and academic skills needed for success in a tertiary level education scenario.
This paper was written to fulfill the requirements of Module 3 for the Cambridge Delta. The topic of the paper is EAP (English for Academic Purposes) and involves teaching academic writing. This assignment touches on what academic writing involves, includes a brief needs analysis conducted on learners, and a suggested academic course of study for a group of students whose needs include learning to write academic papers for the undergraduate/postgraduate levels of study. This was especially important for me as it evidences my first attempt at creating a course for a group of learners. Please see the the other paper entitled "Appendices for Module 3 Assignment" for further details on the actual layout of the course, and the materials suggested for use.
Restu Galih Respati
Ching Hei Kuang
Page 1. Page 2. Writing Essays at University A Guide For Students, By Students Lin Norton & Edd Pitt with Kathy Harrington James Elander & Pete Reddy Write Now Centre for Excellence in Teaching & Learning www.writenow.ac.uk/assessmentplus Page 3. ...
Naniana N I M R O D Benu
AL-ISHLAH: Jurnal Pendidikan
Academic wiring is one of the essential skills in academic writing, and it is vital to support students' self-development through opinion writing, grant essay writing and others. This study explores students' difficulties in writing English academic essays and the dominant challenges by using a mix-method approach. The qualitative is used to collect data, while the quantitative is used to find the difficulty percentage—the data analysis uses indicators from Brown (1999). The sample of this study was 30 students in the fifth semester of the English Education Study Program at Universitas Kristen Artha Wacana. The results showed that students still experienced serious difficulties in four aspects of academic writing; content, organization, discourse and mechanics. The most dominant difficulties (97%) were found in; 1) thesis statement; 2) related ideas; 3) development of ideas; and 4) use of description/cause and effect, comparison/contrast; 5) effective introduction; 6) topic ...
Journal of English Language and Literature
Student perceptions of what constitutes good academic writing (AW) in higher education often differ. This is reflected in written assignments, which frequently fall below the expected standard. In seeking to develop the writing skills of students and propose potential solutions to writing difficulties, a study was conducted in Gedu College of Business Studies, (GCBS) Royal University of Bhutan. (RUB). This paper reports the findings generated using unmoderated focus groups of second-year students and third-year students of Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) & Bachelor of Commerce (B. Com) GCBS. The findings indicated that students’ perceptions of what constitutes AW differed. The barriers to academic writing that were identified were lack of time and confidence, lack of extended writing, lack of reading and understanding of academic texts or journals, referencing and academic jargon.
Le Quang Dung
Throughout the history of language teaching and learning, the teaching of writing has been the subject of focus for many teachers and applied linguists. As the pendulum swung from an approach to another, teaching writing skills has been either prioritized or neglected. More specifically, with the rise of the communicative movement, different teachers started to direct their practices mostly to speaking and communicative skills. However, with the increased focus on the learner and with the search for a holistic approach to language teaching which integrates all the major skills, the writing component has become an integrative skill that needs to be fit into any language teaching programme. At the university level, writing occupies a major component; every year, several academic writing textbooks are designed and published throughout the world incorporating different approaches and activities, all of which with a unifying purpose of developing academic writing skills among university students. The present essay endeavors to explore some of the main approaches and techniques used in the teaching of academic writing. First, it is initiated by a discussion of the notion of writing and its relevance to language teaching and learning. Then, the second section will be devoted to explore some of the main approaches that have been adopted in the teaching of academic writing. Afterwards, the third section will be concerned with some practical activities that are used in the teaching of academic writing.
2015, Journal of History Culture and Art Research
2011, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences
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‘Academic Writing is organized in a way that makes sense for teaing writing skills. e content covers a diverse body of samples from various ﬁelds, so it works wonderfully for my undergrad or graduate students. I especially like the section on common language errors, whi includes extra practice for students; there is a good balance between writing instruction and discrete skill practice. It isn’t easy to ﬁnd a text that addresses plagiarism in a way that is clear for students to understand, and this text does the job!’ Ixell Reyes, University of Southern California, USA ‘is book is an excellent example of inclusive teaing. It is aimed primarily at international students, but reaes further, as it is equally useful for British students and students who come from a more practice-focused baground. It is also a strong companion to books on resear methods that need a solid basis for academic skills. e clear structure, accessible content, and well thought through activities in this book all give students the conﬁdence to write eﬀective academic work without the fear of breaking rules of plagiarism or academic malpractice. is is the book I recommend to all my students at the beginning of ea academic year, independent of the subject I tea and the composition of my cohort.’ Maria Lonsdale, University of Leeds, UK ‘Academic Writing is simply organised, allowing ease of access for beginner writers and speciﬁcally introducing them to the language needed to enter the conversations on academic writing.’ Djuddah Leijen, University of Tartu, Estonia ‘e 5th edition of Academic Writing includes many new features whi are extremely useful for all university students who are inexperienced in writing for academic purposes. e book provides both information on important aspects of academic writing and practice exercises whi all students will ﬁnd invaluable. It is a useful book for anyone who is new to writing for academic purposes, regardless of their level of proﬁciency in English.’ Radhika Jaidev, Singapore Institute of Technology, Singapore Academic Writing Now in its ﬁh edition, Academic Writing helps international students succeed in writing essays and reports for their English-language academic courses. oroughly revised and updated, it is designed to let teaers and students easily ﬁnd the topics they need, both in the classroom and for selfstudy. e book consists of ﬁve parts: e Writing Process Elements of Writing Language Issues Vocabulary for Writing Writing Models e ﬁrst part explains and practises every stage of essay writing, from oosing the best sources, reading and note-making, through to referencing and proofreading. e four remaining parts, organised alphabetically, can be taught in conjunction with the ﬁrst part or used on a remedial basis. A progress e at the end of ea part allows students to assess their learning. All units are fully cross-referenced, and a complete set of answers to the practice exercises is included. New topics in this edition include Writing in Groups, Wrien British and American English, and Writing Leers and Emails. In addition, the new interactive website has a full set of teaing notes as well as more allenging exercises, revision material and links to other sources. Additional features of the book include: Models provided for writing tasks su as case studies and essays Use of authentic academic texts from a wide range of disciplines Designed for self-study as well as classroom use Useful at both undergraduate and postgraduate level Glossary to explain tenical terms, plus index Wrien to deal with the speciﬁc language issues faced by international students, this practical, user-friendly book is an invaluable guide to academic writing in English. Stephen Bailey has taught English for Academic Purposes at the University of Noingham and Derby University. Previously he taught students in Barcelona, Tokyo, Johor Bahru and Prague. He now lives in Derbyshire with his wife and daughter. His other books include Academic Writing for International Students of Business (Routledge) and The Essentials of Academic Writing for International Students (Routledge). Academic Writing A Handbook for International Students Fih edition Stephen Bailey Fih edition published 2018 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN and by Routledge 711 ird Avenue, New York, NY 10017 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2018 Stephen Bailey e right of Stephen Bailey to be identiﬁed as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, meanical, or other means, now known or hereaer invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identiﬁcation and explanation without intent to infringe. First edition published 2003 by Routledge Fourth edition published 2015 by Routledge British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Names: Bailey, Stephen, 1947– author. Title: Academic writing : a handbook for international students / Stephen Bailey. Description: Fih Edition. | New York : Routledge, 2018. | Includes bibliographical references. Identiﬁers: LCCN 2017036066 | ISBN 9781138048737 (Hardba) | ISBN 9781138048744 (Paperba) | ISBN 9781315169996 (Ebook) Subjects: LCSH: English language—Rhetoric—Handbooks, manuals, etc. | English language—Textbooks for foreign speakers. | Academic writing— Handbooks, manuals, etc. Classiﬁcation: LCC PE1413 .B28 2018 | DDC 808/.0428—dc23 LC record available at hps://lccn.loc.gov/2017036066 ISBN: 978-1-138-04873-7 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-138-04874-4 (pbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-16999-6 (ebk) Typeset in Galliard by Apex CoVantage, LLC Visit the companion website: www.routledge.com/cw/bailey Contents Acknowledgements Introduction for Teachers Introduction for Students Academic Writing Quiz Written British and American English – A Short Guide Part 1 e Writing Process 1.1 Basics of Writing e purpose of academic writing Features of academic writing Common types of academic writing e format of short and long writing tasks e components of academic writing Some other common text components Simple and longer sentences Writing in paragraphs Practice 1.2 Reading: Finding Suitable Sources Academic texts Types of text Using reading lists Using library catalogues Using library websites to sear electronic resources 1.3 Reading: Developing Critical Approaes Reading methods Titles, subtitles and text features Reading abstracts Fact and opinion Assessing internet sources critically Practice Critical thinking 1.4 Avoiding Plagiarism What is plagiarism? Anowledging sources Degrees of plagiarism Avoiding plagiarism by summarising and paraphrasing Avoiding plagiarism by developing good study habits Practice Further practice Resear 1.5 From Understanding Essay Titles to Planning e planning process Analysing essay titles Practice Brainstorming Essay length Writing outlines Practice 1.6 Finding Key Points and Note-making Finding key points Finding relevant points Practice A Why make notes? Note-making methods Eﬀective note-making Practice B 1.7 Summarising and Paraphrasing What makes a good summary? Stages of summarising Practice A Practice B Practice C Paraphrasing Practice D Teniques for paraphrasing Practice E Practice F 1.8 References and otations Why use references? Citations and references Reference verbs Reference systems Using quotations Practice Abbreviations in citations Secondary references Organising the list of references 1.9 Combining Sources Referring to sources Taking a critical approa Combining three sources Practice 1.10 Organising Paragraphs Paragraph structure Practice A Practice B Introducing paragraphs and linking them together Practice C Practice D 1.11 Introductions and Conclusions Introduction components Introduction structure Opening sentences Conclusions Conclusion structure Practice 1.12 Rewriting and Proofreading Rewriting Practice A Practice B Proofreading Practice C Practice D Practice E Progress e 1 Part 2 Elements of Writing 2.1 Argument and Discussion Discussion vocabulary Organisation Practice A e language of discussion Counter-arguments Providing evidence Practice B 2.2 Cause and Eﬀect e language of cause and eﬀect Practice A Practice B Practice C Practice D 2.3 Comparison Comparison structures Practice A Forms of comparison Using superlatives Practice B Practice C Practice D 2.4 Deﬁnitions Simple deﬁnitions Category words Complex deﬁnitions Practice 2.5 Examples Using examples Phrases to introduce examples Practice A Practice B Restatement 2.6 Generalisations Using generalisations Structure Practice A Practice B Building on generalisations Practice C 2.7 Problems and Solutions Paragraph structure Alternative structure Vocabulary Practice A Practice B Practice C 2.8 Visual Information Types of visuals e language of ange Describing visuals Labelling Practice A Practice B Progress e 2 Part 3 Language Issues 3.1 Cohesion Reference words Practice A Preventing confusion Practice B Implied language Practice C Practice D 3.2 Deﬁnite Articles Use of articles Using deﬁnite articles Practice A Practice B 3.3 Numbers e language of numbers Percentages Simpliﬁcation Further numerical phrases Practice 3.4 Passive and Active Active and passive Structure Use of the passive Adverbs with passives Practice 3.5 Punctuation Capital leers Full stops Commas Apostrophes Semicolons Colons otations marks/inverted commas Others Practice A Practice B 3.6 Singular or Plural? Five diﬃcult areas Group phrases Uncountable nouns Practice A Practice B 3.7 Style Developing an academic style Guidelines Practice A Avoiding repetition and redundancy Varying sentence length e use of caution Using modiﬁers Practice B 3.8 Time Markers How time markers are used Practice A Tenses Practice B Practice C Progress e 3 Part 4 Vocabulary for Writing 4.1 Approaes to Vocabulary Vocabulary issues Dealing with new vocabulary Language features Practice Confusing pairs Words and phrases from other languages 4.2 Abbreviations Types of abbreviation Common abbreviations Punctuation Duplicate abbreviations Abbreviations in writing Practice 4.3 Academic Vocabulary: Nouns and Adjectives Introduction Nouns Nouns and adjectives Confusing nouns and adjectives Practice A Similar adjectives Academic adjectives Practice B Practice C 4.4 Academic Vocabulary: Verbs and Adverbs Understanding main verbs Using verbs of reference Practice A Further verbs of reference Practice B Using adverbs Practice C Practice D 4.5 Conjunctions How conjunctions work Types of conjunctions Common conjunctions Practice A Practice B Confusing conjunctions Conjunctions of opposition Practice C 4.6 Preﬁxes and Suﬃxes How preﬁxes and suﬃxes work Preﬁxes Practice A Suﬃxes Practice B Practice C 4.7 Prepositions Using prepositions Practice A Prepositions and nouns Prepositions in phrases Prepositions of place and time Practice B Verbs and prepositions Practice C 4.8 Synonyms How synonyms work Common synonyms in academic writing Practice A Practice B Practice C Progress e 4 Part 5 Writing Models 5.1 Case Studies Using case studies Model case study 5.2 Literature Reviews and Book Reviews Literature reviews Example literature review Book reviews Model book review 5.3 Writing Longer Papers Planning your work Example essay Revision 5.4 Reports Writing reports Essays and reports Practice Scientiﬁc reports Example report: Student experience of part-time work 5.5 Writing Letters and Emails Leers Practice A Emails Practice B Practice C 5.6 Writing in Groups Why write in groups? Making group work successful Dealing with problems Points to remember Glossary Answers Part 1 – The Writing Process Part 2 – Elements of Writing Part 3 – Language Issues Part 4 – Vocabulary for Writing Part 5 – Writing Models Index Anowledgements I would like to thank all the colleagues that I have worked with over the years in diﬀerent parts of the world. Always ready to share ideas, their encouragement and comments have helped me develop these materials. My wife Rene, who has an unrivalled grasp of the ﬁner points of academic style, has been an invaluable critic, while my daughter Sophie has helped me appreciate the other side of the academic whirl. Introduction for Teaers Aims e ﬁh edition of Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students has been wrien to help students who are not native speakers of English with their wrien academic work. In many ways writing poses the biggest allenge for these students, due to the special demands of style, vocabulary and structure met in the academic world. is book is aimed at both undergraduate and postgraduate students, since although they are studying at diﬀerent levels, the requirements of their teaers are similar – for wrien work that is precise, objective, accurate and fully referenced. In addition, students may be studying in many diﬀerent situations: on full-time pre-sessional courses, on part-time in-sessional classes, in subjectspeciﬁc classes or in multidisciplinary courses, or studying entirely by themselves. Due to its ﬂexible structure this book can be used in all these situations. Structure e organisation of Academic Writing is explained by this art: Part Topic Main application 1 e Writing Process from ﬁnding sources to proofreading Classroom use 2 Elements of Writing from argument to visual information Classroom and self-study 3 Language Issues from cohesion to time markers Classroom, self-study and reference 4 Vocabulary for Writing from abbreviations to synonyms Classroom, self-study and reference 5 Writing Models from case studies to emails Self-study and reference Part 1 guides students through the entire process of writing essays or similar papers, and is best taught as a series of lessons, with feedba from the practice exercises. Part 2 teaes the related writing skills and, like Parts 3, 4 and 5, is organised alphabetically. Part 3 examines the language issues that pose particular problems for international students, and Part 4 deals with the vocabulary problems whi are an understandable concern for su students. Finally, Part 5 provides models of some of the most common types of assessed writing tasks. All the units in Parts 2–5 can be taught in conjunction with units from Part 1, or can be suggested to individual students on a remedial basis for self-study. Full details of how units can be linked together in a teaing programme, with suggestions for suitable classroom approaes, can be found in the Teaing Notes on the companion website: www.routledge.com/cw/bailey. Using the book e ﬁrst three units in Part 1 are designed as a basic introduction to the subject and assume a fairly low level of writing ability. With stronger students teaers may oose to progress rapidly through these to more diﬃcult materials starting with Unit 4, Avoiding Plagiarism. Note that Academic Writing uses authentic reading texts taken from a wide variety of disciplines (e.g. medicine, politics, law and engineering) that are selected to be of interest to all students. Most of the exercises can be done either individually or in pairs or groups, the laer being preferable in some cases. ere is a full answer key at the end of the book, along with a glossary of academic terms and an index. Further practice exercises, mainly at a more advanced level, can be found on the companion website. Cross-referencing to relevant sections in other units is provided like this: See Units 3.4 Passive and Active and 4.5 Conjunctions e materials in this course have been thoroughly tested in the classroom, but improvement is always possible, so I would be grateful for any comments or suggestions from teaers for future editions. Stephen Bailey [email protected] Introduction for Students e allenge of writing in English Most international students who come to college or university to study on English-language courses can speak the language well enough for everyday activities su as shopping and travelling. But they may be surprised to ﬁnd that writing notes, essays and reports in English is mu more diﬃcult. ere are several reasons for this situation. Firstly, while speaking is normally done face to face, so that you can see if the listener understands what you say, when writing we cannot see the reader, so we must write as clearly as possible to make our work easy to understand. Additionally, with academic writing, writers and readers must learn special conventions, su as using capital leers in certain places. If you do not follow these rules, your meaning may be unclear and your teaer could ﬁnd it hard to assess your work. ere is also the issue of vocabulary, since in most academic subjects students are expected to use a semi-formal vocabulary whi is diﬀerent from the idiomatic language of normal spee. e aim of the book e main purpose of Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students is to help you succeed in the writing tasks whi you may be asked to complete on your course. e kind of writing you are asked to do could be diﬀerent from the work you have done before, and this may be the ﬁrst time you have had to write long essays and reports in English. Your teaers know that English is not your native language and will be sympathetic to the problems you have in your writing. But at the same time you will want to learn to write as clearly and accurately as possible, not only to succeed on your present course, but also in preparation for your future career. Most large companies and organisations now expect their staﬀ to be able to communicate eﬀectively in wrien English, as well as orally. During your studies you have an ideal opportunity to learn to write English well, and this book can help you aieve that goal. As well as accuracy, students are generally expected to take a critical approa to their sources. is means that you are expected to question and evaluate everything you read, asking whether it is reliable and relevant. Your teaers also expect you to refer carefully to the sources of your ideas, using a standard system of referencing. Academic Writing will help you develop these skills. Using the book e organisation of Academic Writing is explained by this art: Part Topic Main application 1 e Writing Process from ﬁnding sources to proofreading Classroom use 2 Elements of Writing from argument to visual information Classroom and self-study 3 Language Issues from cohesion to time markers Classroom, self-study and reference 4 Vocabulary for Writing from abbreviations to synonyms Classroom, self-study and reference 5 Writing Models from case studies to emails Self-study and reference e book can be used either with a teaer or by yourself for self-study and reference. To help you get the most out of the course, note the following points: Instructions are printed like this: Read the following text Cross-referencing to relevant sections in other units is provided like this: See Units 3.4 Passive and Active and 4.5 Conjunctions Answers to most exercises are provided in the answer key at the end of the book. If there is no deﬁnite answer, a model answer is usually given. e glossary on page 257 explains academic terms you may not be familiar with. e index on page 310 can be used to ﬁnd speciﬁc information. e companion website for Academic Writing can be found at www.routledge.com/cw/bailey. It oﬀers extra material including further practice exercises, more allenging materials and revision quizzes, as well as links to other resources. I hope you ﬁnd this new edition helpful in progressing with your studies, and I would be glad to receive your comments and suggestions on any part of the book to help develop future editions. Stephen Bailey [email protected] Academic Writing iz How mu do you know about academic writing? Find out by doing this fun quiz. 1 e main diﬀerence between academic writing and other writing is that academic writing: a) uses longer words b) tries to be precise and unbiased c) is harder to understand 2 e diﬀerence between a project and an essay is: a) essays are longer b) projects are longer c) students oose projects’ subjects 3 Teaers frequently complain about students: a) not answering the question given b) not writing enough c) writing in pencil 4 e best time to write an introduction is oen: a) ﬁrst b) last c) aer writing the main body 5 e purpose of an introduction is: a) to give your aims and methods b) to excite the reader c) to summarise your ideas 6 Making careful notes is essential for: a) writing essays b) revising for exams c) all academic work 7 An in-text citation looks like: a) (Manton, 2008) b) (Riard Manton, 2008) c) (Manton, R. 2008) 8 Paraphrasing a text means: a) making it shorter b) anging a lot of the vocabulary c) adding more detail 9 Paragraphs always contain: a) six or more sentences b) an example c) a topic sentence 10 Proofreading means: a) geing a friend to e your work b) eing for minor errors c) rewriting 11 Teaers expect students to adopt a critical approa to their sources: a) sometimes b) only for Master’s work c) always 12 is punctuation mark (’) is called: a) comma b) colon c) apostrophe 13 A suitable synonym for ‘business’ is: a) ﬁrm b) organisation c) outﬁt 14 ‘Progress’ and ‘resear’ are both nouns. What kind of noun? a) countable b) uncountable c) proper 15 An abstract is normally found: a) on the ba cover of books b) before journal articles c) in exam questions 16 e word ‘unreliable’ contains: a) a preﬁx b) a suﬃx c) both 17 When making notes you should always include: a) your own ideas b) a full reference c) the date 18 A pie art is used to show: a) anges in time b) proportion c) structure of an organisation 19 Anowledgements are generally used: a) to admit possible errors b) to suggest more resear c) to thank people who helped 20 e conclusion to an article usually includes: a) results of the study b) additional data c) references Answers on p. 262 Written British and American English – A Short Guide Speakers of British and American English can usually understand ea other easily, with only minor confusions due to some variations in vocabulary. However, with wrien academic work more diﬀerences need to be understood. e main issues are explained in this section. NB: Academic writers in Australia, New Zealand and many other Englishspeaking areas tend to use British English; in Canada American English is more common. 1 Vocabulary ere are many vocabulary items whi diﬀer between British (UK) and American (US) English (e.g. autumn [UK] and fall [US]). However, these are mainly well known and widely understood. But the two main problematic variations in everyday vocabulary are: a) words whi are not commonly understood in both countries (e.g. tap [UK] and faucet [US]). Other examples: boot (of car) (UK) and trunk (US)/nappy (UK) and diaper (US). b) words with diﬀerent meanings in ea country (e.g. vest is worn under a shirt in the UK, but in the US it is the part of a three-piece suit worn under a jaet). For a full list of diﬀerences hps://en.oxforddictionaries.com/usage/british-and-american-terms see: 2 Spelling a) In American English the ‘u’ is commonly dropped from words ending in -our (e.g. neighbour becomes neighbor). b) Words ending in -ise or -yse in British English (e.g. sanitise, modernise) ange to sanitize and modernize in American English. c) A group of tenical nouns su as haemophiliac and foetus lose the ‘ae’ or ‘oe’ in American English and become hemophiliac and fetus. d) British English spells the noun practice but the verb American English both forms are spelt with a ‘c’. e) Many words ending in -re in British English (e.g. become meter and theater in American English. practise. In metre, theatre) 3 Academic language ere are many minor variations between the language of the educational systems of Britain and the US. ese are some of the more important: a) In Britain students read/do/study a subject. In the US they study or major in a subject (the laer as the main part of a two-part degree). b) Most teaing in UK universities is done by lecturers, while a professor is a senior position. In US colleges and universities teaing is mainly done by professors and assistant professors. c) In Britain a is the paper submied for a PhD. is is called a dissertation in the US. (In the UK a dissertation may be wrien for a Master’s degree). thesis d) A college in the UK is usually any post-sool institution whi provides mainly vocational training, but doesn’t award degrees (but a few universities su as Oxford are organised in colleges). In the US a college is usually part of a university and does give ﬁrst degrees. e) Someone studying for a Master’s degree in the UK is a while in the US they are a graduate student. postgraduate, f) Students in Britain sit or take exams, in America exams are just taken. Before taking an exam, British students may revise the subject, but in the US they review the topic. UK students generally receive students get grades. marks for their work, while American 4 Punctuation a) In Britain quotations are shown by single quotation marks, while nested quotations (those inside quotations) use double. In the US the convention is the opposite. UK: As Kauffman remarked: ‘His concept of “internal space” requires US: As Kauffman remarked: “His concept of ‘internal space’ requires close analysis’. close analysis.” Note that in British English the full stop comes aer the quotation marks, while in the US it is inside. b) In American English the ‘Oxford comma’ is standard (i.e. the comma before the ﬁnal ‘and’ in a list): … typhus, cholera, tuberculosis, and smallpox were all endemic in the nineteenth-century slum. In British English this is usually omied: … typhus, cholera, tuberculosis and smallpox were all endemic in the nineteenth-century slum. c) Dates are generally wrien with the month ﬁrst in American English: 11.30.2017 = November 30th 2017 In British English dates usually begin with the day: 30.11.2017 = 30th November 2017 See Units 1.8 References and otations and 3.5 Punctuation PART 1 e Writing Process Part 1 explains and practises all the stages of producing a piece of academic writing, from analysing the title, reading the sources, note-making and referencing, through to rewriting and proofreading the ﬁnal dra. UNIT 1.1 Basics of Writing Most academic courses test students through wrien assignments. ese tasks include coursework, whi may take weeks to write, and exam answers, whi oen have to be wrien in an hour. is unit deals with: e names of diﬀerent writing tasks e format of long and short writing tasks e structure of sentences and paragraphs 1 e purpose of academic writing Students should be clear why they are writing. e most common reasons include: to report on a piece of resear the writer has conducted to answer a question the writer has been given or osen to discuss a subject of common interest and give the writer’s view to synthesise resear done by others on a topic Can you suggest any other reasons? 2 Features of academic writing Although there is no ﬁxed standard of academic writing, and style may vary from subject to subject, academic writing is clearly diﬀerent from the wrien style of newspapers or novels. For example, it is generally agreed that academic writing aempts to be accurate, so that instead of ‘the metal was very hot’ it is beer to write ‘the metal was heated to 65℃’. What are some of the other features of academic writing? Working alone or in a group, list your ideas here. Impersonal style – generally avoids using ‘I’ or ‘we’ 3 Common types of academic writing e main types of wrien work produced by students are presented in the following table. Mat the terms on the le to the deﬁnitions on the right. 4 e format of short and long writing tasks Short essays (including exam answers) generally have this paern: Introduction Main body Conclusion Longer essays and reports may include: Introduction Main body Literature review Case study Discussion Conclusion References Appendices See Unit 5.3 Longer Essays Dissertations and journal articles may have: Abstract List of contents List of tables Introduction Main body Literature review Case study Findings Discussion Conclusion Anowledgements Notes References Appendices In addition to these sections, books may also include: Foreword Preface Bibliography/Further reading Discuss the meanings of the preceding terms. a) A short summary whi explains the paper’s purpose and main ﬁndings. b) A list of all the sources the writer has mentioned in the text. c) A section, aer the conclusion, where additional information is included. d) A short section where people who have helped the writer are thanked. e) Part of the main body in whi the views of other writers on the topic are discussed. f) A section where one particular example is described in detail. g) A preliminary part of a book usually wrien by someone other than the author. ACADEMIC JOURNALS ere are thousands of academic journals published in English and other languages around the world. e purpose of these journals is to provide a forum for academics within a speciﬁc discipline (e.g. education or civil engineering) to share cuing-edge resear. Most journals publish several issues a year and are oen available either online or in a hard copy. One important feature of journals is that the articles they publish are generally peer-reviewed. is means that when an article is submied the editors ask other specialists in that ﬁeld to read the article and decide if it is worth publishing. Reviewers may make comments that lead to the article being modiﬁed. Students need to get to know the leading journals in their subject, whi are generally available via the university library. See Unit 1.2.5 Reading: Finding Suitable Sources 5 e components of academic writing ere are no ﬁxed rules for the layout of wrien academic work. Diﬀerent sools and departments require students to follow diﬀerent formats in their writing. Your teaers may give you guidelines, or you can ask them what they want, but some general paerns apply to most formats for academic writing. Read the following text and identify the features underlined, using the words in the box. sentence heading subtitle paragraph title phrase a) A Fishy Story b) Misleading health claims regarding omega-3 fay acids c) Introduction d) ere has been considerable discussion recently about the beneﬁts of omega-3 fay acids in the diet. e) It is claimed that these reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and may even combat obesity. Consequently food producers have added omega-3s to products ranging from margarine to so drinks in an aempt to make their products appear healthier and hence increase sales. f) However, consumers may be unaware that there are two types of omega-3, e best (long-ain fay acids) are derived from ﬁsh, but others (short-ain fay acids) come from eaper sources su as soya. is laer group have not been shown to produce the health beneﬁts linked to the long-ain variety. According to Tamura et al. (2009), positive results may only be obtained either by eating oily ﬁsh three times a week, or by taking daily supplements containing 500mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). (Source: Health Concerns, Mar 2016, p. 17) a) Title b) c) d) e) f) 6 Some other common text components a) Reference to sources using citation: According to Tamura et al. (2009) b) e use of abbreviations for convenience: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) c) Italics: used to show words from other languages or add emphasis: Medical resear companies know aﬀord medicines. ex ante that these citizens cannot (= Latin for ‘before the event’) d) Braets: used to give extra information or to clarify a point: … but others (short-chain fatty acids) come from cheaper sources such as soya. 7 Simple and longer sentences Study the following table. Dragon Motors – vehicle production 2013–17 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 135,470 156,935 164,820 159,550 123,075 All sentences contain verbs: In 2013 the company produced over 135,000 vehicles. Between 2013 and 2014 vehicle production increased by 20%. Simple sentences (su as the examples just given) are easier to write and read, but longer sentences are also needed in academic writing. However, students should make clarity a priority and avoid writing very lengthy sentences with several clauses until they feel conﬁdent in their ability. Sentences containing two or more clauses use conjunctions, relative pronouns or punctuation to link the clauses: In 2013 Dragon Motors produced over 135,000 vehicles, year production increased by 20%. but the following (conjunction) In 2015 the company built 164,820 vehicles, whi was the peak of production. (relative pronoun) Nearly 160,000 vehicles were produced in 2016; by 2017 this had fallen to 123,000. (punctuation – semicolon) Write two simple and two longer sentences using data from the following table. a) b) c) d) Borester College: gender balance by faculty, 2016 (percentages) Law Education Engineering Business Computer sciences Male 43 22 81 41 65 Female 57 78 19 59 35 See Unit 4.5 Conjunctions See Unit 3.7 Style – Varying sentence length 8 Writing in paragraphs Discuss the following questions: What is a paragraph? Why are texts divided into paragraphs? How long are paragraphs? Do paragraphs have a standard structure? For answers see Unit 1.10 Organising Paragraphs Read the following text and divide it into a suitable number of paragraphs. BIOCHAR Charcoal is produced by burning wood slowly in a low-oxygen environment. is material, whi is mainly carbon, was used for many years to heat iron ore to extract the metal. But when in 1709 Abraham Darby discovered a smelting process using coke (produced from coal) demand for arcoal collapsed. At approximately the same time the carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere began to rise. But a new use for arcoal, renamed bioar, has recently emerged. It is claimed that using bioar made from various types of plants can both improve soil quality and combat global warming. Various experiments in the United States have shown that adding burnt crop wastes to soil increases fertility and cuts the loss of vital nutrients su as nitrates. e other beneﬁt of bioar is its ability to lo CO2 into the soil. e process of decay normally allows the carbon dioxide in plants to return to the atmosphere rapidly, but when transformed into arcoal this may be delayed for hundreds of years. In addition, soil containing bioar appears to release less methane, a gas whi contributes signiﬁcantly to global warming. American researers claim that widespread use of bioar could reduce global CO2 emissions by over 10%. But other agricultural scientists are concerned about the environmental eﬀects of growing crops especially for burning, and about the displacement of food crops that might be caused. However, the potential twin beneﬁts of greater farm yields and reduced greenhouse gases mean that further resear in this area is urgently needed. (Source: Ronzoni, M. (2013) Farming Futures, p. 154) 9 Practice Write two simple and two longer sentences on bioar. a) b) c) d) UNIT 1.2 Reading Finding Suitable Sources Students oen underestimate the importance of eﬀective reading, but on any course it is vital to be able to ﬁnd and understand the most suitable relevant sources quily. is unit: examines the most appropriate types of text for academic work explores ways of locating relevant material in the library explains the use of electronic resources 1 Academic texts You may need to read a variety of sources, su as websites or journal articles, for your course. It is important to identify the most suitable texts and recognise their features, whi will help you to assess their value. You are studying Water Management. Read the following texts (extracts 1-3) and discuss with other students if they are suitable for academic use, and why. Text 1 2 3 Suitability? 1 WORLDWIDE PRESSURES e global nature of the crisis is underlined in reports from many regions. In south Asia, there have been huge losses of groundwater, whi has been pumped up with reless la of control over the past decade. About 600 million people live on the 2,000 sq. km. area that extends from eastern Pakistan across the hot dry plains of northern India and into Bangladesh, and the land is the most intensely irrigated in the world. Up to 75% of farmers rely on pumped groundwater to water their crops and water use is intensifying – at the same time that satellite images show supplies are shrinking alarmingly. Changing precipitation and melting snow and ice are already altering hydrological systems in many areas. Glaciers continue to shrink worldwide, aﬀecting villages and towns downstream. e result, says the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change, is that the proportion of the global population experiencing water scarcity is bound to increase throughout the twenty-ﬁrst century. More and more, people and nations will have to compete for resources. An international dispute between Egypt and Ethiopia over the laer’s plans to dam the Nile has only recently been resolved. In future, far more serious conﬂicts are likely to erupt as the planet dries up. Even in high latitudes, the one region on Earth where rainfall is likely to intensify in coming years, climate ange will still reduce water quality and pose risks due to a number of factors: rising temperatures; increased levels of sediments, nutrients and pollutants triggered by heavy rainfall; and disruption of treatment facilities during ﬂoods. e world faces a water crisis that will tou every part of the globe, a point that has been stressed by Jean Chrétien, former Canadian prime minister and co-air of the InterAction Council. ‘e future political impact of water scarcity may be devastating’, he claimed. ‘Using water the way we have in the past simply will not sustain humanity in future’. 2 A DRYING WORLD? It is easy to think that water will always be plentiful, as it covers 70% of our planet. However, freshwater – the stuﬀ we drink, bathe in, irrigate our farm ﬁelds with – is extremely rare. Only 3% of the world’s water is freshwater, and two-thirds of that is tued away in frozen glaciers or otherwise unavailable for our use. As a result, some 1.1 billion people worldwide la access to water, and a total of 2.7 billion ﬁnd water scarce for at least one month of the year. Inadequate sanitation is also a problem for 2.4 billion people – they are exposed to diseases, su as olera and typhoid fever, and other water-borne illnesses. Two million people, mostly ildren, die ea year from diarrheal diseases alone. Many of the water systems that keep ecosystems thriving and feed a growing human population have become stressed. Rivers, lakes and aquifers are drying up or becoming too polluted to use. More than half the world’s wetlands have disappeared. Agriculture consumes more water than any other source and wastes mu of that through ineﬃciencies. Climate ange is altering paerns of weather and water around the world, causing shortages and droughts in some areas and ﬂoods in others. is situation will only get worse at the current rate of consumption. By 2025, two-thirds of the world’s population may face water shortages, and ecosystems around the world will suﬀer even more. 3 MEASURING SCARCITY It is surprisingly diﬃcult to determine whether water is truly scarce in the physical sense at a global scale (a supply problem) or whether it is available but should be used beer (a demand problem). Rijsberman (2006) reviews water scarcity indicators and global assessments based on these indicators. e most widely used indicator, the Falkenmark indicator, is popular because it is easy to apply and understand, but it does not help to explain the true nature of water scarcity. e more complex indicators are not widely applied because data are laing to apply them and the deﬁnitions are not intuitive. Water is deﬁnitely physically scarce in densely populated arid areas su as Central and West Asia, and North Africa, with projected availabilities of less than 1000 m³/capita/year. is scarcity relates to water for food production, however, and not to water for domestic purposes that are minute at this scale. In most of the rest of the world, water scarcity at a national scale has as mu to do with the development of the demand as the availability of the supply. Accounting for water for environmental requirements shows that abstraction of water for domestic, food and industrial uses already has a major impact on ecosystems in many parts of the world, even those not considered ‘water scarce’. e main features of academic texts are listed in the following table. Find examples of ea in the preceding texts. Feature Examples Feature 1 Formal or semi-formal vocabulary 2 Sources are given 3 Objective, impersonal style Examples 2 Types of text e following table lists the most common types of written sources used by students. Work with a partner to consider their likely advantages and disadvantages. Text type Advantages Disadvantages Textbook Written especially May be too general for students or outdated Website Journal article Oﬃcial report (e.g. from government) Newspaper or magazine article E-book Edited book 3 Using reading lists Your teaer may give you a printed reading list, or it may be available online through the library website. e list will usually include books, journal articles and websites. If the list is electronic, there will be links to the library catalogue to let you e on the availability of the material. If the list is printed, you will have to use the library catalogue to ﬁnd the texts. You do not have to read every word of a book because it is on the list. Your teaer will probably suggest whi parts to read. On reading lists you will ﬁnd the following formats: Books Griﬃn, R.C. Water Resource Economics: The Analysis of Scarcity, Policies, and Projects/2nd ed. MIT Press, 2016 Journal articles Falkenmark, M., Lundqvist, J. and Widstrand, C. (1989), Macro-scale water scarcity requires micro-scale approaes. Natural Resources Forum, 13: 258–267. Websites www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/scarcity.shtml 4 Using library catalogues University and college libraries usually have online catalogues. ese allow students to sear for the materials they want in various ways. If you know the title and author’s name it is easy to e if the book is available, but if you are making a sear for material on a speciﬁc topic you may have to vary the sear terms. For instance, if you have been given this essay title: Is there a practical limit on the height of tall buildings? Illustrate your answer with reference to some recent skyscrapers. you might try: Skyscraper design Skyscraper construction Design of tall buildings Construction of tall buildings If you use a very speciﬁc phrase you will probably only ﬁnd a few titles. ‘Skyscraper construction’, for example, only produced three items in one library catalogue, but a more general term su as ‘skyscrapers’ found 57. You have entered the term ‘skyscrapers’ in the library catalogue, and the following are the ﬁrst ten results. In order to answer the essay title, whi would you select to study? Give your reasons. Full details Title Year Location 1 Building the skyline [electronic resource]: the birth and growth of Manhaan’s skyscrapers/Jason M. Barr. 2016 e-Book link to resource 2 Impossible heights – 2015 Science Holdings Availability skyscrapers, ﬂight and the master builder/Adnan Morshed. library 3 Best tall buildings: a global overview of 2015 skyscrapers edited by Antony Wood and Steven Henry. 2015 Main library Availability 4 Skyscrapers: a history of the world’s most extraordinary buildings/Judith Dupré; introductory interview with Adrian Smith. 2013 Main library Availability 5 Manhaan skyscrapers/Eric P. Nash; photographs by Norman McGrath. 3rd ed. 2010 Main library Availability 6 Art deco San Francisco [electronic resource]: the aritecture of Timothy Pﬂueger/erese Polei; photography by Tom Paiva. 2008 e-Book link to resource 7 Skyscraper for the XXI century/edited by Carlo Aiello. 2008 Science library Availability 8 Tall buildings: image of the skyscraper/Sco Johnson. 2008 Fine Arts library Availability 9 Skyscrapers: fabulous buildings that rea for the sky/Herbert Wright. 2008 Main library Availability 10 Skyscrapers: a social history of the very tall building in 2004 Main library Availability America/George H. Douglas. Full details If you cli here you will get more information about the book, including the number of pages and a summary of the contents. If a book has had more than one edition, it suggests that it is a successful title. is may help you decide whether to borrow it. Year e books are listed by year of publication, with the most recent ﬁrst; always try to use the most up-to-date sources. Location Many large universities have more than one library. is tells you whi one the book is kept in. Holdings If you cli on availability it will tell you how many copies the library holds and if they are available to borrow or out on loan. 5 Using library websites to sear electronic resources Journals are specialised academic publications produced on a regular basis containing recent resear. You need to be familiar with the main journals in your subject area. ey are usually available in paper or electronic formats (e-journals), although nowadays some journals are only available online. E-journals and other electronic resources su as subject databases are becoming increasingly important. eir advantage is that they can be accessed by the internet, saving the need to visit the library to ﬁnd a book. Most library websites have a separate portal or gateway for searing electronic resources. ese are the results found in one database for journal articles on ‘skyscrapers’: 1 Skyscrapers Cesar Pelli Perspecta, Vol. 18, (1982), pp. 134–151 2 Skyscrapers Robert Phillips The Hudson Review, Vol. 60, No. 2 (Summer, 2007), p. 276 3 ree New Skyscrapers MoMA, No. 25 (Winter, 1983), p. 4 4 Stars for Skyscrapers Lee Riard Hayman The Phylon Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 3 (3rd Qtr., 1958), p. 276 5 Dawn Rises over Skyscrapers Deane Fisher Phylon (1960-), Vol. 28, No. 2 (2nd Qtr., 1967), p. 138 6 Mario Palanti and the Palacio Salvo: e Art of Constructing Skyscrapers Virginia Bonicao, Chris Miller Getty Research Journal, No. 5 (2013), pp. 183–188 Note that many of these articles will be out of date or irrelevant, but these sear engines allow you to access a great variety of material quily. It is usually suﬃcient to read the abstract to ﬁnd out if the article will be relevant to your work. Note that most journal websites contain a sear engine to allow you to sear all ba issues by subject. e best way to become familiar with these methods is to practise. Library websites usually contain tutorials for new students, and librarians are always willing to give help and advice when needed. Select a speciﬁc topic from your subject area. a) Use the library catalogue to search for relevant books. Write down the most useful titles. b) Look for a few relevant journal articles using the library portal. UNIT 1.3 Reading Developing Critical Approaes Students are expected to take a critical approa to sources, whi means to allenge what they read rather than accepting it as reliable. Clearly this approa requires a good understanding of wrien texts. is unit: explains eﬀective reading methods examines common text features, including abstracts explores and practises critical analysis of texts 1 Reading methods Reading academic texts in the quantity required for most courses is a demanding task, especially for international students. Yet students will not beneﬁt from aending lectures and seminars unless the preparatory reading is done promptly, while most writing tasks require extensive reading. Moreover, academic texts oen contain new vocabulary and phrases, and may be wrien in a rather formal style. is means that special methods have to be learnt to cope with the volume of reading required, whi is especially important when you are reading in another language. Clearly, you do not have time to read every word published on the topic you are studying, so you must adopt a two-stage process of selection: carefully oose what you read assess the osen material thoroughly and critically e following art illustrates the best approa to oosing suitable texts. Complete the empty boxes in the art with the following teniques: Read intensively to make notes on key points Scan text for information you need (e.g. names) Survey text features (e.g. abstract, contents, index) Can you suggest any other reading skills? 2 Titles, subtitles and text features Many books and articles have both a title and a subtitle, oen divided by a colon: The Right to Have Rights: Citizenship Practice and the Political Constitution of the EU e title is usually shorter and may aim to be eye-cating; the subtitle oen gives more information about the speciﬁc focus. Aer ﬁnding a text relevant to your studies, it is worth eing the following text features before starting to read: Author Is the writer well known in his/her ﬁeld? What else has she/he published? Publication date and edition How old is the book? Do not use a ﬁrst edition if there is a (revised) second or later edition available. Abstract See Section 3 on page 19. Contents A list of the main apters or sections. is should tell you how mu space is given to the topic you are researing. Introduction or preface is is where the author oen explains his/her reasons for writing and also describes how the text is organised. References is list shows all the sources used by the author and cited in the text. It should give you some suggestions for further reading. Bibliography ese are the sources the author has used but not necessarily speciﬁcally cited. A bibliography is not required for short writing tasks. Index is is an alphabetical list of all the topics and names mentioned in a book. If, for example, you are looking for information about a person, the index will tell you whether that person is mentioned, and how oen. 3 Reading abstracts Abstracts are normally found in journal articles, where they are a kind of summary to allow researers to decide if it is worth reading the full article. As a student you will not normally have to write abstracts, but it is important to be able to read them eﬀectively. Study this example: Citizenship Norms and the Expansion of Political Participation Russell J. Dalton A growing orus of solars laments the decline of political participation in America, and the negative implications of this trend for American democracy. is article questions this position – arguing that previous studies misdiagnosed the sources of political ange and the consequences of anging norms of citizenship for Americans’ political engagement. Citizenship norms are shiing from a paern of duty-based citizenship to engaged citizenship. Using data from the 2005 ‘Citizenship, Involvement, Democracy’ survey of the Center for Democracy and Civil Society (CDACS) I describe these two faces of citizenship, and trace their impact on political participation. Rather than the erosion of participation, this norm shi is altering and expanding the paerns of political participation in America. (Source: Dalton, R.J. (2008) Political Studies 56 (1) pp. 76–98) Abstracts normally have a standard structure: a) Baground position b) Aim and thesis of the paper c) Method of resear d) Results of resear Underline and label (a-d) these components in the abstract for ‘Citizenship Norms and the Expansion of Political Participation’. 4 Fact and opinion When reading, it is important to distinguish between facts: Kuala Lumpur is the capital of Malaysia. and opinions: Kuala Lumpur is a welcoming, bustling city. In addition, the reader needs to decide if the facts given are true: Singapore lies near the equator. (true) Singapore was an ancient trading port. (false) You need to be careful of texts that contain unsupported opinion or ‘facts’ that you think are wrong. a) Read the following and underline what is presented as a fact (_______) or opinion (_ _ _ _). en decide if the ‘facts’ are true. a) Sydney is the capital of Australia. b) Australia is a dynamic, prosperous and enterprising country. c) e majority of Australians live on sheep farms. d) Most Australians are open-minded and friendly. e) Australia is the largest island in the world and has extensive mineral deposits. f) Among the 22 million Australians are some of the world’s best criet players. b) Read the paragraph on New Zealand and underline facts and opinions in the same manner as the preceding section. en rewrite the paragraph in an objective style, correcting the ‘facts’ where needed. New Zealand is a proud island nation in the southern Paciﬁc Ocean consisting of three main islands. Nearly 1,000 miles west of Australia, it was one of the last places on Earth to be seled by man: Polynesians who arrived in about 1250 CE and who developed the fascinating Maori culture. In the eighteenth century, European selers started to land, and in 1841 New Zealand became part of the British Empire. Due to its long period of isolation, many distinctive plants and animals evolved, su as the kiwi fruit, now the nation’s symbol. Sadly, the country suﬀers from frequent earthquakes, su as the one that hit Christur in 2011, causing serious damage and loss of life. 5 Assessing internet sources critically Internet sources are plentiful and convenient, but you cannot aﬀord to waste time on texts whi are unreliable or out of date. If you are using material that is not on the reading list, you must assess it critically to ensure that the material is trustworthy by asking several questions about ea site: Is this a reputable website, for example with .ac. (= academic) in the URL? Is the name of the author given, and is she well known in the ﬁeld? Is the language of the text in a suitable academic style? Are there any obvious errors in the text (e.g. spelling mistakes, whi suggest a careless approa)? Using these questions, compare the following two internet texts on deforestation (the loss of forests). Whi is likely to be more reliable? 1 We are destroying the last of our vital natural resources, just as we are starting to wake up to how precious they are. Rainforest once covered 14% of the land now it’s down to a mere 6%. Scientists predict that the rest could disappear in less than 40 years. ousands of acres are cut down ea second with dire consequences for the countries involved and the planet as a whole. Scientists estimate that we loose 50,000 species every year, many species every second including 137 plant types (not even species but whole groups of plant species) and as these plants disappear before science can record them so does the ance to gain helpful knowledge and possible medicines. 2 e deforestation of trees not only lessens the amount of carbon stored, it also releases carbon dioxide into the air. is is because when trees die, they release the stored carbon. According to the 2010 Global Forest Resources Assessment, deforestation releases nearly a billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere per year, though the numbers are not as high as the ones recorded in the previous decade. Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic (human-caused) source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, ranging between six percent and 17 percent. ere are several aspects of 1) whi should make the reader cautious: the style is very personal (We are…) and informal (it’s down to…) and there is a word used wrongly (‘loose’ instead of ‘lose’). No sources are provided. But even more disturbing is carelessness with facts. Is it really possible that thousands of acres of rainforest are being cut down every second? e writer also claims that many species are being lost every second, but if we take the ﬁgure of 50,000 per year it means one species is lost every 10 minutes. Clearly the writer is seeking to dramatise the subject, but it is quite unsuitable as an academic source. In contrast, the second text is wrien in accurate, semi-formal language and mentions a source. It seems likely to be more reliable. 6 Practice You are writing an essay on expanding educational provision in developing countries, titled ‘Improving literacy in sub-Saharan Africa’. You ﬁnd the following article on a website. Read it critically and decide whether you could use it in your work. EDUCATING THE POOREST How can we get the world’s poorest ildren into sool? is is a diﬃcult question with no easy answer. In 1999 the UN adopted a set of goals called ‘Education for All’, but in many countries there has been lile progress towards these aims. In Nigeria, for instance, the number of ildren not going to sool has hardly anged since then. It is estimated that worldwide about 72 million ildren never aend sool, 45% of whom are in sub-Saharan Africa. Even when sools and teaers are provided, there’s no guarantee that teaing is being done: World Bank resear in India shows that a quarter of teaers don’t aend sool on any one day. Several proposals have been made to improve maers. A British academic, Professor Tooley, argues that low-cost private sools are more eﬀective in delivering education to the poor since parental pressure, owing to the payment of fees, helps to maintain good standards. State sools could also relate pay to performance: resear by Muralihadan and Sundararaman (2011) in India found that this improved students’ test performance far more signiﬁcantly than spending the same money on teaing materials. One constant diﬃculty for educationalists is the problem of comparing pupil performance between countries. Devising reliable and objective methods of assessment is allenging even in ri countries; far more so across the global spectrum. In many places accurate data on the numbers of sool-age ildren is unavailable or unreliable, let alone accurate measures of literacy or numeracy. (Source: www.educationworld.com) Positive aspects: ___________________________________________ Negative aspects: ___________________________________________ 7 Critical thinking Even when you feel that a text is reliable and that you can safely use it as a source, it is still important to adopt a critical aitude towards it. is approa is perhaps easiest to learn when reading, but is important for all other academic work (i.e. listening, discussing and writing). Critical thinking means not just passively accepting what you hear or read but instead actively questioning and assessing it. As you read you should ask yourself the following questions: a) What are the key ideas in this? b) Does the argument of the writer develop logically, step by step? c) Are the examples given helpful? Would other examples be beer? d) Does the author have any bias (leaning to one side or the other)? e) Does the evidence presented seem reliable, in my experience and using common sense? f) Do I agree with the writer’s views? Read critically the following two articles on universities, using the preceding questions. A COLLEGE CONCERNS Despite their dominance of global league tables (e.g. Shanghai Rankings Consultancy) American universities currently face signiﬁcant criticism. e American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and the Goldwater Institute have recently published negative reports on US universities, while a highly critical book Higher Education? (Haer and Dreifus) was published in 2010. e critics focus on the rising costs of American higher education, whi have increased at a mu faster rate than inﬂation, resulting in a situation where even middleclass families are ﬁnding the expense unsupportable. In the past, many American students paid for their education by working part-time while studying, but now the higher fees mean that students ﬁnish their education with signiﬁcant levels of debt. is debt can be a serious burden at the start of their working lives, when they may be hoping to get married or buy a property. Another target of criticism is the focus on resear at the expense of teaing. Students rarely meet the ‘star’ professors, being taught instead by badly-paid graduate students, who work on short-term contracts. It is claimed that in one year nearly half of Harvard’s history professors were on sabbatical leave. As a consequence, students work less; according to the AEI they currently study for 14 hours per week, whereas 50 years ago the ﬁgure was 24 hours per week. Despite this the proportion of students gaining a ﬁrst or 2.1 degree has increased signiﬁcantly: a situation described by the critics as ‘grade inﬂation’. It seems incredible that working less should really be rewarded by beer grades. (Source: Atlantic Digest, July 2014, p. 119) B A BRIGHTER TOMORROW? ere is lile doubt that a university degree is the key to a beer future for any student. Despite the costs involved in terms of fees, it has been calculated that the average UK university graduate will earn £400,000 ($600,000) more over his or her lifetime compared to a nongraduate. Possession of a degree will also assist a graduate to ﬁnd a satisfying job more quily and give greater prospects for promotion inside the osen career. A degree from a British university is recognised all over the world as proof of a high quality education. A university course will not only provide students with up-to-date knowledge in their subject area, but also provide practice with the essential skills required by many employers today, su as the ability to communicate eﬀectively using ICT, or the skills of team working and problem solving. In addition, living away from home in an international atmosphere gives the opportunity to make new friends from all over the world and build networks of contacts that may be invaluable in a future career. Studying at university is a unique opportunity for many young people to develop individually by acquiring independence, free from parental control. ey will learn to look aer themselves in a secure environment, and gain useful life skills su as cooking and budgeting. Most graduates look ba at their degree courses as a valuable experience at a critical period of their lives. (Source: Borchester University Prospectus, 2015, p. 5) List any statements from the articles that you ﬁnd unreliable and add comments to explain your doubts in the next table. en decide whi article you ﬁnd more reliable overall. Statements Comments A B See Unit 2.1 Argument and Discussion UNIT 1.4 Avoiding Plagiarism Plagiarism is a concern for both teaers and students, but it can be avoided by clearly understanding the issues involved. In the Englishspeaking academic world it is essential to use a wide range of sources for your writing and to anowledge these sources correctly – otherwise there is a risk of plagiarism. is unit introduces the teniques students need to do this. Further practice is provided in Units 1.7 Summarising and Paraphrasing and 1.8 References and otations. 1 What is plagiarism? Basically plagiarism means taking ideas or words from a source (e.g. a book or journal article) without giving credit (anowledgement) to the author. It is seen as a kind of the and is considered to be an academic crime. In academic work, ideas and words are seen as private property belonging to the person who ﬁrst thought or wrote them. erefore it is important for all students, including international ones, to understand the meaning of plagiarism and learn how to prevent it in their work. is situation may appear confusing, since students are expected: a) to show that they have read the relevant sources on a subject (by giving citations) BUT b) to explain these ideas in their own words and come to their own conclusions. However, mastering this requirement is vital to aieve success in the academic community. Reasons why students must avoid plagiarism include: copying the work of others will not help them develop their own understanding plagiarism is easily detected by teaers and computer soware plagiarism may lead to failing a course or even having to leave college 2 Anowledging sources If you borrow from, or refer to, the work of another person, you must show that you have done this by providing the correct anowledgement. Read this paragraph from a book called Power and the State by Martin Smith (2009): e point is not that the state is in retreat but that it is developing new forms of power whi ange the way it operates, how it aﬀects citizens, and how it delivers policy. e foundations of the modern state are still in place but states are operating in new and diverse ways whi create complex relationships with civil society. ere are two ways to use this idea in your work and anowledge the source: 1 Summary and citation Smith (2009) claims that the modern state wields power in new ways. 2 otation and citation According to Smith: ‘The point is not that the state is in retreat but that it is developing new forms of power…’ (Smith, 2009:103). ese in-text citations are linked to a list of references at the end of the main text whi includes the following details: Author Date Title Place of publication Smith, M. (2009) Power and the Basingstoke: State Publisher Palgrave Macmillan e citation makes it clear to readers that you have read Smith and borrowed this idea from him. is reference gives readers the necessary information to ﬁnd the source if they want to study the original. See Unit 1.8 References and otations 3 Degrees of plagiarism Although plagiarism essentially means copying somebody else’s work, in some situations it can be diﬃcult to decide if plagiarism is involved. Working with a partner, consider the following academic situations and decide if they are plagiarism or not. Situation 1 Copying a paragraph but anging a few words, not giving a citation. 2 Cuing and pasting a short article from a website, with no citation. 3 Taking two paragraphs from a classmate’s essay, without citation. 4 Taking a graph from a textbook, giving the source. 5 Taking a quotation from a source, giving a citation but not using quotation marks. 6 Using something that you think of as general knowledge (e.g. Earth’s climate is geing warmer). 7 Using a paragraph from an essay you wrote and had marked the previous semester, without citation. 8 Using the results of your own unpublished resear (e.g. from a survey you did) without citation. 9 Discussing an essay topic with a group of classmates and using some of their ideas in your own work. Plagiarism? Yes Situation 10 Plagiarism? Giving a citation for some information but misspelling the author’s name. is exercise shows that plagiarism can be accidental. For example, situation (10) in the art, when the author’s name is misspelt, is tenically plagiarism but really carelessness. In situation (9) your teaer may have told you to discuss the topic in groups and then write an essay on your own, in whi case it would not be plagiarism. Self-plagiarism is also possible, as in situation (7). It can be diﬃcult to decide what is general or common knowledge (situation 6), but you can always try asking colleagues. However, it is not a good excuse to say that you didn’t know the rules of plagiarism or that you didn’t have time to write in your own words. Nor is it adequate to say that the rules are diﬀerent in your own country. In general, anything that is not common knowledge or your own ideas and resear (published or not) must be cited and referenced. 4 Avoiding plagiarism by summarising and paraphrasing otations should not be overused, so you must learn to paraphrase and summarise in order to include other writers’ ideas in your work. is will demonstrate your understanding of a text to your teaers. Paraphrasing involves rewriting a text so that the language is signiﬁcantly diﬀerent while the content stays the same. Summarising means reducing the length of a text but retaining the main points. See Unit 1.7 Summarising and Paraphrasing Normally both skills are used at the same time, as can be seen in the examples (a-e) below. Read the following text and then compare the ﬁve paragraphs whi use ideas and information from it. Decide whi are plagiarised and whi are acceptable, and give your reasons in the table on page 30. Railway Mania? In 1830 there were a few dozen miles of railways in all the world – ieﬂy consisting of the line from Liverpool to Manester. By 1840 there were over 4,500 miles, by 1850 over 23,500. Most of them were projected in a few bursts of speculative frenzy known as the ‘railway manias’ of 1835–7 and especially in 1844–7; most of them were built in large part with British capital, British iron, maines and know-how. ese investment booms appear irrational, because in fact few railways were mu more proﬁtable to the investor than other forms of enterprise, most yielded quite modest proﬁts and many none at all: in 1855 the average interest on capital sunk in the British railways was a mere 3.7 per cent. (Source: Hobsbawm, E. (1995) The Age of Revolution, p. 45) a) Between 1830 and 1850 there was very rapid development in railway construction worldwide. Two periods of especially feverish growth were 1835–7 and 1844–7. It is hard to understand the reason for this intense activity, since railways were not particularly proﬁtable investments and some produced no return at all (Hobsbawm, 1995:45). b) ere were only a few dozen miles of railways in 1830, including the Liverpool to Manester line. But by 1840 there were over 4,500 miles and over 23,500 by 1850. Most of them were built in large part with British capital, British iron, maines and know-how, and most of them were projected in a few bursts of speculative frenzy known as the ‘railway manias’ of 1835–7 and especially in 1844–7. Because most yielded quite modest proﬁts and many none at all these investment booms appear irrational. In fact, few railways were mu more proﬁtable to the investor than other forms of enterprise (Hobsbawm, 1995:45). c) As Hobsbawm (1995) argues, nineteenth-century railway mania was partly irrational: ‘because in fact few railways were mu more proﬁtable to the investor than other forms of enterprise, most yielded quite modest proﬁts and many none at all: in 1855 the average interest on capital sunk in the British railways was a mere 3.7 per cent’. (Hobsbawm, 1995:45). d) Globally, railway networks increased dramatically from 1830 to 1850; the majority in short periods of ‘mania’ (1835–7 and 1844–7). British tenology and capital were responsible for mu of this growth, yet the returns on the investment were hardly any beer than comparable business opportunities (Hobsbawm, 1895:45). e) e dramatic growth of railways between 1830 and 1850 was largely aieved using British tenology. However, it has been claimed that mu of this development was irrational because few railways were mu more proﬁtable to the investor than other forms of enterprise; most yielded quite modest proﬁts and many none at all. Plagiarised or acceptable? a b c d e Reason 5 Avoiding plagiarism by developing good study habits Few students deliberately try to eat by plagiarising, but some develop poor study habits whi result in the risk of plagiarism. Working with a partner, add to the list of positive habits. Plan your work carefully so you don’t have to write the essay at the last minute. Take care to make notes in your own words, not copying from the source. Keep a full record of all the sources you use (e.g. author, date, title, page numbers, place of publication, publisher). 6 Practice Working with a partner, add to the list of positive habits. Wealth is an important advantage in pursuing Olympic medals. Clearly, a large population also has beneﬁts, since this is more likely to include people with sporting abilities. But countries must be able mobilise their human resources: in the London Olympics in 2012 India, with its huge population, only won six medals, while New Zealand (with only 4 million) won 13. When many people are aﬀected by poverty and illness it is not easy to be ordinarily healthy, let alone be an Olympic athlete. In fact rier countries have both healthier populations and can also spend more on encouraging sport. China won only 58 medals in 2000, when its GDP per person was under $4,000. But at the 2012 London Olympics, when its GDP ﬁgure had risen to $16,000, China won a total of 88. Governments are also ﬁnding that there are beneﬁts in focusing eﬀorts on a limited number of sports in whi there is less competition: this was the tactic that led to British success in the cycling events in 2016. (Source: Kaufman, S. (2017) Gold, Silver, Bronze, p. 3) (Summary) Kaufman argues that wealth (expressed as GDP per head) rather than size of population is the key to national success in the Olympics. (otation) Large populations alone do not guarantee good national results at the Olympics. Countries must also be wealthy enough to have healthy citizens and be able to provide resources for training. As Kaufman points out: ‘When many people are affected by poverty and illness it is not easy to be ordinarily healthy, let alone be an Olympic athlete’. 7 Further practice Revise this unit by mating the words on the le with the deﬁnitions on the right. 8 Resear Look on your college or university website to ﬁnd out the policy on plagiarism. It may raise some issues that you want to discuss with colleagues or your teaers. If you can’t ﬁnd anything for your particular institution, try one of these sites: hp://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/01/ www.uefap.com/writing/plagiar/plagfram.htm UNIT 1.5 From Understanding Essay Titles to Planning In both exams and coursework it is essential for students to understand what an essay title is asking them to do. When the focus of the task is clear, a plan can then be prepared whi should make sure the question is answered fully. is unit looks at: key words in titles essay length and organisation alternative methods of essay planning 1 e planning process Teaers frequently complain that students do not understand what they are asked to do, but this can be avoided by more care at the start of the process. Planning is necessary with all academic writing, but clearly there are important diﬀerences between planning in exams, when time is short, and for coursework, when preparatory reading is required. However, in both cases the process of planning should include these three steps: a) analyse the title wording b) decide how mu space to give to ea part of the answer c) prepare an outline using your favoured method When writing coursework, your outline will probably be revised as you read around the topic and develop your ideas. See Unit 5.3 Longer Essays 2 Analysing essay titles Titles contain instruction words whi tell the student what to do. Note that titles oen contain two (or more) questions: What is meant by a demand curve and why would we expect it to slope downwards? In this case ‘what’ is asking for a description and ‘why’ for a reason or explanation. Mat the instruction words on the le to the deﬁnitions on the right. Many essay titles also include a context, su as a time period or geographical area: Instruction Subject Context Discuss the growth of nationalism in nineteenth-century Western Europe Instruction Subject Context Compare the effects of privatisation on of Poland and Hungary the economies 1990–2000 Clearly, it is important to limit your answer to the given context. You will lose marks if you ignore this limitation. 3 Practice Underline the instruction words in the following titles and consider what they are asking you to do. en decide if any context is given. a) Summarise the main reasons for the growth of e-commerce since 2010 and discuss the likely results of this. b) Describe some of the reasons why patients do not always take their medication as directed. c) What are the beneﬁts of learning a second language at primary sool (age 6–10)? Are there any drawbas to early language learning? d) What are the most signiﬁcant sources of renewable energy? Evaluate their contribution to the reduction of carbon emissions in the last 15 years. e) Discuss the response of buildings and soil to earthquakes, indicating what measures can be used to ensure structural stability. 4 Brainstorming When time is limited (e.g. in an exam) it may be helpful to start thinking about a topic by writing down the ideas you have, in any order. Taking title 3d) in the preceding section, you might collect the following points: Sources of renewable energy Wind Solar ermal Wave/tidal Biomass Contribution to reducing CO2 emissions Solar signiﬁcant in sunny areas but not at night Wind power available day and night Wave and tidal power still in development Working with a partner, brainstorm ideas for the title 3c). Remember to deal with both parts of the question. What are the benefits of learning a second language at primary school (age 6–10)? Are there any drawbacks to early language learning? 5 Essay length Coursework essays usually have a speciﬁed length, normally between 1,000 and 5,000 words. You must keep to this limit, although 5% more or less is generally acceptable. However, at the planning stage you need to consider what proportion of the essay to give to ea part of the question. As a basic guide, 20% is usually suﬃcient for the introduction and conclusion together (references are not usually included in the word count). erefore, in a 2,000-word essay the introduction and conclusion would have about 400 words and the main body approximately 1,600 words. If this was the length given for title 3c) on page 35, you might decide on the following approximate allocation: Introduction 250 words Beneﬁts – young ildren less inhibited, more openminded 400 words – young appear to have beer memories 300 words – may improve understanding of their ﬁrst language 200 words Drawbas – may not understand the grammar involved 400 words – may not understand the cultural context 300 words Conclusion 150 words Total 2,000 words is calculation is useful since it can guide the amount of reading you need to do, as well as provide the basis for an outline. Moreover, it prevents you from writing an unbalanced answer in whi part of the question is not fully dealt with. Essays in exams do not have a word limit, but it is equally important to plan them in similar terms (e.g. Part 1: 40%, Part 2: 60%). Underline the instruction words and the context in the following titles and decide what percentage of the main body to give to ea part of the answer. Title a) Describe the typical social, cultural and environmental impacts experienced by tourist destinations in developing countries. How can harmful impacts be reduced or avoided? b) How can sools make beer use of IT (information tenology)? Illustrate your answer with examples from one country. c) Outline the main diﬃculties in combating malaria in Southeast Asia. Suggest possible strategies for more eﬀective anti-malaria campaigns. d) What is ‘donor fatigue’ in international aid, and how can it be overcome? Part 1 (%) Part 2 (%) 6 Writing outlines An outline should help the writer to answer the question as eﬀectively as possible. Care at this stage will save wasted eﬀort later. e more detail you include in your outline, the easier the writing process will be. With coursework, the outline will normally be wrien when you start reading about the subject, and it may be modiﬁed as you read more. Note that for coursework it is usually beer to write the main body ﬁrst, then the introduction, and ﬁnally the conclusion. erefore you may prefer to outline just the main body at this stage. ere is no ﬁxed paern for an outline; diﬀerent methods appeal to diﬀerent students. For example, with the ﬁrst part of title 3d) on p. 35: What are the most significant sources of renewable energy? a) e outline might be a list: Signiﬁcant sources Wind – best sites oen remote Solar – costs have reduced sharply ermal – limited application Wave/tidal – still unproven Biomass – uses scarce land b) An alternative is a mind map: Discuss the advantages and drawbas of ea method with a partner. 7 Practice You have to answer title 3a) ‘Summarise the main reasons for the growth of e-commerce since 2010 and discuss the likely results of this’. In preparation, read the following text. BRITISH SHOPPERS GO ONLINE People in Britain do more of their shopping (currently 16%) through the internet than in most other countries. is ﬁgure, whi is increasing rapidly, is having signiﬁcant eﬀects on many industries. Britain’s geography makes it ideal for the spread of e-commerce, due to it being a small and densely populated country, so that most households can be easily reaed from giant warehouses in the Midlands. e popularity and convenience of smartphones is also encouraging internet shopping. e result is that retailers have had to focus on logistics to compete for trade. e eﬃcient management of parcels is the key to success: over a billion paages were sent out in 2016. One eﬀect has been a revival in the fortunes of the Royal Mail, whi had been suﬀering from a decline in its leer business. Most internet orders are sent from huge ‘fulﬁlment centres’ in central England; these structures now cover 40 million square metres. However, intense competition on delivery times has recently led to a trend to build warehouses on the edge of cities, especially London, to be near customers. As a result, the cost of rents for these has risen sharply, since this land is also in demand for housing. Another concern for internet retailers is the legal obligation to accept returned goods within two weeks of sale. is amounts to about 6% of sales overall, but as mu as 40% with items of clothing. is increases costs for the seller, but has also created a new nie business in dealing with these goods. e volume of parcel deliveries, coupled with the food delivery services run by the major supermarkets, has led to more traﬃc on the roads. In addition, there is a shortage of drivers for the trus and vans involved, since this work is demanding and low-paid. One solution may be to use driverless vehicles, and trials of these could begin in 2017. At the moment about 3 million people work in UK shops, but the increase in e-commerce and the inevitable closure of many shops may lead to the loss of about a third of these jobs within the next ten years. Some of the closed stores may re-open as cafés, bars or restaurants, other may develop into ‘shopping experiences’ whi give customers a taste of the product instead of just selling it. In any case it is likely that Britain’s high streets will drastically ange their aracter in the years to come. (Source: Kuyper, J. (2017) Tomorrow’s Cities, p. 232) Prepare an outline to answer the question as fully as possible, using either method. UNIT 1.6 Finding Key Points and Notemaking Aer ﬁnding a suitable source, identifying relevant sections of text and preparing an outline, the next step in the writing process is to select the key points that relate to your topic and make notes on them. is unit explains and practises these stages, whi also involve skills further developed in Unit 1.7 Summarising and Paraphrasing. 1 Finding key points Before making notes you need to ﬁnd the main ideas in a text. Read the following article about the growth of treasure hunting in Britain and underline two key points. en oose a title for the article. Title: _________________________________________________________ ______ Many people dream of ﬁnding buried treasure su as gold or silver in the ground, and in Britain thousands of people are doing that every year. Treasure hunting has become a popular hobby, with most hunters using electric metal detectors. e best areas to ﬁnd treasure are England’s eastern counties, su as Lincolnshire and Norfolk, whi were the most densely-populated regions in the Middle Ages: over 60% of ﬁnds are dated to pre-1500 CE. ese counties are also still mainly agricultural; as a result the soil is regularly disturbed by farming. In 1996 the law on ﬁnding treasure was clariﬁed by the Treasure Act, whi imposed severe penalties for not reporting new ﬁnds to the local coroner. is has been helpful to professional araeologists, who can build up a beer picture of historical selement using new discoveries. It also allows most ﬁnders to keep the objects found, if museums are not interested in buying them. However, the hunters known as ‘nighthawks’, who operate without permission on private land, are now liable to heavy ﬁnes. Despite this, the majority of ‘detectorists’ are keen historians who enjoy the excitement of the sear. (Source: History Now, August 2012, p. 61) Note that the key points are oen (but not always) found in the ﬁrst part of a paragraph. ey tend to be followed by examples or further information. 2 Finding relevant points When preparing to write an essay, you have to sear for information and ideas relevant to your subject. erefore, the key points that you select must relate to that topic. You are given an essay title: ‘What are the most eﬀective methods of reducing global warming?’ Read the following article and underline ﬁve key points that relate to your essay subject (the ﬁrst one has been done). A NATURAL REMEDY FOR GLOBAL WARMING? e Earth seems to be geing greener: photographs of the planet taken from satellites show that over the last thirty years an area of 18 million square kilometres has become covered in new vegetation. is growth is largely in regions, mainly above the Arctic Circle, that were previously too cold for plant life, but whi, as a consequence of global warming, are now able to support it. Recent resear by scientists from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the US suggests that this additional plant growth may be reducing the eﬀects of global warming. It is known that currently over 35 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide are added annually to the atmosphere, and this quantity increased steeply in the second half of the twentieth century, from only six billion tonnes in the 1950s. As a result, the concentration of CO2 in the air has risen to over 400 parts per million (ppm), compared with about 300 ppm 60 years ago. But since the start of the twenty-ﬁrst century this level has hardly anged, making scientists believe that some process is extracting the extra CO2 from the air. Photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide into plant maer, aided by water and sunlight. If there is more carbon dioxide in the air the process of photosynthesis accelerates, causing plants to grow faster and larger. is appears to be a likely reason for the CO2 concentration levelling oﬀ and might be seen as a e on global warming, as previously barren sub-polar regions become home to grasses and trees. Although this could be regarded as a possible solution to the problem of global warming, the eﬀects are likely to be temporary, since plant growth is also dependent on water, and as rainfall paerns ange, droughts and ﬂoods are likely to become more severe. Other researers claim that further consequences of human activity, su as the loss of tropical forests, will counter the beneﬁcial eﬀects of extra plant growth in polar areas by releasing the CO2 stored in the rainforests. ey argue that the only certain way to prevent an acceleration of warming is to reduce human use of fossil fuels, whi are the source of mu of the unwanted carbon dioxide. (Source: Suarez, M. (2016) Earth Matters (3) p. 176) 3 Practice A Complete the notes for ‘A natural remedy for global warming?’ using the key points underlined in section 2) above. Add a suitable title. Title: ________________________________________________________ 1) New resear : extra plant growth 2) 3) 4) 5) (Source: Suarez, M. (2016) Earth Matters 3:176) slowing global warming 4 Why make notes? It is important to learn to make notes in English as a preparation for various academic tasks. Eﬀective note-making requires concentration but will save time and increase accuracy in the long run. What are the main reasons for note-making in academic work? Discuss with a partner and add to the following list. a) To prepare for essay writing b) c) d) e) 5 Note-making methods You are looking for information on the everyday eﬀects of tenological ange. Study the text in this section (key points underlined) and the notes in the box. What do you notice about the language of the notes? A CASHLESS CONTINENT? ere are signiﬁcant diﬀerences between payment methods among European countries. In Scandinavia many shops and cafés no longer accept cash: all payments are made with credit or debit cards. By contrast, in Italy and other southern states the majority of transactions are still made in cash. e reasons for the variations are both historic and cultural. Sweden is the leader in the ‘plastic revolution’, with about 95% of all payments (by value) made by card. is method is seen as quier and more convenient for both customers and businesses, and also eaper for the laer, since bank notes need to be sorted, eed and protected. It is also thought that the use of cash encourages tax avoidance, while banks are forced to maintain a large bran network to provide ATM facilities and also accept cash deposits. A further argument against cash use is that cashless shops are less likely to be robbed, so that the staﬀ feel more secure. In contrast, people in both Italy and Germany are far less enthusiastic about a cashless society: here more than 75% of transactions are still made in cash. eir banks arge more to handle card payments, so that shop keepers are less keen to accept them. In Germany there also seem to be fears about security and privacy, perhaps as a legacy of state control in the past, while some Italians apparently prefer to keep their transactions hidden from the government. Everywhere there are poorer people who have no bank account and consequently need to operate in cash, and ultimately cash provides security in case the system breaks down. But despite these considerations, cultural as well as economic, the beneﬁts of a cashless economy seem likely to result in a steady shi towards the use of plastic cards across Europe. (Source: East-West Monthly, December 2017, p. 112) European payment trends 1 Wide variation in payment methods in Europe – historic & cultural causes 2 In Scandinavia (esp. Sweden) most payments by card: Reasons a) fast and convenient + saves outlets money b) prevents tax evasion c) safer for shops d) banks need fewer branes 3 In Germany & Italy most payments in cash: a) higher bank arges for cards b) security concerns c) worries re. govt. interference 4 Cash needed by poor (no bank accounts) and for ba-up but general trend > cashless economy (Source: East-West Monthly, Dec. 2017, p. 112) 6 Eﬀective note-making Notes are for your personal use, so you should create your own style. Your teaers will not read or mark them, but you need to make sure you can still understand your notes months aer reading the original book or article. a) To avoid the risk of plagiarism you must try to use your own words and not just copy phrases from the original. b) e quantity of notes you make depends on your task: you may only need a few points or a lot of detail. c) Always record the source of your notes. is will save time when you have to write the list of references. d) Notes are oen wrien quily, so keep them simple. Do not write sentences. Leave out articles (a/the) and some prepositions (of/to). e) If you write lists, it is important to have clear headings (underlined) and numbering systems (a, b, c, or 1, 2, 3,) to organise the information. Do not crowd your notes. f) Use symbols (+, >, =) to save time. g) Use abbreviations (e.g. govt. = government). You may need to make up your own abbreviations for your subject area. But do not abbreviate too mu, or you may ﬁnd your notes hard to understand in the future! See Unit 4.2 Abbreviations 7 Practice B You have to write an essay entitled ‘Improving student performance: an outline of recent resear’. Read the following text, underline the relevant key points and make notes on them. SLEEP AND MEMORY In many countries, especially in hot climates, it is the custom to take a short sleep in the aernoon, oen known as a siesta. Now it appears that this habit helps to improve the ability to remember and therefore to learn. Researers have known for some time that new memories are stored short-term in an area of the brain called the hippocampus, but are then transferred to the pre-frontal cortex for long-term storage. ey now believe that this transfer process occurs during a kind of sleep called stage 2 non-REM sleep. Aer this has occurred the brain is beer able to take in new information, and having a sleep of about 100 minutes aer lun seems to be an eﬀective way to permit this. Resear by a team from the University of California aimed to conﬁrm this theory. ey wanted to establish that a short sleep would restore the brain’s ability to learn. A group of about 40 people were asked to take part in two ‘lessons’; at 12 noon and 6 p.m. Half the volunteers were put in a group whi stayed awake all day, while the others were encouraged to sleep for an hour and a half aer the ﬁrst session. It was found that in the evening lesson the second group were beer at remembering what they had learnt, whi indicates that the siesta had helped to refresh their short-term memories. e most eﬀective siesta seems to consist of three parts: roughly 30 minutes of light sleep to rest the body, followed by 30 minutes of stage 2 sleep whi clears the hippocampus, and ﬁnally 30 minutes of REM sleep whi is when dreams are experienced: possibly as a result of the new memories being processed as they are stored in the pre-frontal cortex. is process is believed to be so valuable that some researers argue that a siesta can be as beneﬁcial as a full night’s sleep. (Source: Kitselt, P. (2006) How the Brain Works, p. 73) UNIT 1.7 Summarising and Paraphrasing Summarising and paraphrasing are normally used together in essay writing. Summarising aims to reduce information to a suitable length, allowing the writer to condense lengthy sources into a concise form, while paraphrasing means anging the wording of a text so that it is signiﬁcantly diﬀerent from the original source, without anging the meaning. Both are needed to avoid the risk of plagiarism, and this unit practises them separately and jointly. 1 What makes a good summary? Summarising is a common activity in everyday life. It is used to describe the main features of the subject in order to give a clear and simple impression. For example, if you have been to Tokyo, you might tell a friend: Tokyo is a huge city with mainly modern buildings and a dense network of public transport. It has many busy shopping centres which are crowded day and night. Write a short description of one of the following topics in no more than 30 words. a) A book you have enjoyed b) A town or city you know well c) A ﬁlm you have recently wated Compare your summary with others in your class. Discuss what is needed for a good summary. 2 Stages of summarising Summarising is a ﬂexible tool. You can use it to give a one-sentence outline of an article, or to provide mu more detail, depending on your needs. Generally a summary focuses on the main ideas and excludes examples or supporting information. When writing a summary, the same basic steps need to be followed in order to meet the criteria discussed on page 46. Study the following stages of summary writing, whi have been mixed up. Put them in the correct order (1–5). a) Write the summary from your notes, reorganising the structure if needed. b) Make notes of the key points, paraphrasing where possible. c) Read the original text carefully and e any new or diﬃcult vocabulary. d) Mark the key points by underlining or highlighting. e) Che the summary to ensure it is accurate and nothing important has been anged or lost. 3 Practice A Read the following text and the summaries whi follow. Whi is best? Put them in order 1–3 and give reasons. MECHANICAL PICKERS Although harvesting cereal crops su as wheat and barley has been done for many years by large maines known as combine harvesters, meanising the piing of fruit crops su as tomatoes or apples has proved more diﬃcult. Farmers have generally relied on human labour to harvest these, but in wealthy countries it has become increasingly diﬃcult to ﬁnd people willing to work for the wages farmers are able to pay. is is partly because the demand for labour is seasonal, usually in the autumn, and also because the work is hard. As a result, in areas su as California part of the fruit harvest is oen unpied and le to rot. ere are several obvious reasons why developing meanical piers is allenging. Fruit su as grapes or strawberries comes in a variety of shapes and does not always ripen at the same time. Outdoors, the ground conditions can vary from dry to muddy, and wind may move branes around. Clearly ea crop requires its own solution: maines may be towed through orards by tractors or move around by themselves, using sensors to detect the ripest fruit. is new generation of fruit harvesters is possible due to advances in computing power and sensing ability. Su devices will inevitably be expensive, but will save farmers from the diﬃculty of managing a labour force. In addition, the more intelligent meanical piers should be able to develop a database of information on the health of ea individual plant, enabling the grower to provide it with fertiliser and water to maintain its maximum productivity. (Source: Computing Digest, January 2016, p. 90) a) Fruit crops have usually been pied by hand, as it is diﬃcult to meanise the process. But in ri countries it has become hard to ﬁnd aﬀordable piers at the right time, so fruit is oen wasted. erefore intelligent maines with advanced computing power have been developed whi can overcome the tenical problems involved and also provide farmers with useful data about the plants. b) Developing maines that can pi fruit su as tomatoes or apples is a allenging task, due to the complexity of locating ripe fruit in an unpredictable outdoor environment, where diﬃcult conditions can be produced by wind or water. But recent developments in computing mean that growers can now automate this process, whi should save them money and so increase their proﬁts. c) Apples, tomatoes, strawberries and grapes are the kinds of crops that have always been hand-pied. But many farmers, for example in California, now ﬁnd it increasingly diﬃcult to aract enough piers when the fruit is ripe. However, computing advances have produced a solution to this problem whi will save farmers from worrying about the piers and also collect vital data. 1 2 3 4 Practice B a) Read the following text and underline the key points. AFRICA CALLING In many African countries mobile phone ownership is aiding new businesses to get started. Farmers can easily ﬁnd current market prices for their crops, and traders can use mobile money services to make payments. It seems clear that as more people use these phones, national GDP rises, but it is diﬃcult to quantify this precisely. Ten years ago there were only 130 million mobile users in the entire continent: now the number is nearly one billion. However, this ﬁgure is deceptive: many Africans have two or more SIM cards, and in reality only about half of Africa’s 1.2 billion people have access to a mobile phone. Inevitably, the Africans who have phones tend to be beer-educated urban dwellers, but even these are oen unable to access the internet, according to an estimate by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). ey claim that 75% of Africans are unable to use the net, with ﬁgures as high as 95% in places like Chad. is is because mu of the continent is rural and sparsely populated, so that providing mobile phone masts in these districts is uneconomic. Even fewer people can receive a fast 4G signal, and when available, costs are high. But the situation may be improving, due to advances in tenology. New cables are facilitating the connection with other continents, and ﬁbre optic networks are being installed in major cities. Modern satellites are also lowering transmission costs, and solar powered phone masts are eaper to run in remote villages. But one signiﬁcant obstacle to these developments is the heavy taxation many governments impose on the telecom companies, whi can be as high as 50% in places su as Tanzania. (Source: Weiss, J. and Evans, P. (2015) African Perspectives, pp. 213–4) See Unit 1.6 Finding Key Points and Note-making b) Complete the notes of the following key points. i) Mobile phones have helped __________________________________________ ii) Link between higher phone ownership _________________________________ iii) Only half of Africans _______________________________________________ iv) New developments ________________________________________________ v) But ________________________________________________________ _____ c) Join the notes together and expand them to make the ﬁnal summary in about 70 words. Che that the meaning is clear and no important points have been le out. Find a suitable title. Title: d) is summary is about 25% of the original length, but it could be summarised further. Summarise the summary in no more than 30 words. 5 Practice C Summarise the following text in about 50 words. THE LAST WORD IN LAVATORIES? Toto is a leading Japanese manufacturer of bathroom ceramic ware, with annual worldwide sales of around $5 bn. One of its best-selling ranges is the Washlet lavatory, priced at up to $5,000 and used in most Japanese homes. is has features su as a heated seat, and can play a range of sounds. is type of toilet is successful in its home market since many Japanese ﬂats are small and crowded, and bathrooms provide valued privacy. Now Toto hopes to increase its sales in Europe and America, where it faces a variety of diﬃculties. European countries tend to have their own rules about lavatory design, so that diﬀerent models have to be made for ea market. Although Toto claims that its Washlet toilet uses less water than the average model, one factor whi may delay its penetration into Europe is its need for an electrical soet for installation, as these are prohibited in bathrooms by most European building regulations. (Source: Far Eastern Review, June 2017, p. 60) 6 Paraphrasing Paraphrasing and summarising are normally used together in essay writing, but while summarising aims to reduce information to a suitable length, paraphrasing aempts to restate the relevant information. For example, the following sentence: There has been much debate about the reasons for the Industrial Revolution happening in eighteenth-century Britain, rather than in France or Germany. could be paraphrased: Why the Industrial Revolution occurred in Britain in the eighteenth century, instead of on the continent, has been the subject of considerable discussion. Note that an eﬀective paraphrase usually: has a diﬀerent structure to the original has mainly diﬀerent vocabulary retains the same meaning keeps some phrases from the original whi are in common use (e.g. ‘Industrial Revolution’) 7 Practice D Read the following text and then rank the three paraphrases in order of accuracy and clarity, giving reasons. THE CAUSES OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Allen (2009) argues that the best explanation for the British location of the Industrial Revolution is found by studying demand factors. By the early eighteenth century high wages and eap energy were both features of the British economy. Consequently, the meanisation of industry through su inventions as the steam engine and meanical spinning was proﬁtable because employers were able to economise on labour by spending on coal. At that time, no other European country had this particular combination of expensive labour and abundant fuel. a) A focus on demand may help to explain the UK origin of the Industrial Revolution. At that time British workers’ pay was high, but energy was eap. is encouraged the development of meanical inventions based on steam power, whi enabled bosses to save money by meanising production (Allen, 2009). b) e reason why Britain was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution can be understood by analysing demand in the early 1700s, according to Allen (2009). He maintains that, uniquely in Europe, Britain had the critical combination of eap energy from coal and high labour costs. is encouraged the adoption of steam power to meanise production, thus saving on wages and increasing proﬁtability. c) Allen (2009) claims that the clearest explanation for the UK location of the Industrial Revolution is seen by examining demand factors. By the eighteenth century eap energy and high wages were both aspects of the British economy. As a result, the meanisation of industry through inventions su as the steam engine and meanical spinning was proﬁtable because employers were able to save money on employees by spending on coal. At that time, Britain was the only country with signiﬁcant deposits of coal. 1) 2) 3) 8 Teniques for paraphrasing a) Changing vocabulary by using synonyms: argues > claims/eighteenth century > 1700s/wages > labour costs/economise > saving b) Changing word class: explanation (n.) > explain (v.)/mechanical (adj.) > mechanise (v.)/profitable (adj.) > profitability (n.) c) Changing word order: … the best explanation for the British location of the Industrial Revolution is found by studying demand factors. > A focus on demand may help explain the UK origin of the Industrial Revolution. Note that in practice all these three teniques are used at the same time. Do not aempt to paraphrase every word, since some have no true synonym (e.g. demand, economy). See Units 4.3 and 4.4 Academic Vocabulary and 4.8 Synonyms 9 Practice E Read the following text: BRAINS AND SEX It is widely agreed that men and women think and act in diﬀerent ways. In general women appear to have beer memories, beer social skills and are more competent at multi-tasking. Men, in contrast, seem to focus beer on single issues and have superior motor and spatial skills, although clearly many people are exceptions to these paerns. ese diﬀerences have been explained as behaviour adopted thousands of years ago, when the men went hunting while the women stayed at home and cared for their ildren. But another approa is to see the behaviour as a result of the way our brains function. Recent resear by Ragini Verma’s team at the University of Pennsylvania has used brain scans to compare 428 men and 521 women. ey traed the pathways of water molecules around the brain area and found fascinating diﬀerences. e top half of the brain is called the cerebrum, and it is divided into a le and a right half. e le hemisphere is thought to be the home of logic and the right is the centre of intuition. Dr Verma found that with women most of the pathways of the water molecules went between the two halves, while with men they stayed inside the hemispheres. She believes that these results explain the gender diﬀerences in ability, su as women’s social competence compared to men’s more intense focus on single issues. (Source: Living Today, Winter 2015, p. 90) a) Find synonyms for the words underlined. Rewrite the paragraph using these. It is widely agreed that men and women think and act in diﬀerent ways. Women appear to have beer memories, beer social skills and are more competent at multitasking. Men, in contrast, seem to focus beer on single issues and have superior motor and spatial skills, although clearly many people are exceptionsto these paerns. b) Change the word class of the underlined words in the next paragraph. Rewrite the paragraph using the anges. ese diﬀerences have been explained as behaviour adopted thousands of years ago, when the men went hunting while the women stayed at home and cared for their ildren. But another approa is to see the behaviour as a resultof the way our brains function. c) Change the word order of the following sentences, rewriting the paragraph so that the meaning stays the same. Recent resear into brain functioning by Ragini Verma’s team at the University of Pennsylvania has used brain scans to compare 428 men and 521 women. ey traed the pathways of water molecules around the brain area and found fascinating diﬀerences. d) Combine all three teniques to paraphrase the ﬁnal paragraph. e top half of the brain is called the cerebrum, and it is divided into a le and a right half. e le hemisphere is thought to be the home of logic and the right is the centre of intuition. Dr Verma found that with women most of the pathways of the water molecules went between the two halves, while with men they stayed inside the hemispheres. She believes that these results explain the gender diﬀerences in abilities, su as women’s social competence compared to men’s more intense focus on single issues. 10 Practice F a) Use the same teniques to paraphrase the following text. THE PAST BELOW THE WAVES More than three million shipwres are believed to lie on the sea bed, the result of storms and accidents during thousands of years of seaborne trading. ese wres oﬀer marine araeologists valuable information about the culture, tenology and trade paerns of ancient civilizations, but the vast majority have been too deep to explore. Scuba divers can only operate down to 50 metres, whi limits operations to wres near the coast, whi have oen been damaged by storms or plant growth. A few deep sea sites (su as the Titanic) have been explored by manned submarines, but this kind of equipment has been too expensive for less famous subjects. However, this situation has been anged by the introduction of a new kind of mini submarine: the automatic underwater vehicle (AUV). is eap small cra is free moving and does not need an expensive mother-ship to control it. Now a team of American araeologists are planning to use an AUV to explore an area of sea north of Egypt whi was the approa to a major trading port 4,000 years ago. (Source: History Now, April 2009, p. 9) b) Summarise the same text in 50 words. UNIT 1.8 References and otations Academic work depends on the resear and ideas of others, so it is vital to show whi sources you have used in your work, in an acceptable manner. is unit explains: the format of in-text citation the main reference systems the use of quotations the layout of lists of references 1 Why use references? ere are three principal reasons for providing references and citations: a) to show that you have read some of the authorities on the subject, whi will give added weight to your writing b) to allow readers to ﬁnd the source, if they wish to examine the topic in more detail c) to avoid plagiarism and show that you understand the rules of the academic community. See Unit 1.4 Avoiding Plagiarism Decide if you need to give a reference in the following cases. Yes/No a) Data you found from your own primary resear __________ b) A graph from an internet article __________ c) A quotation from a book __________ d) An item of common knowledge (e.g. exercise is good for you) __________ e) A theory from a journal article __________ f) An idea of your own based on reading several sources __________ g) A comment made by a person you interviewed for your project __________ 2 Citations and references It is important to refer correctly to the work of other writers whi you have used. You may present these sources as a summary or paraphrase, as a quotation, or use both. In ea case a citation is included to provide a link to the list of references at the end of your paper: Smith (2009) argues that the popularity of the Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) is irrational, as despite their high cost most are never driven off-road. In his view ‘they are bad for road safety, the environment and road congestion’ (Smith, 2009:37). References Smith, M. (2009) Power and the State. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Underline the citations in the example above. Whi is for a summary and whi a quotation? What are the advantages of ea? Giving citations A quotation Author’s family name, date of publication, page no. (Smith, 2009:37) A summary Author’s family name, date of publication Smith (2009) 3 Reference verbs Summaries and quotations are usually introduced by a reference verb: Smith (2009) argues that … Janovic (1972) claimed that … ese verbs can be either in the present or the past tense. Normally the use of the present tense suggests that the source is recent and still valid, while the past indicates that the source is older and may be out of date, but there are no hard and fast rules. In some disciplines an older source may still be relevant. See Unit 4.4 Academic Vocabulary: Adverbs and Verbs – Verbs of reference 4 Reference systems ere are various systems of referencing employed in the academic world, ea used by diﬀerent subjects. Some disciplines (e.g. law) have their own special system (OSCOLA). Your teaers will normally give you guidelines about whi system you are expected to use, or you may ﬁnd these on your library website. With any system, the most important point is to be consistent (i.e. to use the same font size and punctuation) throughout your work. Ea system speciﬁes how to reference a wide variety of sources, not only books and journals but also ﬁlms, music, blogs and oral testimony. Referencing is a complex subject, and students should use an online reference guide for detailed information. Sussex University provides a convenient guide to the diﬀerent systems at: www.sussex.ac.uk/library/infosuss/referencing/index.shtm ese are some of the principal systems: a) Harvard, generally used in the UK for Social Sciences and Business, illustrated in Section 2 on page 56. b) MLA is similar to Harvard but more common in the US for the Arts and Humanities. In this, the year of publication is at the end of the reference. c) APA is widely used in the US in the Social Sciences. d) Vancouver is commonly employed in Medicine and Science. Numbers in braets are inserted aer the citation and these link to a numbered list of references: Jasanoff (5) makes the point that the risk of cross-infection is growing. (5) Jasanoﬀ, M. Saer (2001) Tuberculosis: A Sub-Saharan Perspective. New York: e) Footnote/endnote systems, commonly used in the Humanities, in whi sources are listed either at the boom of the page or at the end of the paper. e numbers in superscript run consecutively throughout the paper. The effects of the French Revolution were felt throughout Europe.³ 3 Karl Wildavsky, The End University Press, 2006) p. 69. of an Era: Spain 1785–1815 (Dublin: 5 Using quotations Discuss with a partner reasons for using quotations in your written work. Using a quotation means bringing the original words of a writer into your work. otations are eﬀective in some situations but must not be overused (e.g. to pad out your work). ey can be valuable: when the original words express an idea in a distinctive way when the original is more concise than your summary could be when the original version is well known All quotations should be introduced by a phrase whi shows the source and also explains how this quotation ﬁts into your argument: Introductory phrase is view is widely shared; __________ Author as Friedman Reference verb stated: otation Citation ‘Inﬂation is the one form of taxation that can be imposed without legislation’ __________ (Friedman, 1974:93). a) Short quotations (1–2 lines) are shown by single quotation marks. otations inside quotations (nested quotations) use double quotation marks: As Kauffman remarked: ‘his concept of “internal space” requires close analysis’. b) Longer quotations (3 or more lines) are either indented (given a wider margin) and/or are printed in smaller type. In this case quotations marks are not needed: Similarly, she says: One of the many things that people need to be able to do, if their life is to be worthy of human … .The due … are also fundamental opportunities to act and be treated as a fully equal citizen. dignity, is to have access to the legal system on terms of equality with other people process rights (Nussbaum, 2011a, p. 28) a) Page numbers should be given aer the date. b) Care must be taken to ensure that quotations are the exact words of the original. If it is necessary to delete some words whi are irrelevant, use dots (…) to show where the missing section was: ‘Few inventions … have been as significant as the mobile phone’. c) It may be necessary to insert a word or phrase into the quotation to clarify a point. is can be done by using square braets : ‘ … modern ideas [of freedom] differ radically from those of the ancient world…’ d) If you want to point out a mistake in the original use [sic]: He claimed that ‘the company was to [sic] big to fail’. e) If a writer has published more than one book or article in a year, it is necessary to add a/b/c to the date: (Nussbaum, 2011a, p. 28) 6 Practice Read the following text from an article called ‘Dealing with transition’ in the journal Education Review (Autumn 2016, pp. 45– 7 ) by A. Kelman. Students entering Higher Education (HE, i.e. degree-level study) oen ﬁnd the transition from sool to university diﬃcult to manage. is can be especially true of the demands of essay writing, a skill required in the majority of subjects. A study by McEwan (2015) explored the reasons for diﬃculties at this stage by comparing the expectations of staﬀ and students towards writing essays. He found signiﬁcant diﬀerences between the two and suggested ways in whi the diﬀerences could be reduced. It oen takes time for new students to adjust to the learning culture of HE, and mu depends on their previous academic experience. Teaing staﬀ at degree-level expect students to study independently and not to need regular supervision, although recently universities have begun to provide more support for ﬁrst-year students to help them adjust to these expectations. Compare the following: a) Summary Kelman (2016) maintains that the transition from sool to university study is particularly hard in terms of writing essays. She refers to McEwan’s resear on the mismat between student and teaer expectations, and highlights the need to give students time to adapt to a new academic culture. b) otation Kelman discusses McEwan’s resear on the gap between the expectations of staﬀ and students with regard to essay writing at ﬁrstyear university level: It oen takes time for new students to adjust to the learning culture of HE, and mu depends on their previous academic experience. Teaing staﬀ at degree-level expect students to study independently and not to need regular supervision. (Kelman, 2016:45) c) Summary and quotation Kelman (2016) points out that one area of serious concern for ﬁrst-year university students is writing essays. She looks at the study done by McEwan on the diﬀerences between teaers’ and students’ perceptions of essay writing, whi highlighted one distinct diﬃculty: ‘Teaing staﬀ at degree-level expect students to study independently and not to need regular supervision’. (Kelman, 2016:45). Read the next part of the same text, also from p. 45. McEwan argues that student success at university level is partly dependent on narrowing the diﬀerence between student and staﬀ expectations. is is particularly important now that the student body includes an increasing proportion of international students, who may take longer to adapt to the university culture. e same is also true of the increasingly diverse university staﬀ, who oen come from very diﬀerent academic cultures. e two most signiﬁcant ﬁndings of the study concerned plagiarism and essay focus. In both cases there was a substantial diﬀerence between staﬀ and student opinion. While all the students claimed to understand the meaning of plagiarism, a majority of teaers (over 60%) felt that they didn’t. Similarly, nearly all the students claimed to focus on answering the question in the essay title, but only one-ﬁh of the teaers thought that they did. a) Write a summary of the main point, including a citation. b) Introduce a quotation to show the key point, referring to the source. c) Combine the summary and the quotation, again anowledging the source. 7 Abbreviations in citations In-text citations use the following abbreviations derived from Latin and printed in italics: et al.: used when three or more authors are given. e full list of names is given in the reference list: Many Americans fail to vote ibid.: taken citation: (Hobolt et al., 2006:137). from the same source (i.e. the same page) as the previous Older Americans are more likely to vote than the young (ibid.). op cit.: taken from the same source as previously, but a diﬀerent page. Note that journal articles increasingly tend to use full citations at ea occurrence, but students should still use abbreviations in their work. See Unit 4.2 Abbreviations 8 Secondary references It is quite common to ﬁnd a reference to an original source in the text you are reading. For instance, in the text by Kelman in Section 6 on page 59 she says: A study by McEwan (2015) explored the reasons for difficulties at this stage by comparing the expectations of staff and students towards writing essays. You may wish to use this information from the original (i.e. McEwan) in your writing, even if you have not read the whole work. is is known as a secondary reference. If it is not possible to locate the original, you can refer to it thus: McEwan (2015), … cited in Kelman (2016:45), compared the expectations of You must ensure that you include the work you have read (i.e. Kelman) in the list of references. 9 Organising the list of references ere are many soware systems available (e.g. RefWorks or Endnote) whi automate the making of a list of references. Using one of them not only saves time but may also help to produce a more accurate result. Some are free and others require payment, but if you sear your library website you may ﬁnd one whi you can access without arge. At the end of an essay or report there must be a list of all the sources cited in the piece of writing. In the Harvard system, illustrated here, the list is organised alphabetically by the family name of the author. You should be clear about the diﬀerence between ﬁrst names and family names. On title pages the normal format is ﬁrst name, then family name: Sheila Burford, Juan Gonzalez But in citations, only the family name is usually used: Burford (2001), Gonzalez (1997) In reference lists, use the family name and the initial(s): Burford, S., Gonzalez, J. If you are not sure whi name is the family name, ask a classmate from that cultural baground. Study the reference list on page 63 from an essay about transition from sool to university and answer the following questions. a) Find an example of: i) a book by one author ii) a journal article by nine authors iii) a apter in an edited book iv) a conference paper v) a journal article by one author vi) a book by two authors b) What are the diﬀerences between the format of references for books and journal articles? Books: Journal articles: c) When are italics used? d) How are capital leers used in titles? e) How is a source with no given author listed? f) Write citations for summaries of the ﬁrst ﬁve sources in the list of references. i) ii) iii) iv) v) REFERENCES Bryman, A. (2004). Social Research Methods. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Carroll, J. (2007). A Handbook for Deterring Plagiarism in Higher Education. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford Centre for Staﬀ and Learning Development. Cook, A. and Leey, J. (1999). ‘Do expectations meet reality? A survey of anges in ﬁrst-year student opinion.’ Journal of Further and Higher Education, 23(2), pp. 157–171. Crisp, G., Palmer, E., Turnbull, D., Neelbe, T., Ward, L., LeCouteur, A., Sarris, A., Strelan, P. and Sneider, L. (2009). ‘First year student expectations: results from a university-wide student survey.’ Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 6(1), pp. 11–26. Killen, R. (1994). ‘Diﬀerences between students’ and lecturers’ perceptions of factors inﬂuencing students’ academic success at university.’ Higher Education Research and Development, 13(2), pp. 199–211. Leese, M. (2010). ‘Bridging the gap: supporting student transitions into higher education.’ Journal of Further and Higher Education, 34(2), pp. 239–251. Lowe, H. and Cook, A. (2003). ‘Mind the gap: are students prepared for HE?’ Journal of Further and Higher Education, 27(1), pp. 53–76. Moore, D. and McCabe, G. (2006). Introduction to the Practice of Statistics. 5th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. Ryan, J. and Carroll, J. (2005). ‘Canaries in the coalmine: international students in Western universities.’ In J. Carroll and J. Ryan (Eds). Teaching International Students – Improving Learning for All. Abingdon: Routledge. Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving College: Rethinking the Causes and Cures of Student Attrition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The Times. ‘Coping with transition from sixth form to university.’ p. 4, 26 September 2016 White, P. (2013). Embracing Diversity. 7th Annual Learning and Teaing Conference, 9th January 2013, [online]. Available from: www.shef.ac.uk/lets/cpd/conf/2013/res/preso [Accessed on 10th July 2014]. UNIT 9 Combining Sources For most assignments, students are expected to read a range of sources that oen contain conﬂicting views on a topic. In some cases the contrast between the various views may be the focus of the task. is unit explains how writers can present and organise a range of contrasting sources. 1 Referring to sources In the early stages of an essay it is common to refer to the views of other writers on the subject in order to show that you are familiar with their work and that your work will take their resear into account. In a longer essay or thesis, this may form a section headed ‘Literature review’. Read the following example from a study of student transition to university and answer the questions that follow. e expectations whi students have of higher education are inﬂuenced by their prior educational experiences (Ramsden, 1992, p. 82; Tinto, 2005; Cook and Rushton, 2008). ese experiences form a basis for the academic expectations whi students have relating to learning and teaing (Dalglish and Chan, 2005), assessment (Ramsden, 1992, p. 84), academic support (Yorke, 2000; Crisp et al., 2009), and academic interactions with staﬀ (Crisp et al., 2009). (Source: McEwan, M. (2015) Understanding student transition to university) a) How many sources are mentioned here? b) Whi writers examine expectations of learning and teaing? c) What was the subject of Yorke’s study? d) Whi writer looked at expectations of assessment? e) Why do you think page numbers are given for Ramsden? Read another paragraph from the same study and answer the following questions. Academically, a diverse body of international university entrants have even greater diversity in pre-arrival expectations and prior educational experiences when compared to those of home students (e.g. Dalglish and Chan, 2005; Crisp et al., 2009; White, 2013) resulting in a period of transition whi can be more allenging with greater requirements for academic adjustment (Ramsey, Barker and Jones, 1999). For example, international students oen need to make signiﬁcant cultural (Ryan and Carroll, 2005) and linguistic (Wu and Hammond, 2011) adjustments and this takes time; perhaps many months or even years (Carroll, 2014). f) What is the main subject of the paragraph? g) Summarise the diﬀerent points made by ea of the ﬁve sets of sources cited. Example: i) Dalglish and Chan, 2005; Crisp et al., 2009; White, 2013 International students have wider variety of expectations compared to home students ii) Ramsey, Barker and Jones, 1999 iii) Ryan and Carroll, 2005 iv) Wu and Hammond, 2011 v) Carroll, 2014 See Unit 5.2 Literature Reviews and Book Reviews 2 Taking a critical approa It is important to compare a range of views to show that you are familiar with diﬀerent or conﬂicting views on a topic. is is because most subjects worth studying are the subject of debate. e following texts, 2.1 and 2.2, reﬂect diﬀerent views on the topic of climate ange. 2.1 WHY THE EARTH IS HEATING UP Most scientists now agree that global temperatures have risen over the last century, and that this trend is reﬂected in su phenomena as the melting of sea ice and the retreat of glaciers. ere is a near-consensus that over the period the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the earth’s atmosphere has also risen, mainly as a result of burning fossil fuels su as coal and oil. e common view is that the ﬁrst ange is the result of the second; in other words a warmer climate has been caused by the CO2, whi has the eﬀect of causing the heat from the sun’s rays to be trapped inside the atmosphere; the so-called ‘greenhouse eﬀect’. If these theories are accepted it can be expected that temperatures will continue to increase in future as carbon dioxide levels rise, and since this will have harmful eﬀects on agriculture and other human activities, eﬀorts should be made to reduce the burning of fossil fuels. (Source: Lombardo, 2009) 2.2 DOUBTS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING e conventional view that global warming is caused by a rise in carbon dioxide levels has been criticised on a number of grounds. Some critics claim that the recent period of warming is part of a natural cycle of temperature ﬂuctuations whi have been recorded over the past few thousand years. ey point out that Europe experienced a warm period about 800 years ago whi was unrelated to CO2 levels. Other critics question the reliability of the basic temperature data, and maintain that the apparent rise in temperatures is caused by the growth of cities, regarded as ‘heat islands’. In addition some claim that the warming is caused by a reduction in cloud cover, allowing more sunlight to rea the earth’s surface. is eﬀect, they believe, is the result of solar activity or sunspots, whi are known to ﬂuctuate on an 11-year cycle. As a result of these doubts, sceptics argue that there is no need to aempt to reduce the industrial activity that causes carbon dioxide to be produced. (Source: Wong, 2011) 2.3 HOW STRONG IS THE EVIDENCE FOR GLOBAL WARMING? Lombardo (2009) puts forward the view that the signiﬁcant rise in the earth’s temperature over the past century is the product of increased levels of atmospheric CO2 caused by greater use of fossil fuels. He maintains that this position is now generally agreed, and that steps should be taken to reduce future warming by restricting the output of greenhouse gases su as carbon dioxide. However, Wong (2011) presents a range of counter-arguments. She mentions evidence of historical climate ange whi cannot have been caused by rising levels of CO2, and also discusses the diﬃculty of obtaining reliable data on temperature anges, as well as other claims that solar activity may aﬀect the amount of cloud cover and hence temperature levels. Su uncertainty, she considers, raises doubts about the value of cuing CO2 production. a) Study the following example of an extract from 2.3 and the original text. Find two more examples from 2.3 and mat them with the original texts. Summary (2.3) Original … the significant rise in the earth’s (2.1) temperature over the past century There is a near-consensus that over is the product of increased levels of the period the level of carbon atmospheric CO2 caused by greater dioxide (CO2) in the earth’s use of fossil fuels. atmosphere has also risen, mainly as a result of burning fossil fuels. Summary (2.3) Original b) Whi verbs are used to introduce the summaries? c) Whi word marks the point where the writer swites from summarising Lombardo to Wong? d) What other words or phrases could be used at this point? 3 Combining three sources Read the third text on climate ange below and then complete paragraph 2.3 on page 67 ‘How strong is the evidence for global warming?’ by summarising Lahav’s comments. THE SCEPTICAL CASE Debate on the issues around climate ange have intensiﬁed recently, since while most scientists agree that global temperatures are rising as a result of ever-higher levels of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere, a minority continue to argue that the rise is insigniﬁcant, short-term or unrelated to CO2 levels. e controversy clearly has important political and economic implications, since international agreement is needed to control the output of greenhouse gases. Climate sceptics insist that computer models are unable to handle the complexity of the world’s weather systems, and so should not be used as a basis for making major decisions. eir view is that because the science of global warming is uncertain, the money that would be spent, for example, on building wind farms could be beer spent on improving health and education in the developing world. (Source: Lahav, 2010) 4 Practice e following three texts reﬂect diﬀerent approaes to the topic of globalisation. Read them all and then complete the paragraph from an essay entitled: ‘Globalisation mainly beneﬁts multinational companies rather than ordinary people – discuss’, using all three sources, in about 100 words. 4.1 THE BENEFITS OF GLOBALISATION It has been argued that globalisation is not a new phenomenon, but has its roots in the age of colonial development in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. However, its modern use can be dated to 1983, when Levi’s article ‘e Globalisation of Markets’ was published. Among the many deﬁnitions of the process that have been suggested, perhaps the simplest is that globalisation is the relatively free movement of services, goods, people and ideas world-wide. An indication of the positive eﬀect of the process is that cross-border world trade, as a percentage of global GDP, was 15% in 1990 but is expected to rea 30% by 2020. Among the forces driving globalisation in the last two decades have been market liberalisation, eap communication via the internet and telephony, and the growth of the so-called BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) economies. (Source: Costa, L. 2008) 4.2 GLOBALISATION AND ITS DRAWBACKS Considerable hostility to the forces of globalisation has emerged in both the developed and developing worlds. In the former, there is anxiety about the outsourcing of manufacturing and service jobs to countries whi oﬀer eaper labour, while developing countries claim that only a minority have beneﬁted from the increase in world trade. ey point out that per-capita income in the 20 poorest countries has hardly anged in the past 40 years, while in the riest 20 it has tripled. e markets of Western nations are still closed to agricultural products from developing countries, and while there is free movement of goods and capital, migration of people from poor countries to ri ones is tightly controlled. (Source: Lin, Y. 2012) 4.3 MULTINATIONALS AND GLOBALISATION Multinational companies have undoubtedly beneﬁted from the relaxation of the import tariﬀ regimes whi previously protected local ﬁrms, allowing them to operate more freely in markets su as India whi have recently liberalised. ese corporations have evolved two distinct approaes to the allenge of globalisation. Some, e.g. Gillee, have continued to manufacture their products in a few large plants with strict control to ensure uniform quality worldwide, while others, for instance Coca-Cola, vary the product to suit local tastes and tend to make their goods on the spot. ey claim that an understanding of regional diﬀerences is essential for competing with national rivals. In either case, these giant companies are oen able to minimise their tax liabilities by establishing headquarters in low-tax countries. (Source: Brokaw, P. 2014) Globalisation mainly beneﬁts multinational companies rather than ordinary people – discuss. There is good evidence that globalisation has resulted in a considerable increase in world trade over the past 20–30 years… UNIT 1.10 Organising Paragraphs Paragraphs are the basic building blos of academic writing. Wellstructured paragraphs help the reader understand the topic more easily by dividing up the argument into convenient sections. is unit looks at: the components of paragraphs the way the components are linked together the linkage between paragraphs in the overall text 1 Paragraph structure Spanish is one of the world’s leading languages. It is spoken by over 500 million people, mainly in Spain and Central and South America, as a ﬁrst or second language. is is a result of the growth of the Spanish colonies in Central and South America from the sixteenth century. Increasingly, Spanish is also widely used in North America, where Spanish language newspapers and radio stations are common. Spanish is a Romance language whi evolved from Latin, but whi also contains many words from Arabic, due to the historical Moorish presence in the Iberian peninsula. a) What is the topic of this paragraph? b) How are the sentences in the paragraph linked together? e paragraph can be analysed thus: 1 Topic sentence Spanish is one of the world’s leading languages. 2 Supporting information It is spoken by over 500 million people, mainly in Spain and Central and South America, as a ﬁrst or second language. 3 Reason is is a result of the growth of the Spanish colonies in Central and South America from the sixteenth century. 4 Extra information 1 Increasingly, Spanish is also widely used in North America, where Spanish language newspapers and radio stations are common. 5 Extra information 2 Spanish is a Romance language whi evolved from Latin, but whi also contains many words from Arabic, due to the historical Moorish presence in the Iberian peninsula. is example shows that: i) A paragraph is a group of sentences whi deal with a single topic. Dividing up the text into paragraphs helps both writer and reader to follow the argument more clearly. ii) e length of paragraphs varies signiﬁcantly according to text type, but should normally be no less than four or ﬁve sentences. iii) Usually (but not always) the ﬁrst sentence introduces the topic. Other sentences may give deﬁnitions, examples, extra information, reasons, restatements and summaries. iv) e parts of the paragraph are linked together by the reference words, conjunctions and adverbs shown in bold in the table. ey guide the reader through the arguments presented. See Unit 3.1 Cohesion 2 Practice A e sentences in the following paragraph on the topic of home ownership have been mixed up. Use the table to put them in the right order. i) e reasons for this variation appear to be more cultural and historical than economic, since high rates are found in both ri and poorer countries. ii) ere appears to be no conclusive link between national prosperity and the number of home owners. iii) Both the US and Britain have similar rates of about 65%. iv) e rate of home ownership varies widely across the developed world. v) Germany, for instance, has one of the lowest rates, at 52%, while in Spain it is mu higher, 78%. Topic sentence Example 1 Example 2 Reason Summary 3 Practice B Read the next paragraph from the same essay and answer the questions that follow. Despite this, many countries encourage the growth of home ownership. Ireland and Spain, for instance, allow mortgage payers to oﬀset payments against income tax. It is widely believed that owning your own home has social as well as economic beneﬁts. Compared to renters, home owners are thought to be more stable members of the community who contribute more to local aﬀairs. In addition, neighbourhoods of owner occupiers are considered to have less crime and beer sools. But above all, home ownership encourages saving and allows families to build wealth. a) Analyse the paragraph using the table, giving the function of each sentence Topic sentence Despite this, many countries encourage the growth of home ownership. b) Underline the words and phrases used to link the sentences together. c) Which phrase is used to link this paragraph to the one before? 4 Introducing paragraphs and linking them together e paragraph in Practice B begins with a phrase whi links it to the previous paragraph in order to maintain continuity of argument: Despite this (i.e. the la of a conclusive link) In order to begin a new topic you may use phrases su as: Turning to the issue of child labour … …. Inflation is another area for consideration … Rates of infection must also be examined Paragraphs can also be introduced with adverbs: Traditionally, few examples were Finally, the performance of … … Currently, there is little evidence of Originally, most families were … … See Units 4.4 Academic Vocabulary: Adverbs and Verbs and 4.5 Conjunctions 5 Practice C Use the following notes to write two paragraphs on the subject of ‘Trams’. Use conjunctions and other suitable phrases to introduce and link the paragraphs together. Trams (streetcars in the US) ﬁrst developed in late 19th century Provided eap and convenient mass transport in many cities Rail-based systems expensive to maintain Fixed tras meant system was inﬂexible During 1950s and 1960s many European and Asian cities closed tram systems Today trams becoming popular again Some cities (e.g. Paris and Manester) building new systems Trams less polluting than cars and eaper to operate Problems remain with construction costs and traﬃc congestion bloing tras Expense of building modern tramways means that they remain controversial 6 Practice D Use the information in the following table and graph to write a paragraph on ‘UK rainfall in 2016’. Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall 159 145 94 121 90 143 110 97 98 44 95 71 105 Figure 1 UK rainfall anomalies 2016 (percent of average monthly rainfall 1960–1989) Source: e Met Oﬃce UNIT 1.11 Introductions and Conclusions An eﬀective introduction explains the purpose, scope and methodology of the paper to the reader. e conclusion should provide a clear answer to any questions asked in the title, as well as summarising the main points under discussion. With coursework, it may be beer to write the introduction aer writing the main body. 1 Introduction components Introductions are usually no more than about 10% of the total length of an assignment. erefore in a 2,000-word essay the introduction would be approximately 200 words. See Unit 1.5 From Understanding Essay Titles to Planning a) What components are normally found in an essay introduction? Choose from the following list. Components Y/N i) A deﬁnition of any unfamiliar terms in the title ii) Your personal opinions on the subject of the essay iii) Mention of some sources you have read on the topic iv) A provocative idea or question to interest the reader v) A suitable quotation from a famous authority vi) Your aim or purpose in writing vii) e method you adopt to answer the question viii) Some baground or context of the topic ix) Any limitations you set yourself x) An outline of the main body b) Read the following extracts from introductions to articles and decide whi of the components listed above (i – x) they are examples of. A) In the past 20 years the ability of trial juries to assess complex or lengthy cases has been widely debated. B) e rest of the paper is organised as follows. e second section explains why corporate governance is important for economic prosperity. e third section presents the model speciﬁcation and describes the data and variables used in our empirical analysis. e fourth section reports and discusses the empirical results. e ﬁh section concludes. C) We aempted to test our hypothesis by comparing the reactions of a random sample of postgraduates with a group of ﬁrst-year students. D) ere is no clear empirical evidence sustaining a ‘managerial myopia’ argument. Pugh et al. (1992) ﬁnd evidence that supports su a theory, but Meulbrook et al. (1990), Mahoney et al. (1997), Garvey and Hanka (1999) and a study by the Oﬃce of the Chief Economist of the Securities and Exange Commission (1985) ﬁnd no evidence. E) ‘Social cohesion’ is usually deﬁned in reference to common aims and objectives, social order, social solidarity and the sense of place aament. F) is study will focus on mergers in the media business between 2000 and 2010, since with more recent examples an accurate assessment of the consequences cannot yet be made. G) e purpose of this paper is to investigate anges in the incidence of extreme warm and cold temperatures over the globe since 1870. 2 Introduction structure ere is no standard paern for an introduction, since mu depends on the type of resear you are conducting and the length of your work, but this is a common structure: a) Deﬁnition of key terms, if needed b) Relevant baground information c) Review of work by other writers on the topic d) Purpose or aim of the paper e) Your resear methods f) Any limitations you imposed g) An outline of your paper ere are a range of deﬁnitions of this term, but in this paper ‘elearning’ refers to any type of learning situation where content is delivered via the internet. Learning is one of the most vital components of the contemporary knowledge-based economy. With the development of computing power and tenology the internet has become an essential medium for knowledge transfer. Various researers (Webb and Kirstin, 2003; Honig et al., 2006) have evaluated e-learning in a healthcare and business context, but lile aention so far has been paid to the reactions of students in higher education (HE) to this method of teaing. e purpose of this study was to examine students’ experience of e-learning in an HE context. A range of studies was ﬁrst reviewed and then a survey of 200 students was conducted to assess their experience of e-learning. Clearly a study of this type is inevitably restricted by various constraints, notably the size of the student sample, whi was limited to students of Pharmacy and Agriculture. e paper is structured as follows. e ﬁrst section presents an analysis of the relevant resear, focusing on the current limited knowledge regarding the student experience. e second part presents the methodology of the survey and an analysis of the ﬁndings, and the ﬁnal section considers the implications of the results for the delivery of e-learning programmes. Underline the following sections (a-g) of the introduction above: a) Deﬁnition Certain words or phrases in the title may need clarifying because they are not widely understood or are used in a special sense. b) Context It is useful to remind the reader of the wider context of your work. is may also show the value of the study you have carried out. c) Reference to other researers While a longer article may have a separate literature review, in a shorter essay it is still important to show familiarity with researers who have studied this topic previously. is may also reveal a gap in resear whi justiﬁes your work. d) Aim e aim of your resear must be clearly stated so the reader knows what you are trying to do. e) Method e method demonstrates the process that you undertook to aieve the given aim. f) Limitations You cannot deal with every aspect of this topic in an essay, so you must make clear the boundaries of your study. g) Outline Understanding the structure of your work will help the reader to follow your argument. See Unit 2.4 Deﬁnitions 3 Opening sentences It can be diﬃcult to start writing an essay, but especially in exams, hesitation will waste valuable time. e ﬁrst few sentences should be general but not vague in order to help the reader focus on the topic. ey oen have the following paern: Time phrase Topic Development Currently, the control of water resources has emerged as a potential cause of international friction. Since 2008 electric vehicles have become a serious commercial proposition. Before 1950 antibiotic drugs were not widely available. It is important to avoid opening sentences whi are over-general and vague. Compare: Nowadays there is a lot of competition among different news × providers. In the last 20 years newspapers have faced strong competition from ✔ the internet for news and entertainment. Working quily, write introductory sentences for three of the following titles. a) How important is it for companies to have women as senior managers? b) Are there any tenological solutions to global warming? c) What can be done to reduce infant mortality in developing countries? d) Compare the urbanisation process in two contrasting countries. See Unit 2.6 Generalisations 4 Conclusions Conclusions tend to be shorter and more varied in format than introductions. Some articles may have a ‘summary’ or ‘concluding remarks’. But student papers should generally have a ﬁnal section whi summarises the arguments and makes it clear to the reader that the original question has been answered. Whi of the following are generally acceptable in conclusions? a) A statement showing how your aim has been aieved. b) A discussion of the implications of your resear. c) Some new information on the topic not mentioned before. d) A short review of the main points of your study. e) Some suggestions for further resear. f) e limitations of your study. g) Comparison with the results of similar studies. h) A quotation whi appears to sum up your work. Mat the following extracts from conclusions with the preceding acceptable features of conclusions. Example: a = vi i) As always, this investigation has a number of limitations to be considered in evaluating its ﬁndings. ii) ese results suggest that the risk of ﬂooding on this coast has increased signiﬁcantly and is likely to worsen. iii) Several hurdles that we encountered provide a point of departure for subsequent studies. iv) Our review of 13 studies of strikes in public transport demonstrates that the eﬀect of a strike on public transport ridership varies and may either be temporary or permanent. v) ese results of the Colombia study reported here are consistent with other similar studies conducted in other countries (Baron and Norman, 1992). vi) is study has clearly illustrated the drawbas to family ownership of retail businesses. 5 Conclusion structure Although there is no ﬁxed paern, a common structure for an essay conclusion is: a) Summary of main ﬁndings or results b) Link ba to the original question to show it has been answered c) Reference of the limitations of your work (e.g. geographical) d) Suggestions for future possible related resear e) Comments on the implications of your resear 6 Practice e following sentences form the conclusion to the essay titled ‘Evaluate the experience of e-learning for students in higher education’, whose introduction was given on page 78. e sentences have been mixed up. Put them into a logical order (1–5). a) is ﬁnding was clear, despite the agreed convenience of e-learning. b) Given the constraints of the small and limited sample, there is clearly room for further resear in this ﬁeld, in particular to explore whether certain disciplines are more suited to this mode of learning than others. c) However, our survey of nearly 200 students found a strong preference for traditional classroom teaing. d) But in general it would appear that e-learning is unlikely to be acceptable as a primary teaing method in higher education. e) is study found that lile relevant resear on the HE student experience of e-learning has been conducted, and the resear that has been reported indicates a mixed reaction to it. UNIT 1.12 Rewriting and Proofreading In exams, you have no time for rewriting, but for coursework it is important to take time to revise your work to improve its clarity and logical development. In both situations, proofreading is essential to avoid the small errors whi may make parts of your work inaccurate or diﬃcult to understand. 1 Rewriting Although it is tempting to think that the ﬁrst dra of an essay is good enough, it almost certainly can be improved. Aer completing your ﬁrst dra you should leave it for a day and then reread it, asking yourself the following questions: a) Does this fully answer the question(s) in the title? b) Do the diﬀerent sections of the paper have the right weight (i.e. is it well balanced)? c) Does the argument or discussion develop clearly and logically? d) Have I forgoen any important points whi would support the development? e) Is the essay the required length, not too short or too long? 2 Practice A As part of a module on alitative Resear Methods, you have wrien the ﬁrst dra of a 1,000-word paper titled ‘What would be an acceptable number of interviews to carry out for a Master’s dissertation?’ Study the following introduction to this paper and decide how it could be improved, listing your suggestions in the table. An interview can be deﬁned as a conversation with a deﬁnite structure and objective. It goes beyond an everyday conversation with no particular purpose. ere are many possible interview situations, but all involve an interviewer and an interviewee. It is normal for the former to ask the laer direct questions and record the answers. e questions may be prepared in advance or they may occur as the interview develops. e recording is oen done on paper, but may also be done by audio or video recording. Interviews can take place anywhere, in a street, café, oﬃce, bar, restaurant, and so on. It is hard to say how many interviews can be carried out in one day. I personally think that two is the maximum because it can get very tiring. A lot depends on the subject being researed. Suggestions for improvement a) b) c) d) e) See Answers p. 276 for suggestions With these points in mind, the introduction could be rewrien as follows: Organising an interview involves a series of steps (Davies, 2007), including recruiting interviewees, ﬁnding a suitable venue and writing appropriate guidelines. However, depending on the resear subject, a more ﬂexible approa can be adopted, resulting in a less structured interview (Cooper and Sindler, 2008). For a Master’s dissertation, interviews must contain data relevant to the resear topic whi the interviewer can later process. As King states: ‘Gathering a large volume of cases does not guarantee the credibility of a study’ (King, 2004:16). Most writers agree that two one-hour interviews per day are eﬀectively the maximum for one interviewer, given the time needed for preparation and subsequent processing. Moreover, if audio or video recording is used there is more content to be analysed, for instance in terms of facial expression. e analysis of one interview can take up to three days’ work. In order to answer the question, clearly mu depends on the resear topic and the time the researer has available. 3 Practice B Read the next paragraph on ‘Possible ethical issues raised by interview-based resear’. Decide how it could be improved and rewrite it. Any organisation that allows researers to interview its employees runs a big risk. e interviewees may complain about the boss or about other workers. Another danger for the researer is that employees may feel obliged to give positive answers to questions instead of their honest opinions. is is because they are afraid of their bosses ﬁnding out what they really think. Also the reputation of the organisation may suﬀer. I believe that researers should make sure that this does not happen. ey must make it clear why they are doing the resear and keep identities secret by using false names. If this is not done, there’s a good ance that the validity of the whole resear project will be in danger. 4 Proofreading Aer you have rewrien your work, the ﬁnal stage is to proofread it. is means eing your work for small errors whi may make it more diﬃcult for the reader to understand exactly what you want to say. If a sentence has only one error: She has no enough interpersonal skills to handle different relationships. it is not diﬃcult to understand, but if there are multiple errors, even though they are all quite minor, the eﬀect is very confusing: A american senate once say: ‘Truth is frist casualty off war’. Clearly, you should aim to make your meaning as clear as possible. Note that computer spelles will not always help you, since they may ignore a word whi is spelt correctly but whi is not the word you meant to use: Tow factors need to be considered. 5 Practice C e following are examples of the ten most common types of error in student writing. In ea sentence underline the error and correct it. i) Factual: Corruption is a problem in many countries su as Africa. ii) Word ending: She was young and innocence. iii) Punctuation: What is the optimum size for a resear team. iv) Tense: Since 2005 there were three major earthquakes in the region. v) Vocabulary: Flexibility is vital to the successfulness of a company operating in China. vi) Spelling: Pervious experience can sometimes be a disadvantage. vii) Singular/plural: It is one of the largest company in Asia. viii) Style: Finally, the essay will conclude with a conclusion. ix) Missing word: is is an idea established by David Ricardo in nineteenth century. x) Word order: ree skills are for needed success in the academic world. 6 Practice D e following sentences ea contain one type of error. Mat ea to one of the error types (i-x) above and correct the error. a) Products su as Tiger biscuits are well known to kids. b) Both companies focus on mass marketing to promote its line of products. c) Failure to ﬁnd the right coﬀee may lead to torment for consumers. d) ey found that diﬀerent researers had diﬀerently eﬀects on the resear. e) is was aer the single European market was established in 1873. f) Experienced researers can most likely come over these problems. g) e Arts Faculty has it’s own library. h) She selected Budapest in Hungry for seing up the resear centre. i) Companies from the rest of world are eager to do business in India. j) From 2008 to 2012 there are few cases of olera. 7 Practice E Underline the errors in the following paragraph and correct them. BICYCLES Bicycle is one of most eﬃcient maine ever designed. Cyclists can travel for times faster than walkers when using less enorgy to do so. Various people invented early versions of the bicycle, but the ﬁrst modle with pedals whi was successful mass-produced was make by a frenman, Ernest Miaux, on 1861. Later aditions included pneumatic tyres and gears. Today hundreds of million of bicycles are in use over all world. Progress Che 1 ese exercises will help you assess your understanding of Part 1 – e Writing Process. 1 Complete the following description of the process of essay writing by adding one suitable word to each gap. e ﬁrst stage of essay writing is to read and understand the a) ________________, and then to prepare a b) ________________of work for the time available. en the topic should be brainstormed and a dra c) ________________prepared. Next, possible d) ________________have to be carefully evaluated and the most relevant selected, aer whi you can start e) ________________notes, using paraphrasing and summarising f) ________________. When you have collected enough material to answer the question the ﬁrst g) ________________of the main body can wrien from the notes, taking care to avoid any h) ________________. Subsequently, you can write the ﬁrst dra of the introduction and i) ________________, ensuring that a logical approa to the title is developed. Aer this, the whole dra must be j) ________________reread and revised for both clarity and accuracy. e penultimate stage is to prepare ﬁnal lists of k) ________________, appendices and other items su as graphs and maps. Finally, the whole text should be thoroughly l) before handing in the assignment on time. 2 Decide if the following statements are true or false. a) Academic writing aims to be accurate and impersonal. b) A case study looks at the views of other writers on the same topic. c) Academic journals are usually peer-reviewed. d) Students should read every page of the books on their reading lists. e) When searing library catalogues it is beer to use very speciﬁc terms. f) Abstracts generally have a four-part structure. g) Plagiarism oen means copying another writer’s words without anowledgement. h) An essay introduction should explain the purpose of the paper. i) Introductions are normally about 25% of the essay’s length. j) Note-making should always include the source of the notes. k) Paraphrasing means to ange both vocabulary and structure but keeping the meaning. l) Reference verbs always use the past tense. m) Paragraphs always begin with a topic sentence. n) A good summary oen includes several examples. o) Conclusions oen mention the constraints on the paper (e.g. length). p) Most essays can be improved by rewriting. q) Proofreading means just eing for spelling mistakes. r) An essay conclusion should make it clear that the question has been answered. s) Websites are oen less reliable sources than books. t) e best kind of outline is a mind map. 3 Read the following book extract and write a summary of about 100 words, including a quotation, with citations. Then write a full reference for the text. A group of scientists working at Oxford University have been researing the behaviour of crows. eir work shows that the birds appear to be able to make simple tools, a skill whi was thought to be unique to man and other primates. In an experiment a piece of meat was placed in a glass tube whi was too long for the crow to rea with its beak. e bird was given a length of garden wire, 9 cms. long and 0.8 mm. thi, to extract the meat, but it soon discovered that this was not possible if the wire was straight. e bird then held one end of the wire with its feet while it used its beak to bend the other end, making a kind of hook. is could then be used for pulling the meat out of the tube, whi in most cases was done within two minutes. It has been known for some time that impanzees use simple tools like stis to rea food, but it was never thought that crows could show similar levels of intelligence. Eight years ago, however, biologists in the forests of New Caledonia wated crows using stis to rea insects inside trees. e Oxford experiment was designed to see if the same kind of bird could modify this ability to make a tool out of a material not found in their native forests (i.e. wire). According to Professor Kacelnik, one of the scientists involved, the resear demonstrates that crows have an understanding of the physical properties of materials and the ability to adapt them for their own uses. (Source: Frank Grummi, What Makes Us Human? (2010) Roseberry Press, Dublin, p. 15) PART 2 Elements of Writing Part 2 explains and practises the essential skills needed for writing academic papers. Many essays, for instance, require deﬁnitions to be made, causes and eﬀects to be studied and examples to be given. Organised alphabetically, these skills range from presenting argument and discussion to displaying visual information. UNIT 2.1 Argument and Discussion On most courses, students are expected to study the conﬂicting views on a topic and engage with them, whi means analysing and critiquing them, if appropriate. is unit demonstrates ways of showing your familiarity with all sides of a debate and presenting your own conclusions in a suitably academic manner. 1 Discussion vocabulary Essay titles commonly ask students to ‘discuss’ a topic: Children will learn a foreign language more effectively if it is integrated with another subject – discuss. is requires an evaluation of both the beneﬁts and disadvantages of the topic, with a section of the essay, sometimes headed ‘Discussion’, in whi a summary of these is made. e following vocabulary can be used: + − beneﬁt advantage a positive aspect pro (informal) plus (informal) one major advantage is… another signiﬁcant beneﬁt is… drawba disadvantage a negative feature con (informal) minus (informal) a serious drawba is… … was a considerable disadvantage One serious drawba to integrating content and language is the heavy demand it places on the teacher. A signiﬁcant beneﬁt of teaching a subject through a foreign language is the increased motivation to master the language. Write a paragraph of about 100 words on the beneﬁts and drawbas of studying in another country. 2 Organisation e discussion can be organised in two ways; either by grouping the beneﬁts in one section and the disadvantages in another (vertical), or by examining the subject from diﬀerent viewpoints (horizontal). For example, the following essay title can be structured in the two ways as shown: Prisons do little to reform criminals and their use should be limited – discuss. a) Vertical Drawbas Prisons are expensive; may be ‘universities of crime’; most prisoners reoﬀend aer leaving; many prisoners have mental health problems whi are untreated. Beneﬁts Prisons isolate dangerous criminals from society; act as a deterrent to criminal activity; may provide education or treatment (e.g. for drug addiction); provide punishment for wrong-doing. Discussion Numbers of prisoners are rising in many countries, whi suggests that the system is failing. Evidence that short sentences are of lile value. But prisons will always be necessary for some violent criminals and as a deterrent. b) Horizontal Economic High costs of keeping prisoners secure. Compare with other forms of punishment. Ethical Do prisons reform criminals? What rights should prisoners have? Cases of wrongful imprisonment. Social Eﬀect on families of prisoners, especially female prisoners with ildren. But also necessary to consider the victims of crime, especially violent crime, and provide punishment for wrong-doing. Discussion Numbers of prisoners are rising in many countries, whi suggests that the system is failing. Evidence that short sentences are of lile value, while cost of prison system is rising. But prisons will always be necessary for some violent criminals and as a deterrent. What are the advantages of ea format (i.e. vertical and horizontal)? 3 Practice A You have to write an essay titled: Working from home can be positive for many companies and their employees – discuss. + Positive No time wasted commuting to work − Negative 4 e language of discussion In discussion, avoid personal phrases su as think… . in my opinion or actually, I Use impersonal phrases instead, su as: It is generally accepted working from home saves commuting time. that email and the internet reduce reliance on an It is widely agreed that office. Most people appear to need face-to-face contact with It is probable that colleagues. The evidence suggests more companies will encourage working from that home. certain people are better at self-management. ese phrases suggest a minority viewpoint: It can be argued that One view is that home-working encourages time-wasting. home-workers become isolated. When you are supporting your opinions with reference to sources, use phrases su as: According to Emerson few companies have developed clear policies. (2003) most employees benefit from flexible Poledna (2007) claims arrangements. that 5 Counter-arguments Counter-arguments are ideas whi are opposite to your ideas. In an academic discussion, you must show that you are familiar with all the various opinions and positions on the topic and provide reasons to support your own position. It is usual to deal with the counter-arguments ﬁrst, before giving your view. What is the writer’s position in the following example on the topic of prisons (2 on page 92)? It is claimed that prisons are needed to isolate dangerous criminals from society, and to provide punishment for wrong-doing. But while this may be true in a minority of cases, more commonly prisons act as ‘universities of crime’, whi serve to reinforce criminal behaviour. e majority of prisoners are not dangerous and could be dealt with more eﬀectively by other means. Study the following example and write two more sentences using ideas on the topic of home-working from page 93. Counter-argument Your position Some people believe that home-workers become isolated, but this can be avoided by holding weekly meetings for all departmental staﬀ. 6 Providing evidence Normally your conclusions on a topic follow an assessment of the evidence. You must show that you have examined the relevant sources, since only then can you give a balanced judgement. Study the following text, whi discusses the idea that young people today who have grown up with computing and the internet are diﬀerent from previous generations. en answer the following questions. DO ‘DIGITAL NATIVES’ EXIST? Various writers have argued that people born around the end of the twentieth century (1990–2005) and who have been using computers all their lives have diﬀerent abilities and needs to other people. Palfrey and Gasser (2008) refer to them as the ‘net generation’ and argue that activities su as puing videos on You Tube are more natural for them than writing essays. Similarly, Prensky (2001a) claims that the educational system needs to be revised to cater for the preferences of these so-called ‘digital natives’. But other researers doubt that these claims can apply to a whole generation. Benne, Maton and Kervin (2008) argue that these young people comprise a whole range of abilities and that many of them only have a limited understanding of digital tools. ey insist that the socalled ‘digital native’ theory is a myth and that it would be a mistake to reorganise the educational system and abandon traditional means of assessment and enquiry su as essay writing to cater for their supposed requirements. Clearly there are some young people who are very proﬁcient in online tenologies, and many more who regularly use social media in their daily lives, but taking a global perspective, millions still grow up and are educated in a traditional manner. Teaing methods are constantly being revised, but there is no clear evidence of a need to radically ange them. a) How many sources are cited to support the ‘digital native’ theory? b) What do these writers suggest anging? c) Why do their critics disagree with them? d) What is the opinion of the writer of this text? e) What is your opinion of this subject? 7 Practice B Write three paragraphs on the topic: ‘Should young ildren (under 10) be allowed to use social media (e.g. Facebook)?’ Add to the following ideas and make your position clear. Pros Social media allow ildren to keep in tou with friends and family Using these sites teaes them computer skills It is safer for ildren than playing outside or on the street (Source: Dobrowsky, 2012) Cons ese ildren are too young to understand the dangers of the virtual world Too mu screen time diminishes real-life experience Young ildren should be physically active, not looking at a computer Can become addictive and lead to sleep loss (Source: Campbell and Childs, 2014) See Unit 2.7 Problems and Solutions UNIT 2.2 Cause and Eﬀect Academic work frequently involves explaining a link between a cause, su as a price rise, and an eﬀect or result, su as a fall in demand. Alternatively, resear may begin with a result, su as the Fren Revolution, and discuss possible causes. is unit demonstrates and practises two methods of describing the link, with the focus either on the cause or on the eﬀect. 1 e language of cause and eﬀect A writer may oose to emphasise either the cause or the eﬀect. In both cases, either a verb or a conjunction can be used to show the link. a) Focus on causes With verbs e poor harvest caused higher prices led to resulted in produced With conjunctions Because of the poor harvest Due to Owing to As a result of b) Focus on eﬀects With verbs (note use of passives) prices rose With verbs (note use of passives) The higher prices were caused by the poor harvest were produced by resulted from With conjunctions There were price rises due to the poor harvest because of as a result of Compare the following: Because children were vaccinated diseases (because + verb) declined. Because of the vaccination diseases declined. (because of + noun) As/since children were vaccinated diseases (conjunction + verb) declined. Owing to/due to the vaccination diseases declined. (conjunction + noun) Note the position of the conjunctions in the following: The teacher was ill, cancelled. therefore/hence/so/consequently the class was See Units 3.4 Passive and Active and 4.5 Conjunctions 2 Practice A Mat the causes with their likely eﬀects and write two sentences linking ea together, one emphasising the cause and the other the eﬀect. Example: i) Owing to the cold winter of 2015 there was increased demand for electricity. ii) The increased demand for electricity was due to the cold winter of 2015. a) b) c) d) e) f) 3 Practice B Complete the following sentences with likely eﬀects. a) Increasing use of email ___________________________________ for messages b) e violent storms last _________________________________________ week c) e new vaccine for __________________________________ tuberculosis (TB) railway line d) Building a high-speed _____________________________________ e) e invention of the ________________________________________ jet engine Complete these sentences with possible causes. f) e serious motorway __________________________________ g) e high price of ________________________________________ h) e increase in ________________________________________ accident bread obesity i) Earthquakes ________________________________________________ j) e rising prison population ___________________________________ 4 Practice C Use conjunctions to complete the following text. Why do women live longer? In most countries today women, on average, tend to have a longer life expectancy than men. In France, for instance, men can expect to live to 79, while for women the ﬁgure is 85. ere is no clear explanation for the diﬀerence, although various theories have aempted to explain it. Biologists have claimed that women live longer a) _______________ they need to bring up ildren. Others argue that men take more risks, b) _______________ they die earlier. Another explanation for the discrepancy is c) _______________ women have healthier lifestyles (e.g. they smoke and drink less). But now some British scientists believe that women live longer than men d) _______________ T cells, a vital part of the immune system that protects the body from diseases. e team from Imperial College think that the diﬀerence may be e) _______________ women having beer immune systems. Having studied a large group of men and women they found that the body produces fewer T cells as it gets older, f) _______________ the ageing process. However, they admit that g) _______________ the complexity of the topic this may not be the only factor, and so another resear project may be needed. 5 Practice D a) Study the following ﬂow art, whi shows some of the possible eﬀects of a higher oil price. Complete the paragraph describing this sequence. An increase of 25% in the price of oil would have numerous results. First, it would lead to … b) Imagine that the government in your country passed a law making cigarettes illegal. Draw a ﬂow art showing possible eﬀects and write a paragraph describing them. c) Choose a situation in your own subject. Draw a ﬂow art showing some probable eﬀects, and write a paragraph to describe them. UNIT 2.3 Comparison It is oen necessary to make comparisons in academic writing. e comparison might be the subject of the essay or might provide evidence for the argument. In all cases it is important to explain clearly what is being compared and to make the comparison as accurate as possible. is unit deals with diﬀerent forms of comparison and practises their use. 1 Comparison structures a) Some studies are based on a comparison: The purpose of this study is to compare Chinese and American consumers on their propensity to use self-service technology in a retail setting. In other cases, a comparison provides useful context: The first attempt to decode the human genome took 10 years; now it can be done in less than a week. b) e two basic comparative forms are: i) France is larger than Switzerland. The students were happier after the exam. (-er is added to one-syllable adjectives and two-syllable adjectives ending in -y, whi anges into an ‘i’) ii) Learning Chinese is more diﬃcult than learning English. Washington is less crowded than New York. (more/less … are used with other adjectives of two or more syllables) c) ese comparisons can be modiﬁed by the use of adverbs su as: slightly, marginally (for small amounts) considerably, significantly, substantially France is (for large amounts) substantially larger than Switzerland. Switzerland is slightly smaller than Holland. Winters in Poland are signiﬁcantly colder than in Portugal. d) Similarity or near-similarity can be noted by the use of same as: The population of France population of Britain. Summers in Tokyo are is as wet as in Singapore. half as large as France. The journey by plane is ﬁve times as fast as by train. See Unit 3.3 Numbers or approximately the same as is form can be used for quantitative comparison: Britain is asas the the 2 Practice A Study the table, whi shows the price of quality residential property in various cities. Complete the following comparisons and write two more. € per sq. m. City 28,000 London 16,500 New York 16,200 Moscow 16,000 Paris 15,850 Tokyo 13,500 Rome 11,850 Singapore 11,000 Sydney a) Residential property in London is twice as expensive _______________ in Rome. b) Property in Moscow is _______________ eaper than in New York. c) Tokyo property is nearly as expensive as property in _______________ d) Singapore has signiﬁcantly eaper property _______________ New York. e) London is _______________ the expensive of the eight cities, while Sydney is the eapest. f) g) 3 Forms of comparison Compare these three structures: Parisian property is more expensive than Roman (property). Property in Paris is more expensive than in Rome. The price of property in Paris is higher than in Rome. Note that high/low are used for comparing abstract ideas (e.g. rates): The birth rate was higher 20 years ago. More/less must be used with than + comparison: more diﬃcult than the last one. Divorce is less common in Turkey than in Germany. This module is 4 Using superlatives (e.g. the largest/smallest) When using superlatives, take care to deﬁne the group (i.e. ‘the eapest car’ has no meaning): The cheapest car in the Ford range/in the US. e most/the least are followed by an adjective: The most interesting example is the position of Ireland. e most/the fewest are used in relation to numbers: e fewest students studied biogenetics (i.e. the lowest number). 5 Practice B Study the table, whi shows the income of the top ten clubs in European football. en read the comparisons. Ea sentence contains one error. Find and correct it. Income of top ten European football clubs (2017) Club Revenue $m Manester United 703 Real Madrid 694 FC Barcelona 675 Bayern Muni 570 Manester City 558 Arsenal 524 Chelsea 505 Liverpool 471 Juventus 415 Toenham Hotspur 310 (Source: Deloie) a) Manester United had the highest income. b) Bayern Muni’s income was almost twice mu as Toenham’s. c) FC Barcelona earned marginally more than Juventus. d) Juventus had less revenue Liverpool. e) Arsenal’s income was substantially less than Manester City’s. f) Arsenal earned approximately same as Chelsea. 6 Practice C Study the following table and complete the gaps in the paragraph (one word per gap). Marriage and divorce rates (per 1,000 population) Country Marriage rate Divorce rate Egypt 10.6 1.5 United States 8.4 4.7 Iran 8.4 0.8 Turkey 8.3 0.6 Japan 6.2 1.9 Russia 5.2 2.9 Spain 5.2 0.8 United Kingdom 5.2 3.1 South Africa 4.0 0.9 (Source: UN) e table compares marriage and divorce rates (per thousand population) in a variety of countries. e marriage a)_______________ranges from 10.6 per thousand in Egypt to 4.0 in South Africa, while the rate of divorce b)_______________even more, from 4.7 in the US to only 0.9 in South Africa. e marriage rate in the US is the c)_______________as in Iran, whi has a d)_______________higher rate e)_______________Spain. In countries su as Iran and Turkey only 10% of marriages appear to end in divorce, but in Britain and the US the number is f)_______________half. It seems possible that the g) marriage rate in the US may be partly due to second marriages. 7 Practice D Study the following data about London. en make notes about a city you know well and write a comparison of the two cities in 150– 200 words. London Location Port city, on River ames, not far from coast History A town has been on this site for about 2,000 years Status National capital Population Over 7 million Employment Government oﬃces, banking, ﬁnance, retail, entertainment Culture 240 museums, 250 theatres Public transport London had the world’s ﬁrst underground railway. is now has 275 stations on 12 lines. Plus red double-deer buses Climate Cool wet winters, warm wet summers. Summer average approximately 17° C Housing Mainly bri terraced houses, also modern ﬂats Tallest building e Shard (310 m) UNIT 2.4 Deﬁnitions Deﬁnitions are usually found in introductions (see Unit 1.11). ey are not needed in every paper, but if the title includes an unfamiliar phrase, or if the writer wants to use a term in a special way, it is important to make clear to the reader exactly what is meant in this context. is unit presents ways of writing both simple and complex deﬁnitions. 1 Simple deﬁnitions Basic deﬁnitions, as found in a dictionary, are formed by giving a category and the application: Word Category Application An agenda is a set of issues to be discussed in a meeting. A Master’s degree is an academic award for postgraduate students, given on successful completion of a dissertation. A grant is a sum of money given for a speciﬁc purpose. A seminar is an academic class meeting with a tutor for study. 2 Category words ese are useful for making deﬁnitions. Mat the examples on the le with the categories on the right. en complete a suitable deﬁnition. Example: Reinforced concrete is a building material consisting of cement, aggregates and steel rods, used in structures such as bridges. Complete the following deﬁnitions by inserting a suitable category word or phrase from the box (ere are more words than gaps). fabric theory behaviour organisation process instrument organs period root vegetables profession a) A barometer is a scientiﬁc _______________ designed to measure atmospheric pressure. b) Kidneys are _______________ that separate waste ﬂuid from the blood. c) A multinational company is a business _______________ that operates in many countries. d) Linen is a _______________ made from ﬂax. e) Bullying is a paern of antisocial _______________ found in many sools. f) Recycling is a _______________ in whi materials are used again. g) A recession is a _______________ of reduced economic activity. h) Carrots are _______________ widely grown in temperate climates. Write deﬁnitions for the following: i) A lecture is _______________ . j) Tuberculosis (TB) is _______________ . k) e Red Cross is _______________ . l) An idiom is _______________ . Write two deﬁnitions from your own subject area: 3 Complex deﬁnitions It can be diﬃcult to explain terms that you may feel are generally used and understood. For instance, what exactly is an ‘urban area’ or a ‘nongovernmental organisation’? is is the reason why it can be useful to make clear what you understand by su a phrase. Study the following examples and underline the terms being deﬁned. a) e deﬁnition for a failed project ranges from abandoned projects to projects that do not meet their full potential or simply have sedule overrun problems. b) Development is a socio-economic-tenological process having the main objective of raising the standards of living of the people. c) Bowlby (1982) suggested that aament is an organised system whose goal is to make individuals feel safe and secure. d) … the non-linear eﬀect called ‘self-brightening’ in whi largeamplitude waves decay more slowly than small-amplitude ones… e) Globalisation, in an economic sense, describes the opening up of national economies to global markets and global capital, the freer movement and diﬀusion of goods, services, ﬁnance, people, knowledge and tenology around the world. ese examples illustrate the variety of methods used in giving deﬁnitions. Whi of the preceding example(s) i) quotes a deﬁnition from another writer? ii) gives a variety of relevant situations? iii) explains a process? iv) uses category words? 4 Practice Study the following examples and underline the terms being deﬁned. Example: Title: Higher education should be free and open to all – discuss. Deﬁnition: Higher education usually means university-level study for first or higher degrees, normally at the age of 18 or above. a) Capital punishment has no place in the modern legal system – discuss. b) How can the management of an entrepreneurial business retain its entrepreneurial culture as it matures? c) E-books are likely to replace printed books in the next 20 years. Do you agree? d) As urban areas continue to expand worldwide, will agriculture be able to feed the growing population of cities? e) Given the medical dangers of obesity, what is the best way of reducing its incidence? UNIT 2.5 Examples Examples are used in academic writing for support and illustration. Suitable examples can strengthen the argument, and they can also help the reader to understand a point. is unit demonstrates the diﬀerent ways in whi examples can be introduced and practises their use. 1 Using examples Generalisations are commonly used to introduce a topic: Many plants and animals are threatened by global warming. But if the reader is given an example for illustration, the idea becomes more concrete: Many plants and animals are threatened by global warming. bears, for example, are suﬀering from the la of Arctic ice. Polar Without examples, writing can seem too theoretical: The overuse of antibiotics has had serious negative consequences. But an example makes the idea easier to understand: The overuse of antibiotics has had serious negative consequences. Hospital-acquired infections su as MRSA have become more diﬃcult to treat and this has resulted in many deaths. e example may also support the point the writer is making: The past decade has seen International Relations enthusiastically George Orwell’s ‘1984’ has long had traction as a metaphor for a meta-regional dystopia… embrace popular culture as a classroom resource. See Unit 2.6 Generalisations 2 Phrases to introduce examples a) for instance, for example, e.g. (abbreviation of ‘for example’ in Latin) Some car manufacturers, for instance Kia, now offer seven-year guarantees. b) su as Extreme weather events such as hurricanes are becoming more frequent. c) particularly, especially (to give a focus) Certain Master’s courses, especially American ones, take two years. d) a case in point (for single examples) A few diseases have been successfully eradicated. A case in point is smallpox. Add a suitable example to ea sentence and introduce it with one of the preceding phrases. Example: A number of sports have become very proﬁtable due to the sale of television rights. A number of sports, for instance motor racing, have become very profitable due television rights. to the sale of a) Some twentieth-century inventions aﬀected the lives of most people. b) Lately many countries have introduced fees for university courses. c) Various companies have built their reputations on the strength of one product. d) In recent years more women have become political leaders. e) Certain countries are frequently aﬀected by earthquakes. f) Many musical instruments use strings to make music. g) Ship canals facilitate world trade. h) Politicians have discussed a range of possible alternative punishments to prison. 3 Practice A Read the following text and add suitable example phrases from the box where appropriate. su as Diet Coke including eggs, butter, salt, sugar, fats and smoked meats for example, bread or rice (e.g. swimming, running or cycling) in other words, a food may be condemned by one scientist but approved by another su as fruit and meat EATING FOR HEALTH A hundred years ago most people’s diets consisted of a few staple items that were eap and also ﬁlling. Today many people are able to aﬀord more variety and regularly eat more expensive foods. But along with the wider oice has come anxiety about the possible threats to health contained in certain foods. In recent years a broad range of products has been considered a risk to health. is has le many people confused, as mu of the ‘resear’ behind these claims is contradictory. One beneﬁciary of this process is the health food industry, a booming sector whi promotes food and drink products to health-conscious young people. In fact, many doctors argue that instead of focusing exclusively on what they eat or drink, people’s health would be improved by doing more exercise. 4 Practice B A NEW PERSPECTIVE Students who go to study abroad oen experience a type of culture sho when they arrive in the new country. Of course, there are always diﬀerent things to learn about in a fresh town or city. But in addition, customs whi they took for granted in their own society may not be followed in the host country. Even everyday paerns of life may be diﬀerent. When these are added to the inevitable diﬀerences whi occur between every country, students may at ﬁrst feel confused. ey can experience rapid anges of mood or even want to return home. However, most soon make new friends and, in a relatively short period, are able to adjust to their new environment. ey may even ﬁnd that they prefer some aspects of their new surroundings and forget that they are not at home for a while! 5 Restatement Another small group of phrases is used when there is only one ‘example’. (Braets may also be used for this purpose). is is a kind of restatement to clarify the meaning: The world’s leading gold producer, technical difficulties. namely, South Africa, has been faced with a number of in other words namely that is (to say) i.e. viz. (very formal) Add a suitable phrase from the box below to the following sentences to make them clearer. a) e company’s overheads doubled last year. b) e Roman Empire was a period of autocratic rule. c) e Indian capital has a thriving commercial centre. d) Survival rates for the most common type of cancer are improving. e) Voting rates in most democracies are in decline. that is to say, fewer people are voting in other words the ﬁxed costs namely, New Delhi, (27 BCE – 476 CE) i.e. breast cancer UNIT 2.6 Generalisations Generalisations are oen used to introduce a topic. ey can be powerful statements because they are simple and easy to understand. But they must be used with care, to avoid being inaccurate or too simplistic. is unit explains how to generalise clearly and eﬀectively. 1 Using generalisations a) Generalisations are oen used to give a simple introduction to a topic. Compare: The majority of smokers in Britain are women. with 56.2% of all UK smokers are women, and 43.8% are men. Although the second sentence is more accurate, the ﬁrst is easier to understand and remember. e writer must decide when accuracy is necessary and when a generalisation will be acceptable. b) You must avoid using generalisations whi cannot be supported by evidence or resear or are unclear: Cats are more intelligent than dogs. Young children learn second languages easily. Smoking causes lung cancer. Su statements are dangerous because there may well be exceptions. Instead, it is beer to use cautious phrases su as: Cats may be/tend to be more intelligent than dogs. Young children Smoking oen learn second languages easily. can cause lung cancer. Decide whi of the following are valid generalisations: a) It rains a lot in England. b) Earthquakes are oen diﬃcult to predict. c) ere appears to be a link between poverty and disease. d) Women work harder than men. e) Travel by air is usually faster than train travel. See Unit 3.7.6 Style: e use of caution 2 Structure Generalisations can be made in two ways: a) Most commonly using the plural: Computers have transformed the way we live. b) Using the singular + deﬁnite article (more formal): The computer has transformed the way we live. 3 Practice A Example: fresh fruit/health – Eating fresh fruit is important for health. a) regular rainfall/good crop yields ____________________________ b) honest judges/respect for the law ____________________________ c) adequate sleep/academic success ____________________________ d) industrial growth/pollution ____________________________ e) cold weather/demand for gas ____________________________ f) job satisfaction/interesting work ____________________________ g) regular training/sporting success ____________________________ h) creativity and skill/great art ____________________________ 4 Practice B Study the table and write ﬁve generalisations using the information. Results of a college survey on where students prefer to study. Undergraduates (%) Male Female Graduates (%) Male Female Library 20 17 47 32 Own room in silence 21 27 26 38 Own room with music 25 13 12 14 Own room in bed 15 24 6 10 Outdoors 6 9 4 2 Other 13 10 5 4 (Source: Author) 5 Building on generalisations Generalisations can be used in various ways when presenting the results of resear or developing a thesis. Read the following text and note the generalisations in italics. Answer the questions that follow. WHAT WOMEN WANT What we look for in choosing a mate seems to vary from place to place. A recent study (Jones and DeBruine, 2010) explores the idea that female preferences in a mate might vary according to the society in whi she lives. In their resear, nearly 5,000 women in 30 countries were shown the same pictures of male faces and asked to state whi they found more aractive. In countries where disease is common, women ose men with more masculine features, while in countries su as America with more advanced health care and lower levels of disease, more eﬀeminate-looking men were preferred. e researers conclude that in healthier societies women are more interested in men who may form long-term relationships and help with child-rearing, while in places where child mortality rates are high they choose strongly featured men who seem more likely to produce healthy children. a) What is the function of the ﬁrst generalisation? b) What is the basis of the concluding generalisations? c) What is the purpose of the concluding generalisations? 6 Practice C Most essays move from the general to the speciﬁc, as a generalisation has to be supported and developed. For example, an essay with the title ‘e impact of globalisation on the Chinese economy’ might develop in this way: Generalisation Support Development > Speciﬁc Since the midtwentieth century there has been a remarkable increase in international trade. e reasons for this are a combination of international agreements su as GATT, beer transport and improved communications. China has played a signiﬁcant part in this process, with its international trade growing by 16 times in just 20 years, while its GDP increased by nearly 10% per year. Choose a title from the following list (or select one from your own subject) and then write a generalisation and develop it in the same way. a) Does tourism always have a negative eﬀect on the host country? b) Should governments use taxation to promote public health? c) Is it more important to protect forests or to grow food? d) Is it beer for the state to spend money on primary or university education? Generalisation Support Development > Speciﬁc Generalisation Support Development > Speciﬁc See Unit 1.11 Introductions and Conclusions UNIT 2.7 Problems and Solutions Writing tasks frequently ask students to examine a problem and evaluate a range of solutions. is unit explains ways in whi this kind of text can be organised. Note that some of the language is similar to that practised in Unit 2.1 Argument and Discussion. 1 Paragraph structure Study the organisation of the following paragraph: How can road congestion be reduced? Currently, roads are oen congested, whi is expensive in terms of delays to the movement of people and freight. It is commonly suggested that building more roads, or widening existing ones, would ease the traﬃc jams. But not only is the cost of su work high, but the construction process adds to the congestion, while the resulting extra road space may encourage more traﬃc, so it is only a short-term answer. erefore constructing more roads is unlikely to solve the problem and other remedies, su as road pricing or greater provision of public transport, should be examined. Problem: Currently, roads are oen congested, whi is expensive in terms of delays to the movement of people and freight. Solution A: It is commonly suggested that building more roads, or widening existing ones, would ease the traﬃc jams. Arguments against solution A: But not only is the cost of su work high, but the construction process adds to the congestion, while the resulting extra road space may encourage extra traﬃc, so it is only a short-term answer. Conclusion in favour of solutions B and C: … other remedies, su as road pricing or greater provision of public transport, should be examined. 2 Alternative structure e same ideas could be reordered to arrive at a diﬀerent conclusion: How can road congestion be reduced? Currently, roads are oen congested, whi is expensive in terms of delays to the movement of people and freight. It is commonly suggested that building more roads, or widening existing ones, would ease the traﬃc jams. is remedy is criticised for being expensive and liable to lead to more road use, whi may be partly true, yet the alternatives are equally problematic. Road pricing has many practical diﬃculties, while people are oen reluctant to use public transport. ere is lile alternative to a road building programme except increasing road aos. Problem: Currently, roads are oen congested, whi is expensive in terms of delays to the movement of people and freight. Solution A: It is commonly suggested that building more roads, or widening existing ones, would ease the traﬃc jams. Arguments against solution A: is remedy is criticised for being expensive and liable to lead to more road use, whi may be partly true … Solutions B and C and arguments against: … yet the alternatives are equally problematic. Road pricing has many practical diﬃculties, while people are oen reluctant to use public transport. Conclusion in favour of solution A: ere is lile alternative to a road building programme except increasing road aos. 3 Vocabulary e following words can be used as synonyms for problem and solution. three main … the main … diﬃculties have arisen allenge faced by nurses concerns during the recession … one of the the new process created two questions … issues … our principal worry/dilemma was … the team faced three main remedy for this may be … two answers have been put forward … another suggestion is … Matheson’s proposal was finally accepted. this was rectiﬁed/solved by … another avenue worth exploring is … the best 4 Practice A Read the following text and then rewrite it to rea a diﬀerent conclusion. e housing dilemma In many expanding urban areas there is a serious housing shortage caused by people moving from the country to seek urban opportunities. ere are various possible answers to this problem, but ea has its drawbas. e traditional response is to build family houses with gardens, whi oﬀer privacy and space but require a lot of land. Building these is slow and the growth of suburbs creates longer journeys to work. Another solution is to construct tall blos of ﬂats, whi will accommodate more people at high density quite eaply. However, families may ﬁnd them noisy and cramped. A third option is to build prefabricated three-storey houses whi can be erected more quily and eaply than traditional houses, and can be designed to aieve a higher density of population. For many cities these may be the best solution, avoiding the growth of both extensive suburbs and high-rise blos. 5 Practice B Use the following points to write a paragraph on university expansion. Topic: University expansion Problem: Demand for university places is growing, leading to overcrowding in lectures and seminars Solution A: Increase fees to reduce demand Argument against A: Unfair to poorer students Solution B: Government pays to expand universities Argument against B: Unfair to average taxpayer who would be subsidising the education of a minority who will earn high salaries Conclusion: Government should subsidise poorer students 6 Practice C ink of a similar problem in your subject area. Complete the form and write a paragraph whi leads to a conclusion. Topic: Problem: Solution A: Argument against A: Solution B: Argument for/against B: (Solution C): Conclusion: UNIT 2.8 Visual Information In many subjects it is essential to support your writing with statistical data. Visual devices su as graphs and tables are a convenient way of displaying large quantities of information in a form that is easy to understand. is unit explains and practises the language connected with these devices. 1 Types of visuals Some of the main types of visual devices used in academic texts are presented in the following table. Note that they are oen combined (e.g. a bar art with a line graph). Complete the table to show the main use (a-i) and the example (A-I) of ea type. Types 1 Diagram 2 Table 3 Map 4 Pie art 5 Flow art 6 Line graph 7 Bar art 8 Plan 9 Scaer graph/plot Use: a) location – small scale b) location – large scale c) anges in time Use Example d) sequence of process e) comparison f) proportion g) structure h) statistical display i) relation between two sets of variables A Cinema tiet sales B Average life expectancy – both sexes (2015, in years) Japan 83.7 France 82.4 United States 79.3 United Arab Emirates 77.1 India 68.3 South Africa 62.9 Afghanistan 60.5 Nigeria 54.5 Angola 52.4 C Electricity output from coal (2015) D Origins of international students E Planning an essay F e human ear G Layout of the language centre H e regions of Italy I Height versus armspan 2 e language of ange (past tenses in braets) Average temperatures slightly. There was a rose steadily sharp decrease until 2012 and then dropped in sales during the summer and then a gradual rise. Study the following graph and the description. Figure 1 Inﬂation (%) January – December 2016 e graph (Fig. 1) shows that the rate of inﬂation was 2% in January and then rose to 2.5% in February. Aer that it levelled oﬀ until April and then increased steadily to over 4% in July. Inﬂation fell slightly in August but then climbed to a peak of 5% in September. From there it dropped sharply to below 2% in December. 3 Describing visuals Although visuals do largely speak for themselves, it is common to help the reader interpret them by brieﬂy commenting on their main features. The graph shows the changes in the price of oil since 1990. The map illustrates the main sources of copper in Africa. The diagram displays the organisation of both companies. a) Read the following descriptions of the next art. Whi is better, and why? i) e art (Fig. 2) shows the quantity of tea consumed by the world’s leading tea-consuming nations. India and China together consume more than half the world’s tea production, with India alone consuming about one-third. Other signiﬁcant tea consumers are Turkey, Russia and Britain. ‘Others’ includes the United States, Iran and Egypt. ii) e art (Fig. 2) shows that 31% of the world’s tea is consumed by India, 23% by China and 8% by Turkey. e fourth-largest consumers are Russia, Japan and Britain, with 7% ea, while Pakistan consumes 5%. Other countries account for the remaining 12%. Figure 2 World tea consumption (Source: e Tea Council) b) Complete the description of the following bar art. e bar art (Fig. 3) shows population a) ________________________ in a variety of countries around the world. It b) ________________________ the extreme contrast c) ________________________ crowded nations su as South Korea (475 people per sq. km.) and mu d) ________________________ countries su as Canada (three people per sq. km.). Apparently, climate plays a major e) ________________________ in determining population density, f) ________________________ the least crowded nations g) ________________________ to have extreme climates (e.g. cold in Russia and Canada or dry in Algeria). Figure 3 Population density (people per square kilometre) (Source: OECD) 4 Labelling When referring to visual information in the text, the word ‘ﬁgure’ is used for almost everything (su as maps, arts and graphs) except tables (see examples above). Figures and tables should be numbered and given a title. Titles of tables are wrien above, while titles of ﬁgures are wrien below the data. As with other data, sources must be given for all visual information. If you are writing a lengthy work su as a dissertation you will need to provide lists of tables and ﬁgures, showing numbers, titles and page numbers aer the contents page. 5 Practice A Complete the description of the following table (one word per gap). Table 1 Projected population anges in various European countries 2015–2050 (millions). Country France Germany Italy Poland Portugal Russia Spain Population 2015 (millions) Projected population 2050 Change (%) 62 67 +5 82 71 − 11 60 57 −3 38 32 −6 10.7 10 − 0.7 140 116 − 24 45 51 +6 Country UK Population 2015 (millions) Projected population 2050 Change (%) 62 72 + 11 (Source: UN) e table a) _________________ the projected population anges in various European countries b) _________________ 2015 and 2050. It can be seen that in a c) _________________ the population is expected to fall, in some cases (e.g. Germany and Russia) quite d) _________________ . However, the populations of France, e) _________________ and the UK are predicted to f) _________________ , in the case of the laer by more g) _________________ 10%. 6 Practice B Write a paragraph commenting on the main features of the following art. Progress Che 2 ese exercises will help you assess your understanding of Part 2 – Elements of Writing. 1 Give two synonyms for ‘benefit’. 2 What is the difference between vertical and horizontal formats for discussion essays? 3 What is a counter-argument? 4 Write sentences giving possible causes for the following effects: a) A rise in unemployment b) A railway accident c) A power cut 5 Write three sentences comparing Australia with New Zealand using the following data. Australia New Zealand Area (square kilometres) 7.6 m 270,000 Population 21.5 m 4.3 m GDP per head $50,750 $32,370 6 Write definitions for: a) A semester b) A hammer c) A midwife 7 Insert suitable examples into each sentence. a) Certain capital cities are smaller than the commercial centres of their country. b) Many varieties of fruit contain vital vitamins. c) A few kinds of mammals live in the sea. d) Most planets in our solar system have moons. 8 In the following, underline any generalisations you find unsafe. In the past century, photography has gone from being an exclusive hobby to something accessible to everyone. is is largely due to the invention of the digital camera. In the last 20 years this has made it simple to take colour photographs eaply and to modify pictures easily by using editing programmes. So now that everyone has a smartphone, with its built-in camera, photography has become democratic and highquality photographs can be produced by anybody. 9 Complete each sentence with synonyms for ‘problem’ or ‘solution’. a) e main ______________________ facing the engineers was the extreme cold. b) e only ______________________ was to repeat the experiment. c) Sherlo Holmes found an unusual ______________________ to the mystery of the Missing Mask. d) e safe disposal of nuclear waste is a ______________________ without an easy ______________________ 10 Write a paragraph commenting on the data in the following table. Table 2 Student survey of library facilities: % students rating facilities as good. Library facilities Undergraduates (%) Postgraduates (%) Opening hours 72 63 Staﬀ helpfulness 94 81 Ease of using electronic catalogue 65 87 Availability of working space 80 76 Café area 91 95 Availability of short-loan sto 43 35 ality of main book sto 69 54 (Source: Author) PART 3 Language Issues Part 3 deals with the language issues that international students ﬁnd most allenging when writing in English. For example, proper use of deﬁnite articles, correct use of punctuation and eﬀective use of a suitable academic style can be problematic for any student. e units in this part, arranged alphabetically, can also be studied on a remedial basis when a problem arises. UNIT 3.1 Cohesion Cohesion means joining a text together with reference words (he, she, theirs, the former) and conjunctions (but, then) so that the whole text is clear and readable. is unit practises the use of reference words, while conjunctions are examined in Unit 4.5. 1 Reference words Reference words are used to avoid repetition: Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) was a ﬁeenth-century Italian genius who produced only a handful of ﬁnished artworks. However, they include the Mona Lisa and e Last Supper, the former perhaps the most famous painting in the world. Although he is remembered mainly as an artist, he was also an innovative engineer, scientist and anatomist. His designs include tanks and ﬂying maines, and although few of these were built in his lifetime, he is still remembered as the man who saw their possibility. Here the reference words function as follows: Leonardo da Vinci ﬁnished artworks Mona Lisa designs He/His they the former these/their Examples of reference words and phrases: Pronouns he/she/it/they Possessive pronouns his/her/hers/its/their/theirs Object pronouns her/him/them Demonstrative pronouns this/that/these/those Other phrases the former/the laer/the ﬁrst/the second/the last 2 Practice A Read the following paragraph and complete the table. BUSINESS SHORT LIFE La Ferrera (2016), a researer at the University of Leipzig, has researed the life cycle of new business start-ups in Britain and Germany. She found that they have an average life of only 3.4 years and considers this is due to two main reasons: one economic and the other social. e former appears to be a la of initial working capital, the laer a failure to carry out suﬃcient market resear. La Ferrera considers that together these factors account for approximately 70% of business failures. Her conclusion is that the failure to do market resear is the more serious disadvantage, as this aﬀects the whole design of the new enterprise. Reference Reference word/phrase La Ferrera She new business start-ups average life of only 3.4 years one economic the other social the former…, the laer… … suﬃcient market resear the failure to do market resear 3 Preventing confusion To avoid confusing the reader, it is important to use reference words only when the reference is clear and unambiguous. For example: Pablo Picasso moved to Paris in 1904 and worked with Georges Braque from 1908 to 1909. became interested in the analysis of form, which led to cubism. He In this case, it is not clear whi person (Picasso or Braque) ‘he’ refers to. So to avoid this, write: Pablo Picasso moved to Paris in 1904 and worked with Georges Braque from 1908 to 1909. became interested in the analysis of form, which led to cubism. Picasso 4 Practice B In the following paragraph, insert suitable reference words in the gaps. Famous for? When Andy Warhol died at the age of 58 in 1987, few people guessed that a) ____________________ would soon become one of the most valuable artists in the world. In 2007, total sales of b) ____________________ work at auction reaed $428 million dollars. When, a year later, c) ____________________ painting ‘Eight Elvises’ sold for over $100 million, d) ____________________ was one of the highest prices ever paid for a work of art. In e) ____________________ working life, f) ____________________ made about 10,000 artworks, and dealers believe that g) ____________________ will continue to be popular with collectors in future. h) ____________________ is because of Warhol’s huge reputation as a super-cool trendseer and innovator. i) ____________________ is also remembered for j) ____________________ remark: ‘In the future everyone will be famous for 15 minutes’, whi seems to forecast today’s celebrity culture. 5 Implied language In various wrien forms, certain words may be omied for convenience. For instance, in emails the subject (noun or pronoun) is frequently le out: (I) Hope to see you on Friday. (We are) Looking forward to reading your article. In other cases, nouns may be implied in order to avoid repetition: Various metals are used to make alloys with nickel. One such (metal) is chromium. Oil (production) and gas production have fallen since 2015. It is hoped to select suitable candidates from the 10,000 (candidates) who apply each year. In places, a whole phrase might be implied: They are hoping to reach that goal soon. By 2025 they probably will. (reach that goal) Implied language is frequently found in comparisons: The price of land in rural areas is much less than (the price of land) in cities. Until you are a very conﬁdent writer, it is beer not to omit su words or phrases, but it is useful to understand why it is done. 6 Practice C Read the following paragraphs and replace the words in bold with reference words. Velcro Velcro is a fabric fastener used with clothes and shoes. Velcro was invented by a Swiss engineer called George de Mestral. Mestral’s idea was derived from studying the tiny hooks found on some plant seeds. e tiny hooks cling to animals and help disperse the seeds. Velcro has two sides, one of whi is covered in small hooks and the other in loops. When the hooks and loops are pressed together they form a strong bond. Mestral spent eight years perfecting Mestral’s invention, whi Mestral called ‘Velcro’ from the Fren words ‘velour’ and ‘croet’. e invention was patented in 1955, and today over 60 million metres of Velcro are sold annually. 7 Practice D Use the following information to write a paragraph about the invention of nylon, paying careful attention to the use of reference words. Nylon Inventor: Wallace Carothers Company: DuPont Corporation (US) Carothers’ position: Director of resear centre Carothers’ baground: Chemistry student, specialising in polymers (molecules composed of long ains of atoms) Properties: Strong but ﬁne synthetic ﬁbre Patented: 1935 Mass produced: 1939 Applications: Stoings, toothbrushes, parautes, ﬁshing lines, surgical thread UNIT 3.2 Deﬁnite Articles Students oen ﬁnd the rules for using articles (‘a’, ‘an’ and ‘the’) in English confusing. is unit focuses on the deﬁnite article, ‘the’, and provides guidelines, examples and practice. 1 Use of articles Unless they are uncountable, all nouns need an article when used in the singular. e article can be either a/an or the. Compare: a) Research is an important activity in universities. b) e research begun by Dr Mathews was continued by Professor Brankovic. c) An interesting piece of research was conducted among 200 patients in the clinic. In a) resear, whi is usually uncountable, is being used in a general sense. In b) a speciﬁc piece of resear is identiﬁed, started by Dr Mathews. In c) the resear is mentioned for the ﬁrst time, and the word ‘piece’ is used to ‘count’ the resear. See Unit 3.6 Singular or Plural? – Uncountable nouns 2 Using deﬁnite articles e rules for using the (the deﬁnite article) are quite complex. Decide why it is used, or not used, in the following examples. a) e world’s fastest animal is the eetah. b) e US was founded in the eighteenth century. c) e government increased taxation in the 1990s. d) e Fren Revolution was partly caused by bad harvests. e) e New Scientist is published every week. f) e south is aracterised by poverty and emigration. g) Pablo Picasso, the Spanish artist, was born in Malaga. h) e River Seine runs through the middle of Paris. i) e United Nations was founded in 1945. j) e euro was introduced in 2002. In general, the is used with: i) superlatives (fastest) ii) time periods (eighteenth century/1990s) iii) unique things (government, world) iv) speciﬁed things (French Revolution) vi) regular publications (New Scientist) vii) regions and rivers (south/River Seine) viii) very well-known people and things (Spanish artist) ix) institutions and bodies (United Nations) x) positions (middle) xi) currencies (euro) It is not used with: xii) things in general (bad harvests) xiii) names of countries (except for the UK, the US and a few others) xiv) abstract nouns (e.g. poverty, love) xv) companies/things named aer people/places (e.g. Sainsbury’s, Heathrow Airport) Note the alternate forms: e deserts of Australia are expanding. Australian deserts/Australia’s deserts are expanding. 3 Practice A It can be diﬃcult to decide if a noun phrase is speciﬁc or not. Compare: (not speciﬁc) Climate ange is a serious threat for many people. The (speciﬁc) Russian climate is characterised by long, cold winters. Mobile phones are vital tools for many businesses. (not speciﬁc) mobile phone she bought was a Samsung. (speciﬁc) The In the following sentences, decide if the words and phrases in bold are speciﬁc or not and whether ‘the’ should be added. Example: _________________ inﬂation was a serious problem _________________ Brazilian government. Inﬂation was a serious problem for the Brazilian government. a) _________________ engineering is _________________ northern region. the main industry for in b) _________________ insurance ﬁrms have made record proﬁts in _________________ last decade. c) _________________ global warming _________________ fossil fuels. is partly caused by d) _________________ mayor has been arrested on suspicion of _________________ corruption. e) _________________ moons of Jupiter were discovered in _________________ eighteenth century. f) _________________ tourism is _________________ world’s biggest industry. g) _________________ forests of Scandinavia produce most of _________________ Britain’s paper. h) _________________ ai currency is _________________ baht. i) _________________ computer crime has grown by 200% in _________________ last ﬁve years. j) _________________ main causes of _________________ Industrial Revolution are still debated. k) ree percent of _________________ working population are employed in _________________ call centres. l) _________________ latest forecast predicts _________________ warmer winters in the next decade. m) Resear on _________________ energy saving is being conducted in _________________ Physics Faculty. o) _________________ best deﬁnition is oen _________________ simplest. p) During _________________ last recession there was a sharp increase in _________________ ild poverty. 4 Practice B Note the diﬀerence in meaning between: A government minister (one of several/many) e Minister of Health (the only one) Complete the following text by inserting a/the (or nothing) in ea gap. (Note that in some cases more than one answer is possible). A Northern model? Norway is a) global leader in b) ___________ use of electric cars: in 2016 nearly 30% of vehicle sales were baery-powered or hybrid models. In c) ___________ past ﬁve years sales have increased sharply due to d) ___________ development of beer baeries, so now e) ___________ country’s ﬁve million people are f) ___________ world’s largest electric car market. g) ___________ Transport Minister talks of ending sales of cars powered by h) ___________ fossil fuels by 2025. i) ___________ government is subsidising j) ___________ installation of arging points on main roads and shopping centres. In addition, drivers of k) ___________ zero-emission vehicles pay no sales tax or parking fees and may use bus lanes in cities. But this paern may not be l) ___________ model for other countries: Norway has m) ___________ surplus of eap electricity thanks to n) ___________ hydropower, and it taxes petrol and diesel fuel heavily. UNIT 3.3 Numbers Students are oen required to write clearly and accurately about statistical data. is unit explains and practises the language of numbers and percentages. Presenting data in arts and tables is dealt with in Unit 2.8 Visual Information. 1 e language of numbers a) In introductions, numbers are oen used to give an accurate summary of a situation: Approximately 1,800 children between the ages of five and 12 years were selected. The earth’s atmosphere appears to be gaining 3.3 billion metric tons of carbon annually. Five winters in the twentieth century were more than 2.4° C colder than average. e words ﬁgures and numbers are both used to talk about statistical data in a general sense: The ﬁgures/numbers in the report need to be read critically. But number is used more widely: She forgot her mobile phone Thirteen is an unlucky number. number in some cultures. Digits are individual numbers. 4,539 is a four-digit number. Both fractions (½) and decimals (0.975) may be used. b) ere is no ﬁnal ‘s’ on hundred/thousand/million used with whole numbers: Six million people live there. but: ousands of people were forced to move from the flooded valley. When discussing money, put the currency symbol ﬁrst: US dollars). $440 m (440 million Rates are normally expressed as percentages (e.g. the literacy rate is 75%) but may also be per thousand (e.g. the Austrian birth rate is 8.7). It is normal to write whole numbers as words from one to ten and as digits above ten: There were 16 students in the class, but only eight came to the lecture. 2 Percentages ese are commonly used for expressing rates of ange: Since 2008 the number of prisoners has risen by 22%. Complete the following sentences using the data in the next table. a) Between 2014 and 2015, the number of students increased by %. b) e number increased by % the following year. c) Between 2014 and 2017 there was a % increase. Students studying Law and Politics 2014–2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 200 300 600 1000 3 Simpliﬁcation Although the accurate use of numbers is vital, too many statistics can make texts diﬃcult to read. If the exact number is not important, words su as various, dozens or scores may be used instead: 47 schools. The snow storm closed dozens of schools. The snow storm closed a couple 2 few a small number, less than expected a few approximately 3–6 depending on context several approximately 3–4 various approximately 4–6 dozens of approximately 30–60 scores of approximately 60–100 Rewrite the following sentences using one of the words or phrases in the preceding list. Example: Only three people aended the meeting. Few people aended the meeting. a) 77 students applied for the solarship. b) Since 1975, 53 primary sools have been rebuilt. c) e students thought of four good topics for their project. d) Five names were suggested but rejected for the new ocolate bar. e) Last year 49 books were published on biogenetics. 4 Further numerical phrases e expressions listed here can also be used to present and simplify statistical information. For example: The course fees rose from $1,200 to $2,500 in two years. could be wrien: The course fees doubled in two years. If appropriate, roughly/approximately can be added: The course fees roughly doubled in two years. one in three twice/three times as many a ﬁve/tenfold increase to double/halve the highest/lowest a quarter/ﬁh the majority/minority on average, the average a small/large proportion One in three engineering students is from China. Twice as many women as men study business law. There was a ﬁvefold increase in the price of oil. The rate of infection halved after 2001. e lowest rate of home ownership was in Germany. A ﬁh of all employees leave every year. e majority of births are in hospital. On average, each judge hears two cases per day. The website generates a large proportion of their sales. NB: 5–20% = a small minority 21–39% = a minority 40–49% = a substantial/signiﬁcant minority 51–55% = a small majority 56–79% = a majority 80% + = a large majority Rewrite ea sentence in a simpler way, using a suitable expression from the preceding list. a) In 1973, a litre of petrol cost 12p, while the price is now £1.20. b) Out of 18 students in the group, 12 were women. c) e new high-speed train reduced the journey time to Madrid from seven hours to three hours, 20 minutes. d) e number of students applying for the Psyology course has risen from 350 last year to 525 this year. e) More than 80% of students in Britain complete their ﬁrst degree course; in Italy the ﬁgure is just 35%. f) Tap water costs 0.07p per litre, while boled water costs, on average, 50p per litre. g) e rate of unemployment in Europe ranges from 23% in Greece to 3% in Norway. h) 57 percent of the members supported the suggestion, but of these, 83% had some doubts. 5 Practice Study the data in the following table and write sentences using suitable numerical phrases. Selected Olympic Games 1896–2012 Year Host Sports Events 1896 Athens 9 43 1924 Paris 17 126 1964 Tokyo 19 163 1992 Barcelona 32 257 2008 Beijing 28 302 2012 London 28 302 Athletes % Women 241 0.0 % 3,089 4.4 % 5,151 13.2 % 9,356 28.9 % 10,942 42.4% 10,700 45% Source: IOC a) At the Paris Olympics in 1924 a small minority of athletes were female. b) c) d) e) f) UNIT 3.4 Passive and Active e passive voice is more common in academic writing than in other genres, making it more impersonal and formal, but the passive should not be overused. is unit explains where it is appropriate to use the passive and provides practice in developing a balanced style. 1 Active and passive e passive is used when the writer wants to focus on the result, not on the cause or agent: Jupiter’s moons were discovered in 1610. (passive) Galileo discovered Jupiter’s moons in 1610. (active) In the ﬁrst sentence, the emphasis is on the moons, in the second on Galileo. So the passive is oen used in wrien English when the cause or agent (a person or thing) is less important or unknown. was first produced in the nineteenth century. (by someone) The colony was abandoned in the 1630s. (for some unknown reason) Aluminium e cause of the action can be shown by adding ‘by…’: The city was flooded by a severe hurricane. e passive is also used in wrien work to provide a more impersonal style: The findings were evaluated. (not ‘I evaluated the findings’) See Unit 3.7 Style 2 Structure All passive structures have two parts: Form of the verb to be Past participle is constructed was developed will be reorganised Change the following sentences into the passive to make them more impersonal. a) We collected the data and compared the two groups. b) I interviewed 120 people in three social classes. c) ey eed the results and found several errors. d) We will make an analysis of the ﬁndings. e) He asked four doctors to give their opinion. f) She wrote the report and distributed ten copies. 3 Use of the passive e passive tends to be commonly employed in certain situations: a) Describing a process Urea can be made cheaply by mixing ammonia and carbon dioxide. What causes this antibody to be produced is unclear. Printed skin might eventually be employed for grafts. b) Describing a piece of resear The results It were adjusted to allow for the variation. was found that the smallest were the most effective. The process One study was discovered in the 2000s. was conducted in America and published in 2011. In both of these situations the use of the passive puts the emphasis on the action and not on the people involved. Change the following sentences from active to passive. a) e researers exposed the vaccines to temperatures below the limit. b) Some historians believe that the Atacama desert was too dry for animal life. c) Dr Weber suggests that foreign competition can damage them. d) ey researed the life cycles of three main bee species. e) She argued that prisons had a negative eﬀect on the inmates. 4 Adverbs with passives Adverbs are frequently inserted into the passive structure to add information: largely banned until 1991. The vaccine was accidentally frozen. Emigration was Underline the passive forms in the following paragraph and add suitable adverbs to ea from the box. MARS MANIA In the past it was commonly believed that creatures lived on Mars. Due to the similarity of size with Earth, the planet was thought to have a climate that would permit life. It was discovered that Mars had four seasons, although they were longer than their equivalents on Earth. In the late nineteenth century, straight lines seen on the surface of Mars were considered to be canals, built by Martian engineers. An invasion of Earth by superior beings from Mars was described by H.G. Wells in his novel War of the Worlds. Even today it is claimed that primitive life exists on the planet. commonly graphically additionally occasionally generally See Unit 4.4 Academic Vocabulary: Adverbs and Verbs ridiculously 5 Practice Overuse of the passive can make a text seem very formal. A balanced style mixes both active and passive. Read the following and ange some of the passive forms into active. MAKING BREAD Bread is traditionally made from wheat ﬂour, salt, water and yeast. e wholemeal or white ﬂour is mixed with a lile salt and yeast, and then lukewarm water is gradually added. Other ingredients su as opped nuts or seeds may be included. en the dough is mixed until a so ball is formed, whi can be kneaded by hand. In the kneading process the dough is vigorously pounded and reshaped so that all the ingredients are fully combined. Aer being thoroughly kneaded the dough is le for a few hours to rise. When this is ﬁnished the dough is again worked by hand to shape it into loaves or rolls. Aer two more hours the loaves will have risen again, due to the action of the yeast. ey are baked in a hot oven for about half an hour and then allowed to cool. UNIT 3.5 Punctuation Accurate punctuation and the correct use of capital leers help the reader to understand exactly what the writer means. While some aspects of punctuation, su as the use of commas, can be a maer of individual style, correct punctuation in areas su as quotation is vital. 1 Capital letters It is diﬃcult to give precise rules about the use of capital leers in modern English, where nowadays there is a tendency to use them less than before. However, they should always be used in the following cases: a) e ﬁrst word in a sentence In the beginning b) Days and months Friday 21st July c) Nationality words Indonesia and the Indonesians d) Languages Most Swiss speak French and German e) Names of people/places Dr Martin Lee from Sydney, Australia f) Book titles (main words only) Power and the State g) Historical periods The Bronze Age, the Great Depression h) Names of organisations Sheffield Hallam University i) e ﬁrst person pronoun By Monday I had finished the book … NB: Seasons are not capitalised (The course began in autumn) 2 Full stops (.) [US: period] ese are used to show the end of a sentence: The first chapter provides a clear introduction to the topic. ey are also used with certain abbreviations formed from the ﬁrst part of a word: govt./Jan./p.397 But do not use full stops with acronyms su as: BBC/UN/VIP See Unit 4.2 Abbreviations 3 Commas (,) ese are one of the commonest punctuation marks, but also one of the hardest to provide guidance for, because comma use is partly a maer of individual style. It may be useful to think of commas as providing a brief pause for readers, to give them a ance to make sense of a unk of text. Overuse can slow down the reader, but equally the la of commas can be confusing. Some instances of necessary comma usage are: a) aer introductory words or phrases: However, more cases should be considered before reaching a conclusion. b) around examples or comments (these are phrases that can be le out without loss of meaning): Certain crops, for instance wheat, are susceptible to diseases. Nationalism, it is widely recognised, has a positive and a negative side. c) before some conjunctions: Three hundred people were interviewed, and most of these expressed approval. d) in lists of three or more items: Tomatoes, beans, cabbages and potatoes were all genetically modified in turn. e) ﬁnishing direct spee: ‘Don’t forget the deadline’, the teacher told them. f) to show contrasting elements: It was well written, but badly spelt. g) with a group of adjectives: It was a long, rambling, humorous and controversial book. 4 Apostrophes (’) ese can be one of the most confusing features of English punctuation. ey are mainly used in two situations: a) to show contractions He’s the leading authority on Hegel. NB: contractions are not common in academic English. It is usually beer to write the full form: He is the leading authority on Hegel. a) b) with possessives The professor’s secretary (singular) Students’ marks (plural words ending in ‘s’) Dickens’s novels (names ending in ‘s’) Women’s rights (for irregular plurals) NB: It’s is the contraction of it is It’s possible the course will be cancelled. e third person singular possessive form is its ‘Civilization and its Discontents’ (Freud) ere is no need to use the apostrophe with generic plurals: 1980s, HGVs 5 Semicolons (;) Semicolons are used to show the link between two connected clauses, when a comma would be too weak and a full stop too strong: Seven people applied for the post; six were shortlisted and then interviewed. Nobody questioned the results; they were quite conclusive. Semicolons are also used to divide up items in a list when they have a complex structure, as in a multiple citation: (Maitland, 2006; Michigan, 2000). Rosenor, 1997; New Scientist, 2006b; University of 6 Colons (:) Colons have three main uses: a) to introduce explanations b) to start a list The meeting was postponed: the Dean was ill. Three aspects were identified: financial, social and ethical. c) to introduce a quotation As the Duchess of Windsor said: ‘You can never be too rich or too thin’. 7 otations marks/inverted commas (“ ”/‘ ’) a) Single quotation marks are used to show quotations from other writers: Goodwin’s (1977) analysis of habit indicates that, in general, ‘It will be more difficult to reverse a trend than to accentuate it’. b) they are also used to emphasise a word or phrase: The word ‘factory’ was first used in the seventeenth century. The Swedish ‘third way’ or the welfare state is a possible model. c) to show direct spee: ‘Can anyone find the answer?’ asked the lecturer. d) longer quotations are usually indented (i.e. have a wider margin) and/or are set in smaller type: More recently, she has stated the point even more directly: Government, I hold, should not give people an option to be treated with respect and nonhumiliation people respectfully and … should . Government should treat all refuse to humiliate them (Nussbaum, 2011b, p. 26). c) Double quotation marks are used to show quotations inside quotations (nested quotations): As Kauffman remarked: ‘His concept of “internal space” requires close analysis’. NB: American English uses double quotation marks to show standard quotations. See Written British and American English – A Short Guide f) In references, quotation marks are used for the names of articles and apters, but book or journal titles normally use italics: Russell, T. (1995) ‘A future for coﬀee?’ Journal of Applied Marketing 6, 14–17. See Unit 1.8 References and otations 8 Others Hyphens (-) are used with certain words, su as compound nouns, and in some structures: It is a well-researched, thought-provoking book. Her three-year-old daughter is learning to read. But note that the use of hyphens is generally declining (e.g. ‘proofreading’ rather than ‘proof-reading’). Exclamation marks (!) and question marks (?): ‘Well!’ he shouted, ‘Who would believe it?’ Braets or parentheses () can be used to give additional detail without interfering with the ﬂow of the main idea: Relatively few people (10–15%) were literate in sixteenth-century Russia. 9 Practice A Punctuate the following sentences and make any other anges needed. a) the study was carried out by ristine zhen-wei qiang of the national university of singapore b) professor rowans new book the end of privacy 2017 is published in new york c) as keynes said its beer to be roughly right than precisely wrong d) banks su as hsbc and barclays were in penny pining mode in the 1990s e) as Matheson 1954 wrote it was the germ that was the villain f) thousands of new words su as app enter the english language ea year g) the bbcs world service is broadcast in 33 languages including somali and vietnamese h) she scored 56% on the main course the previous semester she had aieved 67% 10 Practice B Punctuate the following sentences and make any other anges needed. studying will play a vital part in your life as an oxford student but you will also ﬁnd an enormous amount to do in oxford in your spare time oxford is the youngest city in england and wales and has two universities oxford university and oxford brookes 35% of people who live here are aged 15–29 and 27% 40,000 of a total population of 150,000 are university students if you ever feel like a ange of scene the bus to london takes around 90 minutes and runs 24 hours a day there are now two railway stations the central oxford station and the recently opened oxford parkway oxford is a youthful and cosmopolitan city with plenty to see and do there are dozens of historic and iconic buildings including the bodleian libraries ashmolean museum sheldonian theatre the cathedral and the colleges in the city centre you will ﬁnd lots of shops cafés restaurants theatres cinemas pubs and clubs there are plenty of green spaces too riverside walks englands oldest botanic garden the university parks and college gardens UNIT 3.6 Singular or Plural? e oice of singular or plural can be confusing in various situations, su as in the use of countable and uncountable nouns. is unit illustrates the main areas of diﬃculty and provides practice with these. 1 Five diﬃcult areas e main problem areas with singular/plural for international students are shown here. a) Nouns should agree with verbs, and pronouns with nouns: There are many arguments in favour. ose problems are unique. b) Uncountable nouns and irregular plurals usually have no ﬁnal ‘s’: Most students receive free tuition. The main export is tropical fruit. c) General statements normally use the plural: State universities have lower fees. d) ‘Ea/every’ are followed by singular noun and verb forms: Every student gets financial support. e) Two linked nouns should agree: Both the similarities and diﬀerences are important. Find the mistakes in the following sentences and decide what type (a – e above) they are. i) e proposal has both advantages and disadvantage. () ii) A majority of ildren in ailand is vaccinated against measles. () iii) ere are few young people in rural area. () iv) Many places are experiencing an increase in crimes. () v) Ea companies have their own policies. () 2 Group phrases Study the following ‘group’ phrases. singular + plural plural + singular plural + uncountable half the universities a range of businesses one of the elements two types of institution various kinds of course many varieties of response three areas of enquiry several ﬁelds of resear diﬀerent rates of progress Note that if a verb has more than one subject it must be plural, even if the preceding noun is singular: are at the meeting. Their valuable suggestions and hard work were vital. Scores of students, some teachers and the president Certain ‘group’ nouns (e.g. team/army/government) can be followed by either a singular or plural verb: was defeated three times last month. (collectively) The team were travelling by train and bus. (separately) The team It is not always clear, in sentences with two nouns, whi one the verb agrees with. Compare these: was improving. The majority of candidates were French. The quality of candidates In the ﬁrst case the verb should agree with ‘quality’, in the second with ‘candidates’. 3 Uncountable nouns a) Most nouns in English are countable, but the following are generally uncountable (i.e. they are not usually used with numbers or the plural ‘s’). accommodation information scenery advice knowledge staff chaos money traffic commerce news travel data permission trouble education progress vocabulary equipment research weather furniture rubbish work Many of these can be ‘counted’ by using an extra noun: A piece of advice ree patterns of behaviour An item of equipment Six members of staff b) Another group of uncountable nouns consists of materials: wood/rubber/iron/coffee/paper/water/oil/stone Little wood is used in the construction of motor vehicles. How much paper is needed to produce these magazines? But many of these nouns can be used as countable nouns with a rather diﬀerent meaning: How many daily Most papers are published in Delhi? woods are home to a wide variety of birds. c) e most diﬃcult group can be used either as countable or uncountable nouns, oen with quite diﬀerent meanings: She developed an interest in genetics. (countable) The bank is paying 4% interest. (uncountable) (further examples: business/capital/experience) Other nouns with a similar paern are used for general concepts (e.g. love/fear/hope): Most people feel that Nearly twenty particular) life is too short. (uncountable – in general) lives were lost in the mining accident. (countable – in See Unit 4.3 Academic Vocabulary: Nouns and Adjectives 4 Practice A Choose the correct alternative in these sentences. a) Lile/few news about the accident was released. b) He established three successful businesses/business in 2015. c) Substantial experiences/experience of report writing are/is required. d) It is oen claimed that travel broadens/travels broaden the mind. e) e college was built of grey stones/stone. f) How mu advice/many advices were they given before coming to Australia? g) She had lile interest/few interests outside her work. h) e insurance policy excludes the eﬀects of civil war/wars. i) Irons were/Iron was ﬁrst powered by electricity in the twentieth century. j) ey studied the work/works of three groups of employees over two years. 5 Practice B Read the text and oose the correct alternatives. TRAVEL TROUBLE As the volume of traﬃc/traﬃcs has grown, travel/travels to work/works has become slower for many college staﬀs/staﬀ. Resear/researes on commuting time in ﬁve capitals/capital shows that on average drivers spend 125 minutes in their vehicles/vehicle ea day/days. is means that they are spending more than 10% of their waking life/lives driving, and also consuming huge quantities of petrol/petrols in traﬃc jams/jam. Another negative factor/factors is the stress/stresses caused by commuting, so the best advices/advice to drivers are/is to relax by listening to classical music/musics. UNIT 3.7 Style ere is no one correct style of academic writing, but in general it should aempt to be accurate, impersonal and objective. For example, personal pronouns like ‘I’ and idioms (i.e. informal language) are used less oen than in other kinds of writing. Students should study examples of writing in their own subject area, and then aim to develop their own ‘voice’. is unit gives guidelines for an appropriate style and provides practice. 1 Developing an academic style In the last few years there’s been lots of discussion about trains. Trains are oen run by the state. e state pays for new lines and new equipment. is is because they do an important job moving people around. What’s more, developing the railways costs lots of money, whi only governments can ﬁnd. But in some countries like England the railways have been privatised, so as to oﬀer more oice to passengers. e problem is that the private trains still need money from the government to keep running. at’s the only way to get everyone to work in big cities. So either way I think that there’s no easy answer to the problem. Some of the problems with the style of this paragraph can be analysed as follows: Poor style Reason In the last few years Vague – how many years? there’s been Avoid contractions lots of discussion, lots of money Avoid ‘lots of’ trains Imprecise vocabulary – use ‘railways’ Trains are oen run by the state. e state pays for new lines and new equipment. Repetition, and sentences too short do an important job Too informal What’s more Too idiomatic like England Avoid ‘like’, use ‘su as’ England is not correct, use ‘Britain’ or ‘the UK’ e only way … either way Repetition at’s the only way Caution needed – ‘that’s the best method’ to get everyone to work Avoid ‘get’ phrases So either way I think Too personal e paragraph could be rewrien in a more suitable style: In the past two decades there has been considerable debate about the ownership of national railway networks. In many countries these are operated by the state, partly because the provision of mass transit is seen as a public service, but also because railway systems demand large-scale capital investment whi is oen beyond the rea of the private sector. However, there has been a trend towards railway privatisation, as for example in Britain and Germany, since in these countries it was thought useful to introduce some competition into the industry. Yet even these systems still oen require public money to subsidise passenger services, whi are essential to allow millions of people to travel safely to work ea day. Neither the public nor the private model seems to provide a fully satisfactory answer to the issue. 2 Guidelines ere are no rules for academic style whi apply to all situations and all academic disciplines. e following guidelines should help you develop a style of your own. a) Do not use idiomatic or colloquial vocabulary: standard English: children, manager. kids, boss. Instead use b) Use vocabulary accurately. ere is a diﬀerence between rule and law, and weather and climate, for example, whi you are expected to know if you study these subjects. c) Be as precise as possible when dealing with facts or ﬁgures. Avoid phrases su as about a hundred or hundreds of years ago. If it is necessary to estimate numbers, use approximately rather than about. d) Conclusions should use tentative language. Avoid absolute statements su as unemployment causes crime. Instead use cautious phrases: unemployment may cause crime or tends to cause crime. e) Avoid adverbs that show your personal aitude: surprisingly. luckily, remarkably, f) Do not contract auxiliary verb forms: don’t, can’t. Use the full form: do not, cannot. g) Avoid complicated expressions of gender. Instead of writing: each candidate has his or her presentation prepared write: all candidates have their presentations prepared Try not to use sexist language su as chairperson or police officer. h) Avoid the following: chairman or policeman. Use like for introducing examples. Use such as or for instance. thing and combinations nothing or something. Use factor, issue or topic. lots of. Use a significant/considerable number. little/big. Use small/large. ‘get’ phrases su as get better/worse. Use improve and deteriorate. good/bad are simplistic. Use positive/negative (e.g. the changes had several positive aspects) i) Do not use rhetorical question forms su as Why did war break out in 1914? Instead use statements: There were three reasons for the outbreak of war … j) Avoid numbering sections of your text, except in reports and long essays. Use conjunctions and signposting expressions to introduce new sections (Turning to the question of detecting cancer …). See Unit 1.10 Organising Paragraphs k) When writing lists, avoid using last item: The main products were etc. or and so on. Insert and before the pharmaceuticals, electronic goods and confectionery. l) Avoid using two-word verbs su as go suitable synonym (e.g. continue or raise). on or bring up See Unit 4.4 Academic Vocabulary: Adverbs and Verbs if there is a 3 Practice A In the following sentences, underline examples of poor style and rewrite them in a more suitable way. a) Another thing to think about is the ance of crime geing worse. b) Regreably these days lots of people don’t have jobs. c) Sometime soon they will ﬁnd a vaccine for malaria. d) Luily the ﬁremen soon got the ﬁre under control. e) You can’t always trust the numbers in that report. f) Sadly, the bad inﬂation led to poverty, social unrest and so on. g) He was over the moon when he won the prize. h) I think we should pay students to study. i) Years ago they allowed women to vote. j) What were the main causes of the Russian Revolution? 4 Avoiding repetition and redundancy Instead of repeating the same word in a short text: Most family businesses employ fewer than ten people. These … businesses Try to make the text more interesting by using synonyms: Most family businesses employ fewer than ten people. These ﬁrms … See Unit 4.8 Synonyms Redundancy (i.e. repeating an idea or including an irrelevant point) suggests that the writer is not fully in control of the material. It gives the impression that either he does not properly understand the language or is trying to ‘pad’ the essay by repeating the same point. Avoid statements su as: Homelessness is a global problem in the whole world. Good writing aims for economy and precision: Homelessness is a global problem. FAST FOOD Currently these days, fast food is growing in popularity. Fast food is the kind of food that people can buy ready to eat or cook quily. It’s called fast food because it doesn’t take long to make. is essay examines the advantages of fast food and the drawbas of fast food. First above all, fast food is very convenient. Most of the people who work in oﬃces are very busy, so that they do not have time to go to their homes for lun. But the people who work in oﬃces can eat in restaurants su as McDonald’s, whi are franised in hundreds of countries, because they are very popular. In addition, the second beneﬁt of fast food is its eapness. It is produced in large quantities, and this high volume means that the companies can keep costs down. As a result fast food is usually less expensive than a meal in a conventional restaurant, so people can buy it regularly. 5 Varying sentence length Short sentences are clear and easy to read: Car scrappage schemes have been introduced in many countries. But too many short sentences are monotonous: Car scrappage schemes have been introduced in many countries. They offer a subsidy to buyers of new cars. The buyers must scrap an old vehicle. The schemes are designed to stimulate the economy. They also increase fuel efficiency. Long sentences are more interesting but can be diﬃcult to construct and read: Car scrappage schemes, which offer a subsidy to buyers of new cars (who must scrap an old vehicle) have been introduced in many countries; the schemes are designed to stimulate the economy and also increase fuel efficiency. Eﬀective writing normally uses a mixture of long and short sentences, oen using a short sentence to introduce the topic: Car scrappage schemes have been introduced in many countries. They offer a subsidy to buyers of new cars who must scrap an old vehicle. The schemes are designed to stimulate the economy and also increase fuel efficiency. Worldwide, enrolments in higher education are increasing. In developed countries over half of all young people enter college. Similar trends are seen in China and South America. is growth has put ﬁnancial strain on state university systems. Many countries are requiring students and parents to contribute to the cost. is leads to a debate about whether students or society beneﬁt from tertiary education. China is one developing country (but not the only one) whi has imposed fees on students since 1997, but the results have been surprising: enrolments, especially in the most expensive universities, have continued to rise steeply, growing 200 per cent overall between 1997 and 2011; it seems in this case that higher fees aract rather than discourage students, who see them as a sign of a good education and compete more ﬁercely for places, leading to the result that a place at a good college can cost $8,000 per year for fees and maintenance. Until you feel conﬁdent in your writing, it is beer to use shorter rather than longer sentences. is should make your meaning as clear as possible. 6 e use of caution A cautious style is necessary in many areas of academic writing in order to avoid making statements that can be contradicted in some way: Demand for healthcare usually exceeds supply. Most students find writing exam essays difficult. Fertility rates tend to fall as societies get richer. Areas where caution is particularly important include: a) outlining a hypothesis whi needs to be tested (e.g. in an introduction) b) discussing the results of a study, whi may not be conclusive c) commenting on the work of other writers d) making predictions (normally with may or might) Caution is also needed to avoid making statements whi are too simplistic: Crime is linked to poor education. Su statements are rarely completely true. ere is usually an exception whi needs to be considered. Caution can be shown in several ways: may be linked to poor education. (modal verb) Crime is frequently linked to poor education. (adverb) Crime tends to be linked to poor education. (verb) Crime Modals Adverbs Verb/phrase may frequently tends to See Unit 2.6 Generalisations 7 Using modiﬁers Another way to express caution is to use quite, rather or fairly before an adjective: fairly accurate summary a rather inconvenient location quite a significant discovery a NB: quite is oen used before the article. It is mainly used positively, while rather tends to be used negatively. Insert quite/rather/fairly in the following to emphasise caution. a) e company’s eﬀorts to save energy were successful. b) e survey was a comprehensive study of student opinion. c) His second book had a hostile reception. d) e ﬁrst-year students were fascinated by her lectures. e) e latest type of arthritis drug is expensive. f) is mountain tiger has become rare. g) e class found the essay topic allenging. 8 Practice B Rewrite the following sentences in a more cautious way. a) Private companies are more eﬃcient than state-owned businesses. b) Exploring space is a waste of valuable resources. c) Older students perform beer at university than younger ones. d) Word-of-mouth is the best kind of advertising. e) English pronunciation is confusing. f) Some cancers are caused by psyological factors. g) Global warming will cause the sea level to rise. h) Most shopping will be done on the internet in ten years’ time. i) Online education is inferior to taught classes. j) By 2025 driverless cars will be in common use. UNIT 3.8 Time Markers When describing a sequence of events, it is important to make clear what happened when. Time markers su as ‘ago’ and ‘since’ are oen used to explain the timing of events. But the application of some of these words is restricted to particular tenses. This unit explains these limitations and practises their application. 1 How time markers are used Study the following: She went on a training course weeks. The report must be finished for six by June (with numbers, without start date) (on or before) th. 12 He has been president They are studying in Bristol March. (end of a period) until The library was opened two years The hotel is closed (with present perfect, must specify start date) since 2007. ago. during the winter. Before writing he studied over 100 sources. He applied in May and was accepted two months later. She bought the car Harvard. while working at (usually with past) (with noun) (oen followed by – ing form; also aer) (oen used with numbers; also earlier) (two things happening at the same time) 2 Practice A Choose the best alternative in ea case. a) Currently/Recently she has been researing the life cycle of a Brazilian wasp. b) He worked there until/during he retired. c) Dr Hoﬀman has lived in Melbourne since/for sixteen years. d) Last month/In the last month a new book was published on genetics. e) Applications must be received by/on November 25th. f) Since/During her arrival last May she has reorganised the department. g) During/For the winter most farmers in the region ﬁnd work in the towns. h) Aer/While giving the lecture she answered all their questions. 3 Tenses Compare the tenses used with the following time markers: Last year there was an election in Spain. (past – ﬁnished event) While he was doing the experiment, he saw his mistake. (past continuous + past) In the last year there has been a decline in inflation. (present perfect – unﬁnished) Recently, there has been a sharp rise in internet use. (present perfect – unﬁnished) Currently, there is widespread concern about plagiarism. (present – focus on now) 4 Practice B Study the details of Napoleon’s life and complete the biography. 1769 Born in Corsica 1784 Entered military sool in Paris 1789 Fren revolution started 1793 Promoted to brigadier-general 1796 Appointed to command army of Italy; married Josephine 1799 Returned from Egypt and became First Consul of France 1807 France controlled most of continental Europe 1810 Divorced Josephine and married Marie-Louise, daughter of Austrian emperor 1812 Forced to retreat from Russia – thousands of soldiers killed 1814 Exiled to island of Elba 1815 Defeated at bale of Waterloo and exiled to island of St Helena 1821 Died in exile Napoleon entered military sool in 1784 at the age of 15, ﬁve years a) _________________ the Fren Revolution began. Four years b)_________________ he was promoted to brigadier-general, and c)_________________ the age of 27 he became commander of the army in Italy, and also married Josephine. d)_________________ returning from Egypt in 1799 he became the First Consul of France, and e)_________________ 1807 France was in control of most of Europe. ree years f)_________________ he divorced Josephine and married MarieLouise, the Austrian emperor’s daughter. But g)_________________ his retreat from Russia thousands of his soldiers were killed, and two years h) _________________ he was defeated at Waterloo. i)_________________ the bale he was ﬁnally exiled to St Helena. 5 Practice C Complete ea gap in the following text with a suitable word. Eating out a) the last few decades there has been a signiﬁcant ange in eating habits in the UK. b) the early 1980s eating out in restaurants and cafés has increased steadily. ere are several reasons for this trend. Sixty years c) most women were housewives and cooked for their families every day. But d) , with more women working outside the home, less time has been available for food preparation. e) , 75% of women aged 20–45 are at work, and f) 2025 it is estimated that this will rise to 90%. Another factor is the growth in disposable income, whi has risen signiﬁcantly g) the late 1970s. With more money in their poets, people are more likely to save the trouble of shopping and cooking by visiting their local restaurant. h) the last decade there has also been an enormous increase in the variety of restaurants in the high street. Eating out has become more exciting and adventurous. Progress Che 3 ese exercises will help you assess your understanding of Part 3 – Language Issues. 1 Rewrite the paragraph using reference words where suitable. William Shakespeare was born in Stratford-upon-Avon in 1564, into a wealthy landowning family. When Shakespeare was only 18 he married Anne Hathaway, who was six years older than William. Anne subsequently had three ildren, but William and Anne’s only son, Hamnet, died young. Apparently William spent most of his time in London aer their marriage, where he acted and started to write plays. e plays were mainly comedies at ﬁrst, and were very successful. In the early 1600s Shakespeare’s work became darker, and this is when William wrote his most famous plays, su as Hamlet and King Lear. ese famous plays have secured Shakespeare’s worldwide reputation as a great dramatist and poet. William Shakespeare died in 1616 aged only 52, while Anne lived for another seven years. 2 Complete the following text by inserting a/an/the (or nothing) in each gap. (Note that in some cases more than one answer is possible.) e origins of @ Giorgio Stabile, a professor of a) _________________ history at La Sapienza University in Rome, has demonstrated that b) _________________ @ sign, now used in email addresses, was actually invented 500 years ago. Professor Stabile has shown that c) _________________ @, now d) _________________ symbol of e) _________________ internet, was ﬁrst used by f) _________________ Italian merants during g) _________________ sixteenth century. He claims that it originally represented h) _________________ unit of volume, based on i) _________________ large jars used to carry liquids in j) _________________ ancient Mediterranean world. He has found k) _________________ ﬁrst example of its use in l) _________________ leer wrien in 1546 by m) _________________ merant from Florence. n) _________________ leer, whi was sent to Rome, announces o) _________________ arrival in Spain of p) _________________ ships carrying gold from q) _________________ South America. 3 Rewrite the paragraph, simplifying the numerical expressions. 250 international students were interviewed about their experience of study abroad. Of this total 51 were from China, 48 from India, 24 from Nigeria and the rest were from a variety of European countries. 196 students were satisﬁed with their courses, but the other 54 had concerns about the quantity of work required. Just 25 complained about the quality of teaing. 124 students said they found it easy to adapt to a diﬀerent culture and way of life, but of the others 39 disliked the food, 26 found living too expensive and nine mentioned bad weather. 4 The following text is in the active voice. Change it to the passive where appropriate. Our resear aimed to ﬁnd the best taxi business for campus use, so we compared the performance of six local taxi companies. We selected companies that had their oﬃces within a kilometre of the campus. We timed the response of ea company to requests made at the same time of day (7 p.m.). Response times varied from ten to 24 minutes. e passengers then asked ea driver to take them to the railway station. ey recorded the friendliness of the drivers and the length of time taken, as well as the fare the driver asked for. Overall we found that AZ Taxis had the fastest response and the eapest fare, but not the most friendly driver. 5 Punctuate the following text and make any spelling corrections or other changes needed. the sool of biomedical sciences at borester university is oﬀering two undergraduate degree courses in neuroscience this year students can study either neuroscience with pharmacology or neuroscience with bioemistry there is also a masters course whi runs for four years and involves a period of study abroad during november and december professor andreas ﬁser is course leader for neuroscience and enquiries should be sent to him via the website 6 Choose the correct verb form in each sentence. a) Several types of response was/were recorded. b) ree avenues of resear were/was suggested. c) One of the groups was/were eliminated from the competition. d) Half the graduates were/was from Indonesia. e) e government was/were defeated at the election. f) e performance of the athletes were/was improved by his training method. 7 Rewrite the following in a more suitable academic style. ese days lots of people don’t get enough exercise. Sadly, they sit on the sofa wating telly instead. at’s why they get fat. Lots of resear shows they’d be healthier if they went for a walk every day. I think they’d feel beer too. You can’t beat exercise in the fresh air. 8 Study Dr Gonzalez’s schedule. Then complete the sentences with time markers. Today is June 13th. June 8 Fly to Berlin for conference June 9 Give lecture at conference June 10 Train to Prague June 11 Meet colleagues at Charles University, Prague June 12 Fly home a) Dr Gonzalez went to Berlin ﬁve days _________________ b) He was in Berlin _________________ two days. c) _________________ his stay in Berlin he gave a lecture. d) _________________ leaving Berlin he went to Prague. e) _________________ staying in Prague he met colleagues at Charles University. f) _________________ June 10th he had travelled 2,300 kilometres. PART 4 Vocabulary for Writing International students may be understandably concerned by the quantity and complexity of vocabulary required for reading academic texts. But developing an eﬀective vocabulary in English involves more than learning lists of words. e units in Part 4, arranged alphabetically, provide a variety of approaes to improving students’ understanding in this area, from learning abbreviations to recognising synonyms. UNIT 32 Approaes to Vocabulary is unit examines some of the key diﬃculties students face when reading academic texts, su as processing new vocabulary, avoiding confusion with similar words, and recognising phrases from other languages. Some of the vocabulary needed to discuss language features is also practised. 1 Vocabulary issues Going to extremes? Muller (2012) maintains that the increased frequency of extreme weather events is linked to global warming, in particular to rising sea temperatures. However, McKenzie (2013) insists Muller has a bee in his bonnet on this topic, caused by using a dysfunctional model, and that there is no real evidence that phenomena su as ﬂooding and hurricanes are becoming more common. He considers that the key issue is the growing population in areas vulnerable to events su as ﬂoods. Muller’s principal concern is a rise in the temperature of the North Paciﬁc Ocean of 0.5° C since 1968, whi McKenzie regards as being within the normal range of historical ﬂuctuation. But Javez (2009) and Simmonds (2011), inter alia, have argued for an international resear programme under the auspices of UNESCO to monitor these events, given the threefold rise in the cost of insurance claims since 2000. Line Item Vocabulary issue Unit 1 3 maintains insists referring verbs for summarising ideas 4.4 2 in particular however conjunctions 4.5 3 a bee in his bonnet idiom 4.1 4 dysfunctional can be understood by the preﬁx 4.6 4 phenomena approximate synonym for ‘events’ 4.8 Line Item Vocabulary issue Unit 6 key metaphor 4.1 7 principal oen confused with ‘principle’ 4.1 9 10 ﬂuctuation auspices formal or tenical vocabulary 4.1 9 inter alia phrase from another language 4.1 10 UNESCO abbreviation 4.2 2 Dealing with new vocabulary Students will meet two vocabulary areas when reading: subject-speciﬁc and general academic. For example, in the text on page 179 students of Environmental Studies may know ‘ﬂuctuation’ but not understand ‘auspices’. Instead of trying to learn all the new vocabulary you encounter, you should screen it to select whi words are worth learning. It can be a mistake to aempt to learn too many new words: for most students, subject-speciﬁc language will have priority. is can be seen as a process: When you have selected a word or phrase to learn, make a note of its part of spee and any useful related words, along with its meaning: fluctuation (noun) – variation to fluctuate (verb) – to vary You should also e the register of the word or phrase. Most vocabulary you read in academic work will be standard English, but ‘under the auspices’ (meaning ‘with the authority of’), for instance, is rather formal, while ‘a bee in his bonnet’ is idiomatic. It is generally beer to use standard English in your own wrien work. 3 Language features e following words (all nouns) are used to describe common features of language. Ambiguity Anecdote Clié Euphemism Idiom Metaphor Paradox Proverb Saying Simile Slogan Statement Synopsis Where more than one interpretation is possible; la of clarity A story told to illustrate a situation or idea An overused idea or phrase; laing in freshness A word or phrase used to avoid naming something unpleasant directly A phrase used in colloquial spee, the meaning of whi is not obvious A word used to refer to something but that literally means something else An idea that seems wrong but yet may be true A traditional statement or rhyme containing advice or a moral An oen-repeated comment that seems to contain some truth A comparison of two things, using ‘like’ or ‘as’ A frequently repeated phrase used in advertising or politics A rather formal comment on a situation A summary of something 4 Practice Working with a partner, study the following sentences and decide whi of the features listed above list is illustrated by ea one. a) e President said she regreed the loss of life in the typhoon and sympathised with the survivors. (statement) b) At the beginning of the lecture Professor Chang told them about an accident she had seen that morning. (____________________) c) ere’s no su thing as a free lun, he warned them. (____________________) d) e author of the report passed away on November 21st. (____________________) e) He told the class that their law course was a voyage over an unarted ocean. (____________________) f) She said that the older she got, the less she seemed to know. (____________________) g) Aer the price rise, sales fell like a stone. (____________________) h) It is said that the (____________________) early bird cates the worm. i) eir teaer explained that the novel consisted of two parts; the ﬁrst historical, the second contemporary. (synopsis) j) He was over the moon (____________________) when k) ‘Finger liin’ good’ has (____________________) sold he won millions of the solarship. ien meals. l) His feelings towards his old sool were a mixture of love and hate. (____________________) m) Paris is the capital (____________________) of romance; the city for lovers. 5 Confusing pairs Certain common words can cause confusion because they have similar but distinct spellings and meanings: aﬀected the wheat harvest in Australia. An immediate eﬀect of the price rise was a fall in demand. The drought ‘Aﬀect’ and ‘eﬀect’ are two diﬀerent words. ‘Aﬀect’ is a verb, while ‘eﬀect’ is commonly used as a noun. accept (verb)/except (prep) It is difficult to accept their findings. The report is finished except for the conclusion. compliment (noun/verb)/complement (verb) Her colleagues complimented her on her presentation. His latest book complements his previous research on South African politics. economic (adj)/economical (adj) Inflation was one economic result of the war. Sharing a car to go to work was an economical move. its (possessive pronoun)/it’s (subject pronoun + verb) The car’s advanced design was its most distinct feature. It’s widely agreed that carbon emissions are rising. led (verb – past tense of lead)/lead (noun) His research led him to question the orthodox opinion. Lead (Pb) is a valuable mineral. lose (verb)/loose (adj) No general ever plans to lose a battle. He stressed the loose connection between religion and psychology. principal (adj/noun)/principle (noun) Zurich is the principal city of Switzerland. All economists recognise the principle of supply and demand. rise (verb – past tense rose)/raise (verb – past tense raised) The population of Sydney rose by 35% in the last century. The university raised its fees by 10% last year. site (noun)/sight (noun) The site of the battle is now covered by an airport. His sight began to weaken when he was in his eighties. tend to (verb)/trend (noun) Young children tend to enjoy making a noise. In many countries there is a trend towards smaller families. Choose the correct word in ea sentence. a) e company was founded on the principals/principles of quality and value. b) Millions of people are aempting to lose/loose weight. c) Sunspots have been known to aﬀect/eﬀect radio communication. d) Professor Poledna received their compliments/complements politely. e) e ancient symbol depicted a snake eating it’s/its tail. f) Both social and economical/economic criteria need to be examined. g) It took many years for some of Einstein’s theories to be accepted/excepted. 6 Words and phrases from other languages When reading academic texts, you may meet words and phrases from other languages, usually Latin, German or Fren. ey are generally used because there is no exact English equivalent, and they are oen printed in italics: He argued for the de facto independence of the states. You are not expected to use these phrases in your own writing, but it is useful to understand them when you read. ey can be found in a dictionary, and some of the more common ones are listed here: Latin ad hoc unplanned de facto as it really is de jure according to law inter alia among others in vitro studies conducted on isolated organs (in Biology) pro rata proportional Fren à propos de on the subject of ancien régime old ruling system coup d’état military takeover déjà vu sensation of having seen something before fait accompli accomplished fact raison d’être reason for living German Bildungsroman a story of growing-up Mitteleuropa central Europe Realpolitik political reality Schadenfreude pleasure from another’s misfortune Zeitgeist spirit of the times UNIT 4.2 Abbreviations Abbreviations are an important and expanding feature of contemporary English, widely used for convenience and space-saving. Students need to be familiar with both general and academic abbreviations. 1 Types of abbreviation Abbreviations take the form of shortened words, acronyms, or a set of leers, as shown here. a) Shortened words are oen used without the writer being aware of the original form. ‘Bus’ comes from ‘omnibus’, whi is hardly used in modern English, and ‘disco’ is more common than ‘discothèque’, while ‘refrigerator’ is still beer in wrien English than the informal ‘fridge’. Yet ‘lab’ for ‘laboratory’, ‘memo’ for ‘memorandum’ and ‘vet’ for ‘veterinary surgeon’ are quite acceptable. b) Acronyms are made up of the initial leers of a name or phrase (e.g. AIDS = Acquired Immune Deﬁciency Syndrome). ey are pronounced as words. In some cases, users have forgoen that these are acronyms and they are treated as ordinary words (e.g. ‘radar’ comes from ‘radio detection and ranging’). c) Other abbreviations are read as sets of individual leers. ey include names of countries, organisations and companies (US/BBC/IBM), and also abbreviations whi are only found in wrien English (e.g. PTO means ‘please turn over’). Note that in many cases abbreviations are widely used without most users knowing what the individual leers stand for (e.g. DNA, DVD). 2 Common abbreviations ere are thousands of abbreviations in standard English, but these are some of the most frequently used in an academic context. AGM annual general meeting ASAP as soon as possible BA Baelor of Arts BCE before the common era (previously BC) BSc Baelor of Sciences CAD computer-aided design CE common era (previously AD) CV curriculum vitae DIY do-it-yourself ETA estimated time of arrival (for journeys) EU European Union FE further education (non-university study above 16/18) GM genetically modiﬁed GNP gross national product HE higher education (university study above 18) HR(M) human resource (management) ICT information and communications tenology IMF International Monetary Fund LLB Baelor of Laws MA Master of Arts MSc Master of Science PG Postgraduate PGCE Postgraduate Certiﬁcate of Education PhD Doctor of Philosophy PLC public limited company PR public relations UCAS Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UK) UG undergraduate UN United Nations URL uniform resource locator (website address) VC Vice-Chancellor WTO World Trade Organisation However, writers abbreviations: Starting from the that. . . oen employ more resource-based view specialised, subject-speciﬁc (RBV) of the firm, it is argued The Tenology Readiness Index (TRI) was introduced by Parasuraman (2000). Note that the ﬁrst time a phrase is used it must be wrien in full with the abbreviation appearing aer it in braets, but on subsequent occasions the abbreviation can be used alone. 3 Punctuation ere are many standard abbreviations whi have a full stop aer them to show that it is a shortened form of a word (e.g. Tues. = Tuesday). Other examples are govt. (government), co. (company) and Oct. (October). With acronyms and other abbreviations it is now normal to write the leers without full stops (e.g. BBC, ABS). 4 Duplicate abbreviations Abbreviations can be confusing. PC, for example, may stand for ‘personal computer’ but also ‘politically correct’ or ‘Police Constable’. It is useful to be aware of these potential confusions. A good dictionary should be used to understand more unusual abbreviations. 5 Abbreviations in writing While all academic subjects have their own abbreviations, there are certain abbreviations common to most types of academic writing. ey include: anon. anonymous (no author) c. circa cf. compare ed. editor/edition e.g. for example et al. and others (used for giving names of multiple authors) etc. et cetera Fig. ﬁgure (for labelling arts and graphs) ibid. in the same place (to refer to source mentioned immediately before) i.e. that is K thousand NB: take careful note nd. no date (i.e. an undated source) No. number op. in the source mentioned previously cit. (in dates – about) (and so on – do not use this in formal academic work) p.a. yearly (per annum) pp. pages PS postscript re: with reference to sic in quotations, used to show a mistake in the original vs versus See Units 1.8 References and otations and 3.5 Punctuation 6 Practice Explain the abbreviations in the following sentences. a) e failure rate among ICT projects in HE reaes 40% (Smith 2015). et al., b) GM tenology is leading to advances in many ﬁelds (e.g. forestry). c) e world’s most populous country (i.e. China) joined the WTO in 2001. d) NB: CVs must be submied to HR by Sep. 30th. e) e city seems to have been destroyed c. 2500 BCE. f) e EU hopes to aieve a standard rate of VAT. g) Her PhD thesis examined the threat of TB in SE Asia. h) Fig. 4 – Spanish GNP 2008–2016. i) e VC is meeting the PGCE students. j) Director of PR required – salary approx. $75K. k) Re: next month’s AGM: the report is needed ASAP. l) Dr Wang argued that the quality of MSc and MA resear was falling. UNIT 4.3 Academic Vocabulary Nouns and Adjectives To read and write academic papers eﬀectively, students need to be familiar with the rather formal vocabulary widely used in this area. is unit focuses on nouns and adjectives; Unit 4.4 looks at verbs and adverbs. 1 Introduction e quantity and complexity of vocabulary needed to read academic texts oen concern international students. But it is worth remembering that mu of that vocabulary is speciﬁc to your subject area, for example, in the sentence: eﬀectiveness controversy. The of this malaria vaccine has been a subject of ‘Malaria vaccine’ will be understood by medical students, while ‘eﬀectiveness’ and ‘controversy’ are general academic vocabulary whi all students need to understand. e focus of this unit is on the general vocabulary common to most disciplines. 2 Nouns Study the following list of common academic nouns with examples of use. With a partner, discuss the meaning of ea noun. accuracy Repeating the experiment will improve the accuracy of the results. analysis His analysis of the alloy showed a high percentage of copper. approa Professor Han has brought a new approa to the study of genetics. assessment She failed the ﬁrst module assessment but passed the ﬁnal one. assumption He made the assumption that all the students spoke Fren. authority Dr James is our leading authority on marine law. category claim controversy correlation deterrent emphasis evidence exception extract ideology implication innovation intuition motivation Her work established two categories of local governance. eir claim that the island was ﬁrst inhabited in 550 BCE is false. Climate ange is an issue that has caused mu controversy. ey found a correlation between height and health. e harsh climate of the desert acted as a deterrent to exploration. eir teaer put an emphasis on practical resear. e X-ray provided evidence of his lung infection. e Tesla is an exception to the idea of slow, small electric cars. He read a short extract from his paper on Hegel to the class. perspective phenomenon policy preference process proposal provision sequence strategy substitute tenique validity Military power was at the heart of Roman ideology. e implication of the report is that we need to do more resear. Steam power was a signiﬁcant innovation in the eighteenth century. Intuition has been described as ‘a gut feeling’. Money is oen claimed to be the primary motivation for most workers. Sigmund Freud’s work opened a new perspective on human behaviour. Earthquakes are an unusual phenomenon in Britain. (NB: Irregular plural – phenomena) e university has a zero-tolerance policy on plagiarism. Her preference was criminal law, but other ﬁelds were more proﬁtable. e drug trials involved a three-stage process that took two years. e professor’s proposal for more seminars was rejected. e library has increased its provision of computer terminals by 100%. Writing is a sequence of reading, note-taking, planning and draing. Swimming every day was part of his strategy for geing ﬁt. To what extent can natural gas be a substitute for oil? She developed a new tenique for collecting the beetles. Events conﬁrmed the validity of his prediction. Complete ea sentence with a suitable noun. a) e excavation found no of human selement before 1250 BCE. b) e tutor asked the class for their for next semester’s topics. c) Many great discoveries were based on rather than logic. d) Due to the rising birth rate was made for more sool places. e) Few believed Galileo’s that the earth went round the sun. f) Hurricanes and typhoons are both weather g) e new for making steel boosted production by 60%. h) ey looked for a between birth month and longevity. 3 Nouns and adjectives A simple way of expanding vocabulary is to learn related parts of spee. Many of the nouns in the list on pages 189–90 have a related adjective (e.g. accuracy/accurate). accurate analytical approaable authoritative controversial emphatic exceptional ideological innovative intuitive motivational phenomenal preferential provisional sequential strategic tenical valid e arrival of railways created a demand for accurate timekeeping. 4 Confusing nouns and adjectives It is easy to confuse the noun and adjective form of words su as ‘possible’ and ‘possibility’. Compare these sentences: eﬃciency of the machine depends on the precision construction. Precise construction results in an eﬃcient machine. The of its e ﬁrst sentence uses the nouns ‘eﬃciency’ and ‘precision’. e second uses the adjectives ‘precise’ and ‘eﬃcient’. Although the meaning is similar, the ﬁrst sentence is more formal. Eﬀective academic writing requires accurate use of both nouns and adjectives. Noun Adjective approximation approximate superiority Noun Adjective particular reason strategic politics synthetic economics/economy* industrial exterior cultural average high heat reliable strength conﬁdent true Noun Adjective width Noun probability necessary danger Adjective long relevance 5 Practice A Insert a suitable noun or adjective from the table into ea sentence. a) e students were their project would be successful. b) One of Tokyo’s is its excellent transport system. c) ere is a strong that fees will rise next year. d) e students complained that the lecture was not to their course. e) e results are so surprising it will be to repeat the experiment. f) e household size in Turkey is 4.1 people. g) Regularly baing up computer ﬁles reduces the of losing vital work. h) Revising for exams is a tedious i) ese data appear to be and should not be trusted. j) e date of the founding of Rome is 750 BCE. k) e consequences of the war were inﬂation and unemployment. l) ey aempted to make a of all the diﬀerent proposals. 6 Similar adjectives Certain common adjectives have two forms with slightly diﬀerent meanings: economic problem. (related to the economy) It is more economical to travel by bus than train. (saving money) Martin Luther King made his historic speech in Washington. (memorable or signiﬁcant) Cleopatra was a historical character, born in 69 BCE. (real person in past) The electric guitar was developed in the 1930s. (worked by electricity) Electrical engineering was a popular course. (relating to electricity) High inflation is an 7 Academic adjectives e following adjectives are best understood and learnt as pairs of opposites: absolute relative abstract concrete accurate inaccurate ambiguous unambiguous analytic synthetic effective ineffective exclusive inclusive logical illogical metaphorical literal precise vague rational irrational reliable unreliable relevant irrelevant specific non-specific subjective objective theoretical practical or approximate or rough or empirical or pragmatic Inflation is an abstract concept. metaphorical its literal one. The use of the word ‘key’ is probably more common than The study of engineering is very relevant to architecture. Her paper on women in education was criticised for being too In Europe, subjective. empirical research began in the sixteenth century. 8 Practice B Complete ea sentence with a suitable adjective from the list in 7). i) e teaer complained that the quotes were to the title. ii) His approa led him to ignore some inconvenient facts. iii) examples are needed to make the argument clear. iv) It is suﬃcient to give ﬁgures for national populations. v) Poverty is usually regarded as a concept. vi) ey approaed the task in a way by ﬁrst analysing the title. vii) e students preferred examining case studies to discussion. viii) e results were : the victims had deﬁnitely been poisoned. 9 Practice C Example: a) Several steel producers arelikelyto shut down next year. (likelihood) b) e HR team have just completed a strategic review of pay. () c) Dr Lee adopted an analytical approa to the inquiry. () d) Nylon was one of the earliest synthetic ﬁbres. () e) Her major contribution to the resear was her study of antenatal care. () f) All advertising must respect cultural diﬀerences. () g) Some progress was made in the theoretical area. () h) A frequent complaint is that too mu reading is expected. () i) We took a more critical approa to marketing theory. () j) e Department of Social Policy is oﬀering three courses this year. () k) Finally, the practical implications of my ﬁndings will be examined. () Students wishing to develop their academic vocabulary should study the Academic Word List (AWL). is is a list of 570 items commonly found in academic texts across various disciplines created by Averil Coxhead. See: https://canvas.bham.ac.uk/courses/12947/pages/vocabulary-andthe-academic-word-list for links to various websites on this subject. UNIT 4.4 Academic Vocabulary Verbs and Adverbs When reading a text, it is useful to identify and understand the main verb: this is oen the key to understanding the whole sentence. is unit looks at the more formal verbs used in academic writing, the verbs of reference used to introduce summaries, and outlines the use of adverbs. 1 Understanding main verbs Study the following sentence and underline the main verbs: e author concludes that no reasonable alternative is currently available to replace constitutional democracy, even though he does not completely reject the possibility of creating a beer political system in the future. To follow the writer’s meaning, the reader needs to be clear that ‘conclude’ and ‘reject’ are the main verbs in the two parts of the sentence. Academic writing tends to use rather formal verbs to express the writer’s meaning accurately: In the last decade the pace of change Could Darwin have accelerated. envisaged the controversy his work would cause? In spoken English we are more likely to use ‘speed up’ and ‘imagined’. Study the following list and ﬁnd a synonym in ea case. (Some of these verbs (e.g. ‘hold’) are used in academic writing with a special meaning). Verb Example of use Synonym to adapt the health system has been adapted from modified France to arise a similar situation arises when we look at younger children to conduct the largest study was conducted in Finland Verb Example of use to aracterise developing countries are characterised by …. to clarify the project was designed to clarify these contradictions to concentrate on that study concentrated on older ildren concerned with the programme is concerned primarily with … to demonstrate further research has demonstrated that few to be factors … to determine the water content was experimentally determined to discriminate a failure to discriminate between the two species to establish the northern boundary was established first to exhibit half of the patients exhibited signs of improvement to focus on her work focused on female managers to generate a question which has generated a range of responses Synonym Verb Example of use to hold Newton’s Second Law, F=ma, holds everywhere to identify three main areas have been identified to imply his absence implies a lack of interest to interact understand how the two systems interact to interpret the result can be interpreted as a limited success to manifest as manifested in antisocial behaviour to overcome both difficulties were overcome in the first week to propose they propose that social class is the main factor to prove the use of solar power is proving successful to recognise he is now recognised as a leading expert to relate to the pattern was related to both social and physical factors to supplement the diet was supplemented with calcium and iodine to undergo the system underwent major changes in the 1980s Synonym Verb Example of use to yield both surveys yielded mixed results Synonym 2 Using verbs of reference Referring verbs are used to summarise another writer’s ideas: argued that global warming was mainly caused by the solar cycle. Bakewell (1992) found that most managers tended to use traditional terms. Previn ey may also be used to introduce a quotation. As Scott observed: ‘Comment is free, but facts are sacred’. Most of these verbs are followed by a noun clause beginning with ‘that’. a) e following mean that the writer is presenting a case: argue claim consider hypothesise suggest believe think state Melville (2007) suggested that eating raw eggs could be harmful. b) A second group describe a reaction to a previously stated position: accept admit agree with deny doubt doubts be harmful. Handlesmith Melville’s suggestion that eating raw eggs could c) Others include: assume conclude discover explain imply maintain presume reveal show Patel (2013) assumes that inflation will remain low. 3 Practice A Write a sentence referring to what the following writers said (more than one verb may be suitable). Make sure you use the past tense. Example: Z: ‘My research shows that biofuels are environmentally neutral’. Z claimed/argued that biofuels were environmentally neutral. a) A: ‘I may have made a mistake in my calculations on energy loss’. b) B: ‘I did not say that women make beer doctors than men’. c) C: ‘Small ﬁrms are more dynamic than large ones’. d) D: ‘I support C’s views on small ﬁrms’. e) E: ‘I’m not sure, but most people probably work to earn money’. f) F: ‘Aer mu resear, I’ve found that allergies are becoming more common’. g) G: ‘I think it unlikely that electric cars will replace conventional ones’. h) H: ‘ere may be a link between crime and sunspot activity’. 4 Further verbs of reference A small group of verbs is followed by the paern (somebody/thing + for + noun/gerund): blame censure commend condemn criticise Lee (1998) blamed the media for creating uncertainty. NB: All except ‘commend’ have a negative meaning. Another group is followed by (somebody/thing + as + noun/gerund): assess aracterise classify deﬁne describe evaluate identify interpret portray present Terry interprets rising oil prices as a result of the Asian recovery. See Unit 1.8.3 References and otations – Reference verbs 5 Practice B Example: K: ‘Guttman’s work is responsible for many of the current social problems’. K blamed Guttman’s work for many of the current social problems. a) L: ‘She was very careless about her resear methods’. b) M: ‘ere are four main types of ildren in care’. c) N: ‘at company has an excellent record for workplace safety’. d) O: ‘e noises whales make must be expressions of happiness’. e) P: ‘Wind power and biomass will be the leading green energy sources of the future’. f) Q: ‘Darwin was the most inﬂuential naturalist of the nineteenth century’. 6 Using adverbs In the following sentence, adverbs are used to give information about time (currently) and degree (completely). The author concludes that no reasonable alternative constitutional democracy, even though he does not better political system in the future. is completely currently available to replace reject the possibility of creating a 1 Adverbs are used in academic writing in a variety of ways. Among the most important are: a) to provide more detail, with verbs and adjectives: Reasonably good data are available for only the first two years. Decomposition eventually ceases in modern landfills. b) individually, oen at the beginning of sentences, to introduce new points or link sentences together: Currently, the Earth’s atmosphere appears to be warming up. Alternatively, the use of non-conventional renewable energies is worth exploring. NB: Adverbs used individually need to be employed with care. It is dangerous to overuse them, since they can be like the author commenting on the topic. As an academic writer aims to be objective, adverbs su as ‘fortunately’ or ‘remarkably’ may be unsuitable. 2 Adverbs linked to verbs and adjectives usually fall into three groups. a) Time (when?) previously published retrospectively examined b) Degree (how mu?) declined considerably contribute substantially c) Manner (in what way?) 1. medically complicated 2. remotely located Further common examples include: Time Degree Manner recently clearly (un)surprisingly increasingly particularly factually originally broadly politically presently highly locally currently wholly alternatively traditionally crucially similarly continuously emphatically psychologically See Unit 3.4.4 Passive and Active – adverbs with passives 7 Practice C Insert suitable adverbs from the preceding table into the gaps in the sentences. a) Most houses do not have electricity. _________________ , then, there is lile ance of improving living standards. b) _________________, the internet was mainly used for academic purposes. c) Some courses are assessed purely by exams. _________________, coursework may be employed. d) _________________, there has been growing concern about ﬁnancing the health service. e) Many birds use bright colours to aract a mate. _________________, ﬂowers advertise their position to fertilising insects. f) _________________, environmentally. the development should be acceptable g) Despite some disagreement, the team were _________________ united on the next step. h) Although _________________ correct, many details were missing from the report. 8 Practice D Complete the text by inserting a suitable adverb from the box into ea gap. virtually conventionally signiﬁcantly substantially basically originally recently illicitly _________________, the earliest keys were made by the Egyptians from wood, and _________________ improved by the Romans, who used metal. Today’s keys are _________________ the same: a piece of metal with teeth, _________________ produced by cuing and stamping. But _________________ a new tenology, 3D printing, has made it possible to manufacture mu more intricate designs whi are _________________ impossible to copy _________________. Although _________________ more expensive, these hi-te keys oﬀer remarkable security. UNIT 4.5 Conjunctions Conjunctions are words or phrases whi join sections of text together. Eﬀective reading and writing requires clarity about the speciﬁc meaning of conjunctions. is unit describes the diﬀerent functions of conjunctions and practises their use. Other ways of linking sections of text are explained in Unit 3.1 Cohesion. 1 How conjunctions work When reading a text, conjunctions are like signposts, helping the reader to follow the ideas. Read the following paragraph and study the functions of the conjunctions (in bold). BIOFUELS Newly published resear examines some important questions about the growing use of biofuels, su as ethanol made from maize. e production of these has increased sharply recently, but the replacement of food crops with fuel crops has been heavily criticised. Although initially seen as a more environmentally friendly type of fuel, the resear shows that producing some biofuels, for instance biodiesel palm oil, is more polluting than using conventional oil. e ethanol produced from sugar cane, however, can have negative emissions, in other words taking carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, whi is a beneﬁcial process. Consequently, it can be seen that the situation is rather confused, and that biofuels are neither a magical solution to the energy problem, nor are they the environmental disaster sometimes suggested. Note that some conjunctions link parts of sentences together: The production of these has increased sharply recently, but the replacement of food crops with fuel crops has been heavily criticised. While others join a new sentence to the previous one: … carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which is a beneficial process. Consequently, it can be seen that the situation is rather confused … 2 Types of conjunctions Note the way conjunctions work in the following sentences: because the population is growing. increased crop yields, yet production Demand for food is increasing Mechanisation inadequate. has is still In the ﬁrst sentence ‘because’ introduces a reason, in the second ‘yet’ indicates opposition between the two parts of the sentence. Underline the conjunctions in the following sentences. a) A few inventions, for instance television, have had a major impact on everyday life. b) Furthermore, many patients were treated in clinics and surgeries. c) e deﬁnition of ‘special needs’ is important since it is the cause of some disagreement. d) e tenology allows consumers a oice, thus increasing their sense of satisfaction. e) Four hundred people were interviewed for the survey, then the results were analysed. f) However, another body of opinion associates globalisation with unfavourable outcomes. ere are six main types of conjunction. Mat ea of the following types to one of the preceding sentences. i) Addition ( b ) ii) Result (______) iii) Reason (______) iv) Opposition (______) v) Example (______) vi) Time (______) Conjunction Type Conjunction a) such as example f) b) g) c) h) d) i) e) See Unit 2.2 Cause and Eﬀect Type 3 Common conjunctions Working with a partner, complete the table with as many examples of conjunctions as possible. Addition Result Reason Opposition Example Time and consequently since yet such as then 4 Practice A Insert a suitable conjunction into ea gap. a) _________________ eing the equipment the experiment was repeated. b) _________________ most people use the train, a minority walk or cycle. c) Bri is a thermally eﬃcient _________________, eap. building material. It is, d) Demand has increased for summer courses, _________________ extra ones are oﬀered this year. e) Many writers, _________________ Chekhov, have been doctors. f) _________________ the increase in residence fees more students are moving out. g) _________________ teaing at the Sorbonne she was writing a novel. h) _________________ he was studying Italian he spent a semester in Bologna. 5 Practice B Insert a suitable conjunction into ea gap. Geoengineering Geoengineers believe that it may be possible to counteract the eﬀects of global warming by large-scale engineering projects, a) _________________ the ‘solar umbrella’ designed to reﬂect sunlight ba into space. b) _________________ no major semes have yet been aempted, there is already controversy about the risks involved. Two diﬀerent approaes are suggested: c) _________________ to blo incoming sunlight, d) _________________ alternatively to take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. One proposal, e) _________________ , consists of puing iron into the sea in order to encourage the growth of the tiny sea creatures whi absorb carbon dioxide. f) _________________ this second approa is unlikely to create major problems, bloing sunlight is potentially dangerous, g) _________________ the risk of aﬀecting rainfall paerns h) _________________ even ocean currents. i) _________________ bioengineers are anxious to establish clear guidelines before any large-scale experiments are carried out. 6 Confusing conjunctions In a few cases conjunctions have two meanings: While there were risks with the drug, he thought they were minor. (opposition) While listening to the lecture, she was planning the essay. (time) He has been in Washington since Tuesday. (time) Since she couldn’t read Russian she had the paper translated. (reason) 7 Conjunctions of opposition In some ways these are the most important type of conjunction, and can be the most diﬃcult to use accurately. Note the position of the conjunctions in the following examples: Although/While there are frequent strikes, the economy is strong. In spite of/Despite the frequent strikes, the economy is strong. There are frequent strikes. However/Nevertheless, the economy strong. The economy is strong, but/yet there are frequent strikes. is Write two sentences in ea case. Example: e equipment was expensive/unreliable The equipment was expensive but unreliable. Although the equipment was expensive, it was unreliable. a) e government claimed that inﬂation was falling. e opposition said it was rising. i) ii) b) is department must reduce expenditure. It needs to install new computers. i) ii) c) Sales of the new car were poor. It was heavily advertised. i) ii) 8 Practice C Finish the sentences in a suitable way. a) In contrast to America, where gun ownership is common, b) Despite leaving sool at the age of 14, c) e majority displayed a positive aitude to the proposal, but d) While the tutor insisted that the essay was easy, e) Although the spring was cold and dry, f) He ﬁnished the project before the deadline, yet g) She prefers speaking Fren, nevertheless h) Since it was nearly dark UNIT 4.6 Preﬁxes and Suﬃxes Preﬁxes and suﬃxes are the ﬁrst and last parts of certain words. Understanding the meaning of preﬁxes and suﬃxes can help you work out the meaning of a word and is particularly useful when you meet specialist new vocabulary. 1 How preﬁxes and suﬃxes work ‘Unsustainable’ is an example of a word containing a preﬁx and suﬃx. Words like this are mu easier to understand if you know how preﬁxes and suﬃxes aﬀect word meaning. Preﬁxes ange or give the meaning. Suﬃxes show the meaning or the word class (e.g. noun, verb). Preﬁx Meaning STEM Suﬃx Word class/Meaning un- negative sustain -able adjective/ability The rate of growth was unsustainable (i.e. could not be continued). Find the meaning of the words in bold: Prefabrication of the flats speeded up the building process. He was revitalised by the holiday in the mountains. pre- before fabric -ation noun re- again vital -ise verb 2 Preﬁxes a) Negative preﬁxes: NON-, UN-, IN-, IM-, MIS-, DE- and DIS- oen give adjectives and verbs a negative meaning: nonsense, unclear, incapable, impossible, mishear, decrease, disagree. NB. ere are a few exceptions (e.g. ‘invaluable’ means very useful). b) A wide variety of preﬁxes deﬁne meaning (e.g. PRE- usually means ‘before’, hence prefer, prehistory and, of course, preﬁx)! Common preﬁxes of meaning Find the meaning(s) of ea preﬁx (NB: some preﬁxes have more than one meaning). Preﬁx Example Example sentence anti antidepressant Antidepressant drugs are oen overprescribed. auto automatically Over-18s automatically have the right to vote. co co-ordinator e co-ordinator invited them to a meeting. ex ex-president e ex-president gave a spee on climate ange. ex exclusive It is diﬃcult to join su an exclusive club. fore forecast e long-term forecast is for higher inﬂation. Meaning against inter intervention Early medical intervention saves lives. macro macroeconomics Keynes focused on macroeconomics. micro microscope She examined the tiny animals with a microscope. multi multinational Ford is a multinational motor company. non nonﬁction ey specialise in publishing nonﬁction. over oversleep He missed the lecture because he overslept. poly polyglot She was a true polyglot, speaking ﬁve languages. post postpone e meeting is postponed until next Monday. pro promote eir website promoted the college’s facilities. re retrain e ﬁrm retrained staﬀ to use the new soware. sub subtitle Chinese ﬁlms oen have subtitles in the West. tele televise Parliament was ﬁrst televised in 1989. trans transmier Early radio transmitters were short-range. under undergraduate Most undergraduate courses last three years. under undercook Eating undercooked meat can be dangerous. 3 Practice A Preﬁxes allow new words to be created (e.g. ‘unfriend’ [to delete a ‘friend’ from social media]). Suggest possible meanings for the recently developed words in bold. a) Criminal activity seems to be very common among the underclass. b) Some passengers found the plane was overbooked and had to wait for the next ﬂight. c) e microclimate in this district allows early vegetables to be grown. d) It is claimed that computers have created a post-industrial economy. e) Most ﬁlm stars have ex-directory phone numbers. f) e class was underwhelmed by the quality of the lecture. g) e couple decided to draw up a prenuptial agreement. h) e company is looking for a proactive manager. 4 Suﬃxes a) Some suﬃxes like –ION, –IVE or –LY help the reader ﬁnd the word class (e.g. noun, adjective or adverb). b) Other suﬃxes add to meaning (e.g. –FUL or –LESS LESS aer an adjective has a positive or negative eﬀect [thoughtful/careless]). Word class suﬃxes Nouns -ER oen indicates a role: teacher, gardener -EE can show a person who is the subject: employee, trainee -ISM and -IST are oen used with belief systems and their supporters: socialism/socialist -NESS converts an adjective into a noun: sad > sadness -ION anges a verb to a noun: convert > conversion Adjectives -IVE effective, constructive -AL commercial, agricultural -IOUS precious, serious Verbs -ISE/-IZE to form verbs from adjectives: private > privatise NB: In the US only –ize spelling is used, but both forms are accepted in the UK Adverbs -LY most (but not all) adverbs have this suﬃx: happily Meaning suﬃxes A few suﬃxes contribute to the meaning of the word: –ABLE has the meaning of ‘ability’: a watable film, angeable weather –WARDS means ‘in the direction of’: the ship sailed northwards, walked homewards • –FUL and LESS: hopeful news, a leaderless team he 5 Practice B Give the word class and suggest possible meanings for: a) cancellation b) coincidental c) uncooperatively d) evolutionary e) protester f) unpredictable g) saleable h) interviewee i) consumerism j) symbolically 6 Practice C Study ea sentence and ﬁnd the meaning of the words underlined. a) e ﬁlm is an Anglo-Italian co-production made by a company. subsidiary b) When the car crashed, she screamed involuntarily but was unharmed. c) Using reargeable baeries has undoubted beneﬁts for the environment. d) ey rearranged the presool tests. e) e unavailability of the product is due to the exceptional weather. f) e miscommunication led to a reorganisation of their soware system. g) g) Her incorrect pronunciation was laughable. h) He was told to rewrite his unreadable essay. See Unit 4.3 Academic Vocabulary: Nouns and Adjectives UNIT 4.7 Prepositions Prepositions are generally short words su as ‘by’ or ‘at’ whi have a variety of uses. ey are important because diﬀerent prepositions can ange the meaning of a sentence. is unit explains how they can be understood and learnt by linking them to nouns, adjectives and verbs. Students should consult a standard English grammar for a full list of prepositional combinations. 1 Using prepositions a) Many international students ﬁnd the use of prepositions confusing. is is because, although they are mainly short words, a diﬀerent preposition can ange the meaning of a sentence. a) Compare: on January 15th. Essays must be handed in by January 15th. Essays must be handed in In the ﬁrst sentence essays have to be submied on the exact date, but in the second the date is the ﬁnal deadline and essays can be submied earlier. b) Study the use of prepositions in the following text (ignoring to + inﬁnitives). e purpose of this paper is to examine the development of the textile industry in Catalonia in the period 1780–1880. is clearly contributed to the region’s industrialisation and was valuable for stimulating exports. In conclusion, the paper aempts to demonstrate the relationship between the decline in agricultural employment and the supply of eap labour in the factory context. c) ese are the main ways of using prepositions. Find examples of ea in the text. Noun + preposition ___________________________________________________ Verb + preposition ___________________________________________________ Adjective + preposition ___________________________________________________ Preposition of place ___________________________________________________ Noun + preposition ___________________________________________________ Preposition of time ___________________________________________________ Phrase ___________________________________________________ Note that prepositions linked to nouns, verbs and adjectives normally follow the word they are connected with, while prepositions of time and place generally come before the word. 2 Practice A Study these further examples of prepositional use and decide on their type. a) ere are a number of limitations to be considered… ( noun + ) b) e results would be applicable to all ildren… (_________________) c) … the data were gathered from a questionnaire (_________________) d) All the items were placed within their categories… (_________________) e) e results of the investigation are still pertinent… (_________________) f) e respondents (_________________) had spent on average 4.9 years… g) … most countries in sub-Saharan Africa… (_________________) h) … within a short spell of four years (_________________) 3 Prepositions and nouns Insert a suitable preposition with the nouns in the following sentences. a) Evidence is presented in support _________________ the value of women’s work. b) A small ange _________________ wind direction can lead to large temperature anges. c) Many examples _________________ tax evasion were found. d) e answer _________________ the problem was 0.585. e) e head _________________ the council has just resigned. f) e second point is their impact _________________ developing countries. 4 Prepositions in phrases Complete the following phrases with the correct preposition. a) _______________ the whole b) point _______________view c) in respect _______________ d) _______________spite of e) in support _______________ f) _______________the other hand g) _______________order to h) standard _______________living 5 Prepositions of place and time Note the diﬀerence between ‘among’ and ‘between’: Among 14 students in the class, only two were from Africa. (large group) He divided his time between the offices in Barcelona and Madrid. (limited number) Complete the following sentences with suitable prepositions of place or time. a) ___________the respondents, few had any experience of working abroad. b) e illiteracy rate gradually___________1976___________1985. declined c) Most workers___________the European Union retire before the age___________60. d) Leonardo da Vinci was born___________Florence___________1452. e) Chocolate sales peak___________Christmas. fall___________summer and f) ___________the surface, there is no diﬀerence___________male and female responses. g) e countries___________the meeting___________May 20th. Mediterranean held a h) ___________15 and 20 students study emical engineering every year. See Unit 3.8 Time Markers 6 Practice B Complete the following text with suitable prepositions. is study aempts to answer the controversial question a)________________whether increased food supply b)________________a country makes a signiﬁcant contribution c)________________reducing malnutrition d)________________ildren. It uses data collected e)________________75 countries f)________________1995 and 2005. e ﬁndings are that there was a considerable improvement g)________________the majority h)________________countries, despite increases in population i)________________the period. However, a clear distinction was found j)________________the poorest countries (e.g. k)________________South Asia), where the improvement was greatest, and the wealthier states su as those l)________________North Africa. Other factors, notably the educational level m)________________women, were also found to be critical n)________________improving ildhood nutrition. 7 Verbs and prepositions e following verbs are generally used with these prepositions: Verb + prep. Example add to e bad weather added to the team’s diﬃculties. agree with Yu (1997) agrees with Martin and Jenks (1989). associate with Monetarism is an economic policy associated with Mrs ater. believe in e survey showed that 65% believed in life aer death. blame for He blamed unfair questions for his poor exam results. concentrate on She dropped all her hobbies to concentrate on her work. (also: focus on) consist of Parliament consists of two Houses: the Commons and the Lords. depend on e company depends on ICT for a rapid ﬂow of sales data. (also: rely on) derive from Modern computers derive from wartime decoding maines. divide into Trees are divided into two main types: conifers and deciduous trees. Verb + prep. Example invest in Far more money needs to be invested in primary education. learn from All successful students learn from their mistakes. pay for Goods delivered in April must be paid for by June 30th. point out Goodson (2001) points out the dangers of generalisation. specialise in is department specialises in Fren poetry. 8 Practice C Complete the following with suitable verbs and prepositions. a) e enquiry ________________ the cause of the accident, not the consequences. b) Dr Cranell ________________ that there were only two weeks before the deadline. c) Aer graduating he ________________ designing security soware. d) Albert Einstein is commonly ________________ the theory of relativity. e) A football pit is ________________ two halves. f) A series of strikes were ________________ the decline in production during May. g) Millions of men died for the cause they ________________ h) She ________________ Fren ________________ her mother, who came from Rouen. UNIT 4.8 Synonyms Synonyms are diﬀerent words with a similar meaning, su as ‘ﬁgures’ and ‘numbers’. A good writer uses synonyms to avoid repetition and thus provide more interest for the reader. Synonyms should also be used when paraphrasing or note-making to avoid plagiarism. 1 How synonyms work Underline the synonyms in the following text and complete the table. Royal Dut Shell is the largest oil company in the world by revenue, with a signiﬁcant share of the global hydrocarbon market. e giant ﬁrm employs over 100,000 people internationally, including over 8,000 employees in Britain. Shell produces about 13% of the UK’s oil and gas. Word/phrase Synonym largest giant oil company in the world people Britain a) Synonyms are not always exactly the same in meaning, so that in the example on page 216 ‘employees’ is more speciﬁc than ‘people’. It is important not to ange the register: ‘ﬁrm’ is a good synonym for ‘company’, but ‘boss’ is too informal to use for ‘manager’. b) Many common words (e.g. culture, economy or industry) have no eﬀective synonyms. 2 Common synonyms in academic writing Mat the academic synonyms in ea list. NB: ese pairs are commonly synonymous, but not in every situation. 3 Practice A Find synonyms for the words and phrases underlined, rewriting the sentences where necessary. a) Professor His questioned the ﬁndings of the resear. b) e statistics show a steady increase in applications. c) e institute’s prediction has caused a major controversy. d) Cost seems to be the leading drawba to that system. e) ey will concentrateon the ﬁrst option. f) Aer the lecture she tried to clarify her concept. g) ree issues need to be examined. h) e framework can be retained, but the goal needs to be altered. i) OPEC, the oil producers’ cartel, is to cut production to raise global prices. j) e trend to smaller families has speeded up in the last decade. 4 Practice B Identify the synonyms in this text by underlining them and linking them to the word they are substituting for. Example: agency – organisation e airman of the UK’s food standards agency has said that a national advertising campaign is necessary to raise low levels of personal hygiene. e organisation is planning a £3m publicity programme to improve British eating habits. A survey has shown that half the population do not wash before eating, and one in ﬁve fail to wash before preparing food. ere are over six million cases of food poisoning in this country every year, and the advertising blitz aims to cut this by 20%. is reduction, the food body believes, could be aieved by regular hand washing prior to meals. 5 Practice C In the following text, replace all the words or phrases in bold type with suitable synonyms. Many motor manufacturers are currently introducing electric cars. eir aim is to manufacture cars whi are eaper to run and less polluting. But these motor manufacturers face several key diﬃculties. One key diﬃculty is the limited range of the baery, while another diﬃculty is its cost and weight. But the motor manufacturers predict that these diﬃculties will soon be overcome and predict that 10% of cars will be powered by electricity in ﬁve years’ time. However, electrical power must be generated by something, and unless it is generated by renewables (e.g. wind or solar power) su cars may not be as ‘green’ as their makers claim. See Unit 1.7 Summarising and Paraphrasing Progress Che 4 ese exercises will help you assess your understanding of Part 4 – Vocabulary for Writing. 1 Which of the following should be avoided in academic writing? a) a clié b) a synopsis c) a proverb d) an idiom 2 Choose the correct form in each sentence. a) e Democratic Liberal Party may lose/loose the election. b) I ﬁnished the essay accept/except for the conclusion. c) e site/sight of the accident was guarded by police. 3 Explain the following: a) e IMF has revised its GDP forecast for next year. b) cf. The Legend of Layla (anon.) c. 550 BCE. c) His MSc dissertation was on the trials of GM strawberries. 4 Give the opposite adjectives: a) relative b) literal c) objective d) vague e) concrete 5 Give the nouns related to these adjectives: a) high b) synthetic c) long d) probable e) relevant 6 Rewrite the sentences using verbs of reference. a) X: I have found that eating spiders keeps you healthy. b) Y: I don’t agree with X’s theory; it is based on poor resear. c) Z: I support Y’s opinion of X’s work. rarely particularly traditionally locally increasingly continuously obviously 7 Add a suitable adverb from the box above to each sentence. a) e site of London has been occupied _________________ since Roman times. b) As central government was weak, decisions were taken _________________ . c) In the past, there was a high mortality rate among ildren, _________________ the youngest. d) Young adults are _________________ delaying marriage until their late twenties. e) _________________, becoming a carpenter required a seven-year apprenticeship. 8 Complete the paragraph with suitable conjunctions. a)________________she was tired, she had to ﬁnish the essay that night, b)________________the deadline was 9 a.m. next morning. c)________________she made a cup of coﬀee d)________________sat down to write. e)________________she could not write a word, f)________________she was feeling so hungry. g)________________she remembered she had not eaten all day, h)________________she had been on the train. i)________________she cooked an omelee, ate it with some salad, j)________________felt mu beer. 9 State the word class of the following: a) saleable b) salvation c) privatise d) aendee e) agnosticism 10 Link the words on the left to the meanings on the right, based on the prefixes. antidote correspondent foreword polytenic proportion under the skin preliminary section of book relation of one thing to another institute where many scientiﬁc subjects are taught assess worth of something too eaply subcutaneous undervalue medicine to counter eﬀects of poison person you write to regularly 11 Find the correct prepositions to complete the text. a)________________the eighteenth century, news travelled as fast as a horseman or sailing ship. It could take weeks b)________________news c)________________a bale d)________________Europe to rea America. e)________________the mid-nineteenth century railways had accelerated the distribution f)________________newspapers, so that they reaed distant provinces g)________________hours, and then the telegraph allowed news to be sent h)________________seconds. Today we can be overwhelmed i)________________the volume j)________________news k)________________all over the world whi we can continuously receive l)________________our phones and laptops. 12 Find synonyms for the underlined words, rewriting the sentence where necessary. a) eir resear methods caused serious argument. b) e statistics demonstrate the beneﬁts of increased investment. c) ere is a possibility of studying the family records. d) Her ﬁndings reinforce Jung’s theory. e) Her area of resear was Catherine the Great. f) ey conducted a survey into the behaviour of international students. PART 5 Writing Models The types of writing that students need to produce vary enormously according to both level (undergraduate, postgraduate) and subject. However, most will have to write case studies and literature reviews, often as part of longer papers, and many will write reports of some kind, while almost all need to write letters and emails during their course. Part 5 provides examples of these formats and also introduces the practice of writing in a group. UNIT 5.1 Case Studies Both essays and reports may include case studies, whi are detailed examples illustrating the topic under discussion. One case study may be the main subject of an essay, or several may be included to illustrate diﬀerent situations. 1 Using case studies A case study aempts to show exactly what happened in a particular situation. For example, if you are discussing methods of ﬁghting malaria in rural areas, a case study might follow the real-life eﬀorts of a medical team in a speciﬁc district of Indonesia over a period of months. What are the advantages of including case studies? Are there any disadvantages? Mat the topics on the le with the example case studies on the right. Topics Case studies Methods of teaing dyslexic ildren A programme to cut smoking among pregnant women in a Greek clinic Improving crop yields in semi-deserts Work and learning – how a Brazilian seme encouraged convicts to stay out of jail Reducing infant mortality e Berlin experiment: increasing public participation in collecting and sorting waste Building earthquakeresistant bridges Using solar power to operate irrigation pumps in Ethiopia Dealing with reoﬀending among prisoners e lessons from Chile – how three structures withstood the 2010 earthquake Improving recycling rates in large cities An experimental approa to reading diﬃculties with ildren under eight in Singapore 2 Model case study Read this example of a case study taken from a longer essay and answer the questions that follow. Topic: Adapting international brands to local markets Case Study: e experience of IKEA in China Introduction e Chinese economy has expanded at an annual rate of about 8% for the past 30 years. Parallel to this, the Chinese furniture industry has grown vigorously, with annual sales recently rising by over 20% a year. Legislation to privatise home ownership and rapidly rising income levels have created unprecedented growth in the home improvement market, and China is now the world’s second-largest furniture market. is demand has boosted domestic production and also prompted international furniture manufacturers to enter this lucrative market. IKEA, a Swedish furniture company, was one of the international companies whi moved into China. It is a major furniture retailer operating in over 28 countries around the world and had annual sales of over 35 billion euros in 2016 (IKEA website). It entered the Chinese market in 1998 with its ﬁrst store in Beijing and sees great potential in the country, having already expanded to ten stores and ﬁve distribution centres. Despite this successful growth, IKEA has found itself facing a number of allenges in terms of local diﬀerences in culture and business practices. Marketing IKEA in China Marketing management needs to be largely tailored to local contexts. IKEA has kept this notion in mind when designing marketing strategies and trying to appeal to local customers while maintaining proﬁtability. e company aempts to ﬁnd the best possible compromise between standardisation and adaptation to local markets. Its product policy pays careful aention to Chinese style and integrates the set of product aributes eﬀectively (Armstrong and Kotler, 2006). e store layouts reﬂect the ﬂoor plan of many Chinese apartments, and since many of these have balconies, the stores include a balcony section. In contrast with traditional Chinese furniture, whi is dark with mu carving, IKEA introduces a lighter and simpler style. However, eﬀorts have been made to adapt its products to Chinese taste. For instance, it has released a series of products just before ea Chinese New Year. In 2008, the year of the rat, the series ‘Fabler’ was designed using the colour red, whi is associated with good lu. Changes were also made to some product ranges. In Sweden, people are used to sleeping in single beds or to puing two single beds together to form a double bed. However, this idea was not very well received by Chinese couples, due to the fact that sleeping in separate beds symbolises a poor relationship and is believed to bring bad lu. In addition, Chinese brand names should have positive connotations. e Chinese name of IKEA (Yi Jia) means ‘comfortable home’, whi gives the company a useful advantage in the market. An important feature of a retailer is the services it oﬀers. e Shanghai store, for instance, has a ildren’s playground and a large restaurant, whi make it distinctive. However, Chinese consumers expect free delivery and installation, and although IKEA has reduced its arges for these, it still compares unfavourably with its competitors. Price When the company ﬁrst entered China, its target market was couples with an income of 5–8,000 Rmb per month. Following steady price reductions, this has now been lowered to families with just over 3,000 Rmb. Various strategies have been adopted to aieve these reductions, the most eﬀective being to source locally. Seventy percent of IKEA products sold in China are now made in the country (Song, 2005). Furthermore, IKEA replaced its thi annual catalogue with thinner broures whi now appear ﬁve times a year. ese not only cut printing costs but also give greater ﬂexibility to adjust prices. Accessibility is also an important issue for the Chinese market. In most countries IKEA stores are sited near main roads, but as only 35% of likely customers own cars in China, easy access to public transport is vital (Miller, 2004). Advertising plays an important role in the total promotional mix. IKEA uses advertising eﬀectively, with adverts in the local newspapers to keep customers informed of special oﬀers. All TV commercials are produced locally with Chinese aracters. Public relations is also vital to building a good corporate image. In China, IKEA co-operates with the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) on forest projects. e company insists on using environmentally friendly and recyclable materials for the paaging of its products, as part of its eﬀorts to build a good corporate image. Discussion and conclusion IKEA’s product policy in China has been to successfully standardise products as mu as possible but also customise as mu as needed. But it has learned that service is also vital: free delivery and installation are the perceived rules in the local market whi it needs to follow. It has further found that it is beer to locate in a downtown area, easily accessible with public transport, when free delivery is not provided. International companies whi operate in China, su as IKEA, face more complicated marketing decisions than local companies. ey must become culture- conscious and thoroughly resear local requirements rather than simply introduce a standard model of business. a) Give examples of problems the company has faced in this market. b) What has IKEA done to adapt to the Chinese market? c) What could be done to improve the case study? UNIT 5.2 Literature Reviews and Book Reviews Literature reviews are sections of a paper in whi the writer summarises recently published work on the topic. ey are standard in dissertations, but in most essays a summary of relevant and recent authorities may be included in the introduction. Book reviews can be wrien by graduate students for academic journals in order to broaden their knowledge and aieve publication. 1 Literature reviews Occasionally the whole focus of an essay may be a lengthy literature review, but in most student writing it will only form a relatively short section of the paper. Only a minority of essays have a separate section headed ‘e Literature’ or ‘Literature Review’. But in all cases it is necessary to show that you are familiar with the main sources in order to provide your work with credibility and so that your writing can build on these sources. A literature review is not simply a list of sources that you have studied. It can be used to show that there is a gap in the resear that your work aempts to ﬁll: This article has a different standpoint from other studies, because it believes that the influence of the state on the market has structurally increased since the neo-liberal era. This article focuses on information production, not information accessibility. That is the difference between this research and previous studies. It is also common to use the literature section to clarify the varying positions held by other researers: The political competition literature comprises two main strands – voter monitoring and political survival. See Unit 1.9 Combining Sources 2 Example literature review Study the following example from a student essay on motivation theory. Answer the questions whi follow. CONTENT AND PROCESS THEORIES e various theories of motivation are usually divided into content theories and process theories. e former aempt to ‘develop an understanding of fundamental human needs’ (Cooper et al., 1992:20). Among the most signiﬁcant are Maslow’s hierary of needs theory, McClellan’s aievement theory and Herzberg’s two- factor theory. e process theories deal with the actual methods of motivating workers and include the work of Vroom, Loe and Adams. Content theories Maslow’s hierary of needs theory was ﬁrst published in 1943 and envisages a pyramid of needs on ﬁve levels, ea of whi has to be satisﬁed before moving up to the next level. e ﬁrst level is physiological needs su as food and drink, followed by security, love, esteem and self-fulﬁlment (Rollinson, 2005:195–6). is theory was later revised by Alderfer, who reduced the needs to three: existence, relatedness and growth, and renamed it the ERG theory. In addition, he suggested that all three needs should be addressed simultaneously (Steers et al., 2004:381). McClelland had a slightly diﬀerent emphasis when he argued that individuals were primarily motivated by three principal needs: for aievement, aﬃliation and power (Mullins, 2006:199). In contrast, Herzberg suggested, on the basis of multiple interviews with engineers and accountants during the 1950s, a two-factor theory: that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction had diﬀering roots. He claimed that so-called hygiene factors su as conditions and pay were likely to cause negative aitudes if inadequate, while positive aitudes came from the nature of the job itself. In other words, workers were satisﬁed if they found their work intrinsically interesting, but would not be motivated to work harder merely by good salaries or holiday allowances. Instead workers needed to be given more responsibility, more authority or more allenging tasks to perform (Vroom and Deci, 1992:252). Herzberg’s work has probably been the most inﬂuential of all the theories in this ﬁeld and is still widely used today, despite being the subject of some criticism, whi will be considered later. Process theories Vroom’s expectancy theory hypothesises a link between eﬀort, performance and motivation. It is based on the idea that an employee believes that increased eﬀort will result in improved performance. is requires a belief that the individual will be supported by the organisation in terms of training and resources (Mullins, 2006). In contrast, Loe emphasised the importance of seing clear targets to improve worker performance in his goal theory. Seing allenging but realistic goals is necessary for increasing employee motivation: ‘goal speciﬁcity, goal diﬃculty and goal commitment ea served to enhance task performance’ (Steers et al., 2004:382). is theory has implications for the design and conduct of staﬀ appraisal systems and for management by objective methods focusing on the aievement of agreed performance targets. Another approa was developed by Adams in his theory of equity, based on the concept that people value fairness. He argued that employees appreciate being treated in a transparently equitable manner in comparison with other workers doing similar functions and respond positively if this is made apparent (Mullins, 2006). is approa takes a wider view of the workplace situation than some other theories and stresses the balance ea worker calculates between ‘inputs’ (i.e. the eﬀort made) and ‘outputs’, whi are the rewards obtained. As many of these theorists did their resear over 60 years ago, there has clearly been a huge ange in the nature of employment since then. erefore, it is worth asking whether they still have relevance to the situation of many workers in the modern, post-industrial economy, and this study aempts to answer that question. a) How many types of motivation theory are described? b) How many diﬀerent theorists are mentioned? c) How many sources are cited? d) Why has the writer not referred to the work of the theorists directly but used secondary sources instead? 3 Book reviews Writing a book review gives a student the opportunity to critically examine a topic in detail. Journals normally specify the length they require (oen about 400 words). In general a review should contain two parts: a) A description of the scope and organisation of the book. Who is the author and what has he/she wrien before? What kind of reader is the book aimed at? In the case of an edited volume, who are the editors and principal contributors? b) e second part should evaluate how successful the book is in its aims. It is beer to avoid excessive praise or criticism and to mention both positive and negative features. Is the book breaking new ground and adding signiﬁcantly to current debates? It is also worth commenting on the author’s style and how easy it is to read for specialist or nonspecialist readers. Writers are encouraged to ﬁrst read a selection of reviews in their subject area before aempting their own reviews. Study the following review and discuss with a partner whether there is anything else that you think the reviewer should have included. 4 Model book review by Marcus Montero (ed.) York: York University Press, 2008. 378 pp., £35.00, ISBN 987 0 15 980456 3. is useful and important edited volume partly ﬁlls a gap in the comparative political science literature. e book compares the society and politics of the European Union (treated here as a single state) with the United States. e book examines ‘convergences and divergences’ between these two global powers, similar in size and economic weight ‘but asymmetric in terms of political inﬂuence and military might’ (p. 1). e book has eight apters. e introductory and concluding apters, whi hold the volume together, are wrien by the editor. e ﬁrst brieﬂy outlines the adopted comparative approa and methodological allenges faced in producing this study. Montero then goes on to argue that the EU and the US oﬀer two contrasting models of Western modernity. e ﬁnal apter argues that the process of constructing the EU has led to convergence, not divergence, between the EU and the US. In between are six sectoral apters; of particular interest is the third, by Kuhl, whi argues that the quality of the democratic experience is in decline on both sides of the Atlantic. is is a well-wrien work that breaks new ground in treating the EU as a single state. However, the book was published in 2008, a year aer the EU had enlarged to 27 states. e authors fail to deal fully with this ‘geographic boundary’ problem. is neglect of the newest member states is repeated throughout the volume and brings into question the validity of the book’s wider conclusions. Atlantic Crossing: a comparison of European and American society UNIT 5.3 Writing Longer Papers Long essays of 3,000–5,000 words may be required as part of a module assessment. ese require more time, resear and organisation than short essays, and this unit provides a guide to how su an assignment can be approaed. 1 Planning your work Longer assignments are normally set many weeks before their deadline, whi means that students should have plenty of time to organise their writing. However, it is worth remembering that at the end of a semester you may have to submit several writing tasks, so it may be a good idea to ﬁnish one well before the deadline. You should also e the submission requirements of your department. ese include style of referencing, method of submission (i.e. electronic, hard copy or both) and place and time of submission. Being clear about these will prevent last-minute panic. a) e ﬁrst thing to do is to prepare a sedule for your work. An eightweek sedule might look like this: Week Stages of work Relevant units in Academic Writing 1 Study title and make ﬁrst outline. Look for and evaluate suitable sources. 1.2, 1.5 2 Reading and note-making. Keep record of all sources used. 1.2, 1.3, 1.6, 1.8 3 Reading, note-making, paraphrasing and summarising. Modify outline. 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7 4 Write dra of main body. 1.10 5 Write dra introduction and conclusion. 1.11 6 Rewrite introduction, main body and conclusion, 1.12 eing for logical development of ideas and relevance to title. 7 Organise list of references, contents, list of ﬁgures and appendices if required. Che all in-text citations. 1.8 8 Proofread the whole essay before handing it in. Make sure that the overall presentation is clear and accurate (e.g. is page numbering correct?). 1.12 a) How you actually plan your sedule is up to you, but the important thing is to organise your time eﬀectively. At some point you have to stop researing and start writing (Week 4 in the example above). Leaving the writing stage until the last minute will not lead to a good mark, however mu resear you have done. Although you may be tempted to postpone writing, the sooner you start, the sooner you will be able to begin reﬁning your ideas. Remember that late submission of coursework is usually penalised. b) Longer papers may include the following features, in this order: Title page Apart from the title, this usually shows the student’s name and module title and number. Contents page is should show the reader the basic organisation of the essay, with page numbers. List of tables or ﬁgures If the essay includes visual features su as graphs, these need to be listed by title and page number. Introduction Main body If a numbering system is used, the ief sections of the main body are normally numbered 1, 2, 3 and then subdivided 1.1, 1.2 etc. Title page Apart from the title, this usually shows the student’s name and module title and number. Conclusion Anowledgements A space to thank any teaers or others who have assisted the writer. List of references is is a complete list of all the sources cited in the text. Writers occasionally also include a bibliography, whi is a list of sources read but not cited. Appendices (Singular – appendix) ese sections are for data related to the topic whi the reader may want to refer to. Ea appendix should have a title and be mentioned in the main body. 2 Example essay Read the following essay on the topic of nuclear energy. In pairs or groups, discuss the following points: a) What is the writer’s position on this issue? b) How does the writer make his/her position clear? c) What are the strengths and weaknesses of this work? How could it be improved? EVALUATE THE RISKS OF USING NUCLEAR ENERGY AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO FOSSIL FUELS Introduction e sear for sources of energy began when humans ﬁrst started to burn wood or other forms of biomass to generate heat for cooking and smelting. is was followed by using hydropower from rivers and harnessing wind energy with windmills. Later the exploitation of emical energy began with the burning of coal, oil and natural gas. en, in the middle of the twentieth century, nuclear energy was harnessed for the ﬁrst time with the hope that it would allow the eﬃcient production of eap, clean power (Bodansky, 2004). Nuclear energy has, however, become the subject of considerable debate, with its proponents claiming that it is beneﬁcial for the environment since its production does not create carbon dioxide (CO2) whi can lead to global warming. However, its opponents argue that it can damage the environment by creating radioactive waste. Radioactivity is also linked to diseases in humans, and there is the additional fear that it may be abused by terrorists in future. ese critics further argue that other energy sources, su as solar power, could constitute safer alternatives to fossil fuels without posing an environmental threat. is essay aempts to assess the risks of using nuclear power compared to other sources of energy. e main arguments for employing nuclear energy are ﬁrst considered, followed by an examination of the safety issues around this source of power, including the safety and security concerns connected with nuclear waste. 1 Reasons for using nuclear energy 1.1 An alternative source of energy e rationale behind using nuclear energy stems from the need to ﬁnd alternative energy sources to fossil fuels (i.e. oil, gas and coal), whi are ﬁnite. is is a growing concern, due to the increase in the global population, whi is accompanied by an increase in energy demand. Mathew (2006) indicates that the annual energy consumption rate per capita in developed countries is between 4,000 and 9,000 kgs of oil, while the rate in less developed countries is around 500 kgs. As a result, the demand for total primary energy, whi will accompany this population growth, is projected to increase from 12.1 Mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent) to 16.1 Mtoe in 2030. If this increase occurs, the total global sto of oil and gas would only be adequate for 250 years, thus requiring the urgent development of other energy sources whi would not deplete the sto of natural resources available for future generations. 1.2 Limitations of other energy sources Wind energy and solar power are frequently presented as alternative energy sources to fossil fuels. Both are freely available in many parts of the world, and their use involves no CO2 emissions. Sterre (1994) claims that suﬃcient wind energy exists to displace approximately eight billion barrels of oil. However, wind energy is unreliable, as wind turbines do not function if the wind speed is too high or too low. Similarly, solar power is only eﬀective during the day and is uneconomic in cool and cloudy climates. Neither of these sources currently oﬀers an eﬃcient and reliable alternative to energy created from fossil fuels. 1.3 Reducing carbon dioxide emissions An important reason for using nuclear energy is to reduce the emissions of CO2, whi are produced by burning fossil fuels. Bodansky (2004) points out that this type of fuel is the main source of the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. e amount of CO2 produced by ea source varies due to the diﬀerences in their hydrogen content. For example, natural gas contains one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms whi combine with oxygen to produce CO2. e proportion of CO2 is lower than with the other sources, because the emission depends on the mass of carbon inside the emical compounds. Although natural gas is thus cleaner than the alternatives, burning all three fuels contributes to the greenhouse eﬀect, whi is causing the earth to heat up. Nuclear energy, however, emits no carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide (SO2) or nitrous oxide (N2O). It is estimated that in 2003, in the United States, nuclear energy prevented the release of 680 million tons of CO2, 3.4 millions tons of SO2 and 1.3 million tons of N2O. If released from coal-burning plants, these gases would have caused the deaths of 40,000 people annually (Olah et al., 2006:127). According to Riard (2008:273), the use of nuclear energy in France between 1980 and 1987 reduced CO2 emissions by 34%. 1.4 Cost eﬃciency Nuclear energy could generate more electricity than other current sources. As Murray (2000:73) explains, a typical reactor, whi consumes 4 kg/day of uranium U235, generates 3,000 MW of energy a day, while other sources su as natural gas, coal or oil require many times the equivalent of that amount of uranium to generate the same energy. erefore, nuclear energy is relatively cost-eﬃcient, as it uses a eap raw material. In recent years the price of oil and natural gas has risen sharply, and this trend seems likely to continue in future. Lillington (2004) suggests that the cost of purasing fuel for nuclear energy is likely to remain low compared to other energy sources, so it seems likely that this cost advantage will become a signiﬁcant factor in the comparison between nuclear and other energy sources. 2 Health and safety concerns 2.1 e impact of radiation on the human body Especially since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, there has been persistent concern about the dangers to human health from nuclear power and nuclear waste. ese were reinforced by the Fukushima disaster in Japan in 2011 (Hatamura, 2015). However, it must be understood that nuclear energy is not the only source of radiation, and that there are natural sources in the environment whi may be more signiﬁcant. According to Bodansky (2004:74), there is far more exposure to radiation from natural sources su as radon and cosmic rays than from all human sources, for example, X-rays and nuclear medicine. Some researers argue that radon is one of the main causes of cancer among uranium miners. However, radon may be found in all types of soil whi contain uranium and radium. Bodansky (2004) points out that the concentration of radon in the soil depends on the type of soil. Hence people’s exposure to radon depends on their surroundings, so that people living in houses made from limestone or wood are exposed to less radon than those living in houses built with granite. So it seems that it is not only uranium miners who are exposed to radiation but also people in certain geological districts. According to US law, the maximum permissible exposure for those living close to nuclear plants is 1/200 rem (Roentgen equivalent man). However, according to Hoyle (1979), this amount is just 1/20th of the radiation that can be experienced from natural baground radiation. It has been estimated that nuclear energy is responsible for just 20 deaths per year worldwide, although these ﬁgures are disputed by anti-nuclear campaigners who claim that the true ﬁgure is as high as 600 deaths. Hoyle (ibid) claims that the average American’s life-span is reduced by 1.2 hours as a result of nuclear accidents and contrasts that with the risk from smoking, whi is a loss of eight years if one paet a day is smoked. Consequently, it can be seen that the risk to human health from the use of nuclear power is extremely low. With regard to medical treatment, whi is the next largest source of exposure to radiation, X-rays will expose a patient to radiation amounts from 0.4 to one rad (radiation absorbed dose). A broken wrist, for instance, is likely to require four X-rays with a total exposure of up to four rads. e unit of measurement for radiation exposure is the rem, and one rem is equal to the damage caused by one rad of X-rays; the maximum amount allowed for workers in nuclear plants is ﬁve rem per year: the same as the quantity received in the course of a routine medical e-up. 2.2 e impact of radioactive waste on the environment Nuclear energy is not alone in producing dangerous waste. Lillington (2004) estimates that nuclear energy, in the course of producing 1000 megawas (MWe) of electricity produces annually about 30 tons of highly radioactive waste and about 800 tons of intermediate and lowlevel waste. In contrast, a coal-burning plant producing the same quantity of electricity would generate about 320,000 tons of coal ash, of whi nearly 400 tons would be hazardous waste su as mercury and vanadium, and at least 44,000 tons of sulphur dioxide. So it can be seen that nuclear energy only produces a fraction of the dangerous wastes emied from coal-ﬁred power stations and in addition does not produce greenhouse gases. 2.3 Risks of terrorism ere has been widespread concern that terrorists might steal plutonium to produce nuclear weapons. In general, nuclear facilities are tightly controlled, and in practice, it would be very diﬃcult for terrorists to use su stolen material eﬀectively. ere are alternative materials su as toxic gas whi could produce equally lethal terrorist weapons. However, these concerns could be solved by keeping U233 mixed with U238, whi would prevent terrorist groups extracting the plutonium and fabricating a bomb. Conclusion e risks of nuclear energy in terms of both human health and the environment have been the subject of widespread debate and controversy. is essay has aempted to examine these risks both in terms of human health and environmental damage. It appears that many of these concerns are exaggerated and that nuclear energy can be seen as a safe, reliable and cost-eﬀective alternative to using fossil fuels. While all energy sources have drawbas, nuclear should be viewed as a useful and relatively safe component in a mix of sources whi can include renewables su as hydro and wind energy and nonrenewables su as natural gas. e steady depletion of reserves of oil and the subsequent rise in prices is liable to emphasise this position. Clearly more could be done to make nuclear plants safer and more eﬃcient in the future, but until their value is recognised and more work is done on their design and construction, their full potential is unlikely to be realised. REFERENCES Bodansky, D. (2004) Nuclear Energy: Principles, Practices and Prospects. New York: Springer. Hatamura, Y. et al (2015) The 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident. Cambridge: Woodhead. Hoyle, F. (1979) Energy or Extinction? London: Heinemann. Lillington, J. N. (2004) The Future of Nuclear Power. Oxford: Elsevier. Mathew, S. (2006) Wind Energy: Fundamentals, Resource Analysis and Economics. Berlin: Springer. Murray, L. R. (2009) Nuclear Energy. An Introduction to the Concepts, System and Application of the Nuclear Process. Oxford: Buerworth. Olah, A.G., Goeppert, A. and Parakash, S. (2006) Beyond Oil and Gas: The Methanol Economy. Wienheim: Wiley. Sterre, T. (1994) The Energy Dilemma. London: Multivox. 3 Revision Look ba at the text and ﬁnd examples of the following features: a) Baground information b) A purpose statement c) An outline d) A deﬁnition e) A generalisation f) e use of braets to give extra detail g) A passive structure h) A phrase showing cause and eﬀect i) A synonym for ‘energy’ j) An example of tentative or cautious language k) An example to support the writer’s argument l) A counter-argument m) A citation n) A synopsis NB: Formatting of written assignments Some departments may expect essays to be wrien in the style illustrated above, with numbered sections and headings, while other may require essays to be wrien without these. It is important to e with your teaers what the preferred style is. UNIT 5.4 Reports Although essays are the most common assignments in many academic disciplines, students of subjects su as the sciences or business may oen have to write reports. Reports and essays are similar in many ways, but this unit explains and illustrates the diﬀerences. 1 Writing reports While essays are oen concerned with abstract or theoretical subjects, a report is a description of a situation or something that has happened. In academic terms it might describe: a) an experiment you have conducted b) a survey you have carried out c) a comparison of alternative proposals to deal with a situation Clearly there is a big diﬀerence between describing a scientiﬁc laboratory experiment and reporting on students’ political opinions. In some areas (e.g. laboratory work), your teaers will make it clear what format you should follow. However, most reports should include the following features: Introduction – baground to the subject – reasons for carrying out the work – review of other resear in the area Methods – how you did your resear – description of the tools/materials/equipment used Results – what you discovered – comments on likely accuracy of results Discussion – of your main ﬁndings – comments on the eﬀectiveness of your resear Conclusion – summary of your work – suggestions for further resear 2 Essays and reports In comparison with essays, reports are likely to: a) be based on primary as well as secondary resear b) use numbering (1.1, 1.2) and sub-headings for diﬀerent sections c) be more speciﬁc and detailed In most other respects reports are similar to essays since both: a) have a clear and logical format b) use objective and accurate academic style c) include citations and references d) make use of visual information in the form of graphs, diagrams and tables e) include appendices where necessary Decide whether the following titles are more likely to be written as reports or essays. Topic 1 e development of trade unions in South Africa (1900–2015) 2 Two alternative plans for improving the sports centre 3 A study you conducted to compare male and female aitudes to writing essays 4 An overview of recent resear on the human genome Report Essay Topic 5 e arguments for and against capital punishment Report Essay 3 Practice e following plans illustrate two proposals for redeveloping a site on a university campus. Study the plans and then read the ﬁve sentences (a-e), whi are the introduction to a report on the redevelopment. e order of the sentences has been mixed up. Put them in the correct order. en write the rest of the report in about 250 words, under these three headings: Proposals, Discussion, Recommendations. a) e report takes into account a consultation exercise with staﬀ and students carried out last autumn. b) Two alternatives semes for redevelopment have been put forward, as can be seen in Plans A and B above. c) is report aempts to compare the two semes and to establish whi is the more suitable. d) e aim of the redevelopment is to improve facilities for both staﬀ and students and at the same time enhance the appearance of this part of the campus. e) Due to the recent closure of the maintenance depot, a site approximately 250 metres long and 100 metres wide has recently become vacant on the west side of the university campus and is ready for redevelopment. 4 Scientiﬁc reports Scientiﬁc resear is usually conducted in order to support a hypothesis or to validate the work of others. An accurate wrien record of the experiment is important because it allows other researers to share your work. At graduate level or above, your resear is adding to an international body of data on your particular area of study. In general, scientiﬁc reports follow the same guidelines as other academic writing in terms of style and vocabulary. However, your department may well have its own requirements for the organisation of a report, so it is advisable to ask if these exist. Format Reports of laboratory experiments in disciplines su as biology, emistry and physics generally include the following sections: a) Title is should contain the essential elements of the report in (ideally) no more than 12 words: The effect of temperature changes on the germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum) b) Abstract e function of an abstract is to help potential readers identify whether your report is relevant to their resear interests. It is essentially a summary in about 200 words of ea part of the report, and so it is commonly wrien aer the last dra is ﬁnalised. It should include the principal conclusions and be wrien in the same tenses as the main report. c) Introduction e introduction should contextualise your work with reference to other similar resear. It should cite previous resear papers whi you have studied, in order to explain the purpose of your work (e.g. to conﬁrm or extend their ﬁndings). It must contain a purpose statement (why you did this experiment) or a hypothesis you wished to evaluate, or both. d) Method is section explains how you did the resear. It should allow another researer to repeat your work, so it needs to include a description of equipment and materials used, as well as the process you followed. You may wish to include diagrams or photographs to illustrate the set-up in the laboratory. e passive is normally used (‘three samples were prepared’) rather than the active (‘we prepared’). As the resear is concluded, the past tense should be used throughout. e) Results Again using the past tense, here you summarise all the results obtained. Detailed data may be presented in tables and graphs, with only the most important features highlighted in the text. You must include all results, including unexpected ones whi do not conform to your hypothesis. f) Discussion is section links ba to the introduction by comparing your results with the original purpose or hypothesis. It aims to evaluate the experiment in terms of your ﬁndings and compare them to your expectations. It may be necessary to refer to the relevant literature. e conclusion should make it clear whether you feel that your hypothesis has been supported and whether there are anges that you would make to the design of the experiment if you were to repeat it. g) References As in all academic writing, this is a list of all the sources you have speciﬁcally mentioned in your report. See Unit 1.8 References and otations 5 Example report: Student experience of part-time work Study the report of a survey carried out on a university campus. Complete the report by inserting suitable words from the following box into the gaps (more words than gaps). sample conducted method respondents random questions majority questioned mentioned interviewees common questionnaire unusual generally minority slightly A Introduction With the introduction of course fees and the related increase in student debt, more students are ﬁnding it necessary to work part-time. is has led to concern that this work may have a detrimental eﬀect on students’ academic performance. Consequently, the survey was a) to ﬁnd out exactly how this work aﬀects student life and study. B Method e resear was done by asking students selected at b) on the campus to complete a c) (see Appendix A). 50 students were d) on Saturday April 23rd, with approximately equal numbers of male and female students. Table 1 Have you had a part-time job while studying? Table 1 Have you had a part-time job while studying? Men Women Total % Have job now 8 7 15 30 Had job before 4 6 10 20 Never had job 14 11 25 50 C Results Of the e)________________, 30% currently had part-time jobs, 20% had had part-time jobs, but half had never done any work during university semesters (see Table 1). f)________________who were working or who had worked were next asked about their reasons for taking the jobs. e most common reason was la of money (56%), but many students said that they found the work useful experience (32%) and others g)________________social beneﬁts (12%). e 25 students with work experience were next asked about the eﬀects of the work on their studies. A signiﬁcant h)________________(64%) claimed that there were no negative eﬀects at all. However, 24% said that their academic work suﬀered i)________________, while a small j)________________(12%) reported serious adverse results, su as tiredness in lectures and falling marks. Further k)________________examined the nature of the work that the students did. e variety of jobs was surprising, from van driver to busker, but the most l)________________areas were catering and bar work (44%) and secretarial work (32%). Most students worked between 10 and 15 hours per week, though two (8%) worked over 25 hours. Rates of pay were m)________________near the national minimum wage and averaged £6.20 per hour. e ﬁnal question invited students to comment on their experience of part-time work. Many (44%) made the point that students should be given grants so that they could concentrate on their studies full-time, but others felt that they gained something from the experience, su as meeting new people and geing insights into various work environments. One student said that she had met her current boyfriend while working in a city centre restaurant. D Discussion It is clear that part-time work is now a common aspect of student life. Many students ﬁnd jobs at some point in their studies, but an overwhelming majority (88%) of those deny that it has a damaging eﬀect on their studies. Most students work for only 2–3 hours per day on average, and a signiﬁcant number claim some positive results from their employment. Obviously, our survey was limited to a relatively small n)________________due to time constraints, and a fuller study might modify our ﬁndings in various ways. UNIT 5.5 Writing Letters and Emails Leers are still used for formal maers, or when an email address is unknown, and are considered to be more reliable than emails. However, due to its convenience, email is increasingly used for semiformal as well as informal communication. It is widely seen as a way of having a permanent record of an arrangement or discussion. 1 Letters You have applied for a place on an MSc course at a British university. is is the leer you have received in reply. a) Central Admissions Oﬃce Wye House Park Campus University of Mercia Borester BR3 5HT United Kingdom b) Ms P Tan 54 Sydney Road Rowborough RB1 6FD c) Ref: MB/373 d) 3rd May 2017 e) Dear Ms Tan, f) Application for MSc Sustainable Building Tenology g) Further to your recent application, I would like to invite you to the university for an informal interview on Tuesday 21st May at 11 am. You will be able to meet the course supervisor, Dr Smidt, and look round the Sool of the Built Environment. h) A map of the campus and instructions for ﬁnding the university are enclosed. i) Please let me know if you will be able to aend on the date given. j) Yours sincerely, k) M. Bramble l) Mi Bramble Administrative Assistant Central Admissions Oﬃce Enc. Label the following features of formal letters with the letters (a-l) from the le margin. (d ) Date ( ) Ending ( ) Request for response ( ) Greeting ( ) Address of recipient ( ) Address of sender ( ) Further details ( ) Reason for writing ( ) Sender’s reference ( ) Subject headline ( ) Signature ( ) Writer’s name and job title Note the following points: a) e example above is addressed to a known person and the ending is ‘Yours sincerely’. However, when writing to somebody whose name you do not know (e.g. e Manager), use Dear Sir and Yours faithfully. b) A formal leer generally uses the family name in the greeting (Dear Ms Tan). Certain organisations may, however, use a ﬁrst name with a family name or even a ﬁrst name alone (Dear Polly Tan, Dear Polly). c) If the sender includes a reference it is helpful to quote it in your reply. 2 Practice A You are Ms Tan. Write a letter in reply to Mr Bramble that makes the following points: a) You will aend the interview on the date given. b) You would like to have the interview one hour later, due to train times. 3 Emails Starting and ﬁnishing e following forms are acceptable ways to begin an email if you know the recipient: Hi Sophie, Dear Sophie, Hello Sophie If you have not met the recipient it may be safer to use: Dear Sophie Gratton, Dear Ms Gratton, Dear Dr Gratton If you need to send an email to a large group (e.g. colleagues) you may use: Hi everyone, Hello all In all cases to close the message you can use: Regards, Best wishes, Best regards You may also add a standard formula before this: Look forward to meeting next week/Let me know if you need further information e main text Here you can use common contractions (I’ve, don’t) and idiomatic language, but the normal rules for punctuation should be followed to avoid confusion. Spelling mistakes are just as likely to cause misunderstanding in emails as elsewhere. Always e for spelling and grammar problems before cliing ‘Send’. Note that emails tend to be short, although longer documents may be added as aaments. Replying to emails If you receive an email telling you about an arrangement su as a meeting or lecture that you expect to aend, or giving you some information relevant to your studies, it is good practice to anowledge receipt of the email. It only takes a minute to reply: Thanks for letting me know. That’s interesting, but I’m busy that morning. Your response will tell the sender that you have read and understood their message. 4 Practice B Read the following and decide who the sender and recipient might be. Would Rael expect a reply? Hello Dr Hoﬀman, I’m afraid I can’t aend your Accounting Methods class this week, as I have to go for a job interview then. However, I will be there next Tuesday, when I am giving my paper (aaed, as requested). See you then, Rael 5 Practice C Write suitable emails for the following situations: a) You are writing to Mark, a colleague at work, to ask him to suggest a time to meet you tomorrow. b) Write to your teaer, Tricia James, to ask her to recommend another book for your current essay. c) Write to a group of classmates asking them how they want to celebrate the end of the course. d) Write an email in response to the following message. You have never had this book. According to our records, the copy of Special Needs in Education you borrowed from the library on October 12th is now overdue. Your ﬁne is currently £2.15. Please arrange to return this book as soon as possible. Best wishes, Tim Carey Library services UNIT 5.6 Writing in Groups Courses in business and other subjects may expect students to complete wrien tasks as part of a group of four to eight students. is unit explains the reasons for this and suggests the best way to approa group work in order to aieve the maximum beneﬁt from the process. 1 Why write in groups? Read the text and complete the following exercise. THE IMPORTANCE OF GROUP WORK Some students, especially those from other academic cultures, may be surprised to ﬁnd they are expected to work in groups to complete some academic assignments. For those who have always worked on their own, this may cause a kind of culture sho, especially as all the students in the group will normally be given the same mark for the group’s work. In addition, students are normally told with whom they will have to work and the topic they must write about, although with some kinds of projects, groups may be able to oose their own topics. ere are several good reasons for this emphasis on group work in many English-speaking institutions. First of all, employers are generally looking for people who can work in a team. Most managers are not looking for brilliant individuals; instead they want employees who are comfortable working with a mixed group having diﬀerent skills and bagrounds. So familiarity with teamwork has become an essential qualiﬁcation for many jobs, and this group writing task provides students with an opportunity to strengthen their experience of working in this way. Furthermore, working in groups allows individuals to aieve more than they could by working on their own. A team can tale mu larger projects than individual students can, and this applies to most resear projects at university as well as business development in companies. erefore, by taking part in these activities students are able to provide evidence in their portfolio and CV that they have succeeded in this critical area. Finally, in the academic world, many journal articles and other publications are the product of a group of researers. By collaborating, academics are able to pool their knowledge and bring their varied expertise and bagrounds to focus on an issue, thereby oen aieving more credibility than they could when working alone. Working in pairs, decide if the following statements are true or false. a) Most students react positively to the idea of group work. b) All the group members receive the same mark. c) Students in groups can normally oose who they work with. d) ere are two main reasons for seing group work. e) Most employers look for successful team members. f) Group work on university courses has no connection to teamwork in companies. 2 Making group work successful e following is a list of suggestions for organising the process of completing group work successfully. e correct order (1–7) has been mixed up. Working with a partner, put the list into the most logical sequence, using the table on page 255. A Analyse the task Get everyone to discuss the assignment and agree on the best methods to complete it. At this stage it is important to have complete agreement on the objectives. B Divide up the work fairly, according to the abilities of the members Your group may include a computer expert or a design genius, so make sure that their talents are used appropriately. It is most important to make sure that everyone feels they have been given a fair share of the work. C Make everyone feel included Nobody should feel like an outsider, so make special eﬀorts if there is only one male student, or one non-native speaker, for instance. Make a list of all members’ phone numbers and email addresses and give everyone a copy. D Finish the assignment on time is is the most important test of your group’s performance. When you have ﬁnished and handed in your work, it may be helpful to have a ﬁnal meeting to discuss what you have all learned from the task. E Get to know the other members Normally you cannot oose with whom you work, so it is crucial to introduce yourselves before starting work. Meet informally in a café or somewhere similar (but be careful not to oose a meeting place whi may make some members uncomfortable, su as a bar). F Select a co-ordinator/editor Someone needs to take notes about what was agreed at meetings and send these to all members as a reminder. e same person could also act as editor, to make sure that all the individual sections conform to the same layout and format. However, you should all be responsible for proofreading your own work. G Plan the job and the responsibilities Break down the task week by week and allocate speciﬁc roles to ea member. Agree on times for regular meetings – although you may be able to avoid some meetings by using group emails. You may want to book a suitable room, for example in the library, to hold your meetings. Sedule for successful group work 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 E. Get to know the other members 3 Dealing with problems Working in groups of three, discuss the best response to the following situations. You may oose an alternative strategy to the ones provided. a) In a group of six, you ﬁnd that two students are not doing any work. ey not only do not come to meetings but have also not done the tasks they were given at the beginning. Should you… i) decide that it’s simplest to do the work of the missing students yourself? ii) ﬁnd the students and explain that their behaviour is going to damage the ances of all six members? iii) tell your lecturer about the problem? b) You are the only non-native speaker in the group. Although you can understand normal spee, the other students speak so fast and idiomatically that you have diﬃculty taking part in the discussions. Should you… i) tell your lecturer about the problem? ii) keep quiet and ask another student in the group to explain decisions later? iii) explain your problem to the group and ask them to speak more slowly? c) One member of the group is very dominant. He/she aempts to control the group and is intolerant of the opinions of others. Should you… i) explain to them, in a group meeting, that their behaviour is having a negative eﬀect on the group’s task? ii) tell your lecturer about the problem? iii) let them do all the work, because that’s what they seem to want? 4 Points to remember Remember that: Working in groups is an ideal opportunity to make new friends – make the most of it. You may learn a lot by listening to other people’s ideas. Negotiation is important in a group – nobody is right all the time. Respect the values and aitudes of others, especially people from diﬀerent cultures – you may be surprised what you learn. Glossary Abbreviation e short form of a word or phrase (see 4.2) Abstract A short summary of the aims and scope of a journal article (see 1.3) Anowledgements A list of people the author wishes to thank for their assistance, found in books and articles Appendix (plural – appendices) A section at the end of a book or article containing supplementary information Assignment A task given to students, normally for assessment Authority A well-known expert or reference work on a subject Ba issue A previous issue of a journal or magazine Bias A subjective preference for one point of view Bibliography A list of sources an author has read but not speciﬁcally cited Brainstorm A process of collecting ideas on a topic at random (see 1.5) Case study A section of an essay whi examines one example in detail (see 5.1) Citation An in-text reference providing the name of the source (see 1.4 and 1.8) Cohesion Linking ideas in a text together by use of reference words (see 3.1) Conclusion e ﬁnal section of an essay or report (see 1.11) Contraction A shortened form of pronoun and verb (e.g. she’s, I’d [see 3.5]) Coursework Assessed assignments given to students to complete during a course Criteria (singular – criterion) e principles on whi something is judged or based Deadline e ﬁnal date for completing a piece of work Dra An unﬁnished version of a piece of writing Edited book A book with contributions from a number of writers, controlled by an editor Extract A piece of text taken from a longer work Flowart A diagram that illustrates the stages of a process Formality In wrien work, the use of a non-idiomatic style and vocabulary Format e standard organisation of a text Heading e title of a section of text Higher degree A Master’s degree or Doctorate Hypothesis A theory whi a researer is aempting to explore or test Introduction e ﬁrst part of an essay or article (see 1.11) Journal An academic publication in a specialised area, usually published quarterly (see 1.2) Literature review A section of an article describing other resear on the topic in question (see 5.2) Main body e principal part of an essay aer the introduction and before the conclusion Margin e strip of white space on a page around the text Module Most academic courses are divided into modules, ea of whi focuses on a speciﬁed topic Outline A preparatory plan for a piece of writing (see 1.5) Paraphrase A rewriting of a text with substantially diﬀerent wording and organisation but similar ideas Peer review e process of collecting comment from academic authorities on an article before publication in a journal. is system gives increased validity to the publication. Phrase A few words whi are commonly combined (see 1.1) Plagiarism Using another writer’s work without anowledgement in an acceptable manner (see 1.4) Primary resear Original resear (e.g. a laboratory experiment or a sociological enquiry) otation Use of the exact words of another writer to illustrate an argument or idea (see 1.8) Redundancy e unnecessary repetition of ideas or information (see 3.7) References A list of all the sources cited in a paper (see 1.8) Register e level of formality in language Restatement Repeating a point in order to explain it more clearly Scan A method of reading in whi the eyes move quily over the page to ﬁnd a speciﬁc item Skim A reading tenique to quily ﬁnd out the main ideas of a text Source e original text used to obtain an idea or piece of information Summary A shorter version of something (see 1.7) Synonym A word with a similar meaning to another word (see 4.8) Synopsis A summary of an article or book Term A word or phrase used to express a special concept Word class A grammatical category (e.g. noun, adjective) Answers Providing answers for a writing course is less clear-cut than for other language areas. In some exercises there is only one possible answer, but in other cases several possibilities exist. Teachers need to use common sense and accept any reasonable answer. In the case of exercises where students can choose their own topic and it is therefore impossible to provide a definite answer, students may still appreciate having a model answer, and so some have been given. Academic writing quiz 1 b (see Unit 1.1) 2 c (see Unit 1.1) 3 a (see Unit 1.5) 4 c (see Unit 1.11) 5 a (see Unit 1.11) 6 c (see Unit 1.6) 7 a (see Unit 1.8) 8 b (see Unit 1.7) 9 c (see Unit 1.10) 10 b (see Unit 1.12) 11 c (see Unit 1.3) 12 c (see Unit 3.5) 13 a (see Unit 4.8) 14 b (see Unit 4.4) 15 b (see Unit 1.3) 16 c (see Unit 4.6) 17 b (see Unit 1.6) 18 b (see Unit 2.8) 19 c (see Unit 1.1) 20 a (see Unit 1.11) PART 1 THE WRITING PROCESS 1.1 Basics of Writing 1 e purpose of academic writing Other reasons might include: To present a hypothesis for consideration by others To make notes on something read or heard or seen 2 Features of academic writing Possibilities include: Semi-formal vocabulary, la of idioms Use of citation/references Use of both passive and active voices Precision Caution 3 Common types of academic writing Notes – A wrien record of the main points of a text or lecture for a student’s personal use Report – A description of something a student has done (e.g. conducting a survey or experiment) Project – A piece of resear, either individual or group work, with the topic osen by the student(s) Essay – e most common type of wrien work, with the title given by the teaer, normally 1,000–5,000 words Dissertation/esis – e longest piece of writing normally done by a student (20,000+ words) oen for a higher degree on a topic osen by the student Paper – A general term for any academic essay, report, presentation or article 4 e format of short and long writing tasks a) abstract b) references c) appendix d) anowledgements e) literature review f) case study g) foreword 5 e components of academic writing a) title b) subtitle c) heading d) sentence e) phrase f) paragraph 7 Simple and longer sentences (Example sentences) a) In 2016 the Education Faculty had predominantly female students. b) ere was a small majority of female students in the Law Faculty. c) e Engineering Faculty had the greatest imbalance: over 80% of the students were male. d) ere was a signiﬁcant majority of female students studying Business, but the situation in Computer Sciences was the opposite, with a substantial majority of males. 8 Writing in paragraphs See Unit 1.10.1 Organising Paragraphs for initial questions para 2 begins: But a new use for arcoal… para 3 begins: e other beneﬁt of bioar… para 4 begins: But other agricultural… 9 Practice (Example sentences) a) Bioar is the new name for arcoal. b) Recent resear shows that making bioar may beneﬁt agriculture. c) Mixing burnt plants into the soil improves fertility and also slows the release of carbon dioxide. d) e process has been criticised by scientists, since it may reduce the quantity of food being grown. 1.2 Reading: Finding Suitable Sources 1 Academic texts 1 Worldwide pressures – Possibly – it mentions two sources and contains a lot of information, but some of the language is subjective (e.g. ‘reless la of control’, ‘shrinking alarmingly’). 2 A drying world? – No – no sources are mentioned and the style is very informal (e.g. ‘the stuﬀ we drink’). 3 Measuring scarcity – Yes – a more critical, formal and objective style and a citation provided. (Possible answers) Feature Examples 1 Formal or semiformal vocabulary e more complex indicators are not widely applied because data are laing to apply them and the deﬁnitions are not intuitive. 2 Sources are given Rijsberman (2006) 3 Objective, impersonal style It is surprisingly diﬃcult to determine whether water is truly scarce in the physical sense at a global scale (a supply problem) or whether it is available but should be used beer (a demand problem). 2 Types of text (Possible answers) Text type Advantages Disadvantages Website Easily accessed, probably up to date Possibly unreliable and/or unedited Journal article Oen focuses on a specialist area May be too specialised or complex Oﬃcial report (e.g. from government) Contains a lot of detail May have a narrow focus Newspaper or magazine article Easy to read and up to date May not be objective and not give sources E-book Easily accessible Must be read on screen Edited book A variety of contributors provide a range of views May la focus 4 Using library catalogues Titles 1 and 2 are up to date and appear to be relevant to construction issues. e other titles are more general, but title 4 is also recent and might contain some relevant sections. e others seem more focused on the appearance of the buildings. 1.3 Reading: Developing Critical Approaes 1 Reading methods Other reading skills – possible answers: Text genre recognition Dealing with new vocabulary 3 Reading abstracts a) Baground position – A growing orus of solars … American democracy. b) Aim and thesis of paper – is article questions … engaged citizenship. c) Method of resear – Using data from … political participation. d) Results of resear – Rather than the erosion … in America. 4 Fact and opinion a) fact (not true) b) opinion c) fact (not true) d) opinion e) fact (true) + fact (true) f) fact (true) + opinion (Objective version with facts corrected) New Zealand is an island nation in the southern Paciﬁc Ocean, consisting of two main islands. Nearly 1,000 miles east of Australia, it was one of the last places on Earth to be seled by man: Polynesians who arrived in about 1250 CE and who developed the Maori culture. In the eighteenth century European selers started to land, and in 1841 New Zealand became part of the British Empire. Due to its long period of isolation, many distinctive plants and animals evolved, su as the kiwi, now the nation’s symbol. e country suﬀers from frequent earthquakes, su as the one that hit Christur in 2011, causing serious damage and loss of life. 6 Practice Educating the poorest Positive aspects: Contains some relevant ideas. e studies mentioned could be followed up using a sear engine. Negative aspects: Rather superﬁcial and informal in style (e.g. use of question form in ﬁrst sentence). Some points not relevant to subSaharan Africa. No citations. 7 Critical thinking e responses to these questions will vary from student to student, whi is the nature of the critical approa. (Model Answer) Statements Comments A It is claimed that in one year nearly half of Harvard’s history professors were on sabbatical leave. As a consequence, students work less… e link between these two situations is not made clear. B … it has been calculated that the average UK university graduate will earn £400,000 ($520,000) more over his or her lifetime compared to a nongraduate. Who has made this calculation? What basis is there for this claim? 1.4 Avoiding Plagiarism 3 Degrees of plagiarism 1 Y 2 Y 3 Y 4 N 5 Y 6 N 7 Y 8 N 9 Y/N 10 Y 4 Avoiding plagiarism by summarising and paraphrasing a) Acceptable – a correctly referenced summary b) Plagiarised – original wording with minor anges to word order c) Acceptable – a correctly referenced quotation d) Tenically plagiarism – mistake in date means the citation is incorrect e) Plagiarised – some original wording and no citation 5 Avoiding plagiarism by developing good study habits (Possible further suggestions) Che that your quotations are exactly the same wording as the original. When paraphrasing, alter the structure as well as the vocabulary. Make sure your in-text citations are all included in the list of references. 6 Practice Kaufman (2017) argues that wealth (expressed as GDP per head) rather than size of population is the key to national success in the Olympics. Large populations alone do not guarantee good national results at the Olympics. Countries must also be wealthy enough to have healthy citizens and be able to provide resources for training. As Kaufman points out: ‘When many people are aﬀected by poverty and illness it is not easy to be ordinarily healthy, let alone be an Olympic athlete’ (Kaufman, 2017:3). 7 Further practice Source – e origin of ideas and information Citation – Short in-text note giving the author’s name and publication date To summarise – To reduce the length of a text while keeping the main points otation – Using the exact words of the original text in your work Reference – Full publication details of a text or other source To eat – To gain advantage dishonestly Paraphrase – Using diﬀerent words or word order to restate a text 1.5 From Understanding Essay Titles to Planning 2 Analysing essay titles Analyse – Break down into the various parts and their relationships Assess/Evaluate – Decide the value or worth of a subject Describe – Give a detailed account of something Discuss – Look at various aspects of a topic and compare beneﬁts and drawbas Examine/Explore – Divide into sections and discuss ea critically Illustrate – Give examples Outline/Trace – Explain a topic brieﬂy and clearly Suggest/Indicate – Make a proposal and support it Summarise – Deal with a complex subject by reducing it to the main elements (NB: ‘summarise’ and ‘outline’ are very similar) 3 Practice a) a) Summarise/discuss Give the factors behind the development and explore the possible consequences. Context: since 2010 b) Describe List the most likely causes of this situation. c) What/Are there Give the advantages and disadvantages. Context: at primary sool (age 6–10) d) What/Evaluate List the most important sources and say how useful they are in reducing CO2 emissions. Context: in the last ﬁeen years e) Discuss/indicating Describe how earthquakes aﬀect diﬀerent types of structures with reference to the soil aracteristics and explain how the structures can be made more resilient. 4 Brainstorming (Model answers) Possible beneﬁts Young ildren more open, less inhibited ey appear to have beer memories May improve understanding of their own language Possible drawbas Young ildren may not understand the necessary grammar ey may not grasp the cultural context of a second language 5 Essay length (NB: ese ﬁgures are only a guide and individual students may have a diﬀerent approa.) a) Describe/How Context: in developing countries Approximately 50:50 b) How/Illustrate Context: in one country Approximately 40:60 c) Outline/Suggest Context: in South East Asia Approximately 50:50 d) What/How Context: in international aid Approximately 30:70 6 Writing outlines c) Lists can help develop a logical structure and make it easier to allocate space but are rather inﬂexible. Mind maps are more ﬂexible, as extra items can be added easily. 7 Practice (Model outline – list) e main reasons In UK most homes accessible from central warehouses Smartphones common, make shopping simple E-commerce saves time and is oen eaper e likely results Retailers must compete on logistics (delivery times) Increased demand for warehouse space esp. near big cities New businesses created (e.g. returns) More delivery traﬃc > demand for drivers Many stores will close Character of shopping streets will ange > more cafés and entertainment 1.6 Finding Key Points and Note-making 1 Finding key points (Example titles) Treasure hunters Buried wealth Key points: 1 … in Britain thousands of people are doing that every year. Treasure hunting has become a popular hobby… 2 In 1996 the law on ﬁnding treasure was clariﬁed by the Treasure Act, whi imposed severe penalties for not reporting new ﬁnds… 2 Finding relevant points Key points: 2 … since the start of the twenty-ﬁrst century this level has hardly anged, making scientists believe that some process is extracting the extra CO2 from the air. 3 is appears to be a likely reason for the CO2 concentration levelling oﬀ and might be seen as a e on global warming… 4 … the eﬀects are likely to be temporary, since plant growth is also dependent on water, and as rainfall paerns ange droughts and ﬂoods are likely to become more severe. 5 Other researers claim that other consequences of human activity, su as the loss of tropical forests, will counter the beneﬁcial eﬀects of extra plant growth in polar areas by releasing the CO2 stored in the rainforests. 3 Practice A (Model notes) Can plants limit global warming? 1) New resear: extra plant growth > slowing global warming 2) Amount CO2 in air stabilised at start 21C. 3) Photosynthesis speeded up by higher CO2 levels > more plant growth 4) But other factors e.g. la of water may have opposite eﬀect 5) Human activity e.g. cuing rainforest also releases CO2 (Source: Suarez, M. (2016) Earth Matters 3:176) 4 Why make notes? b) To avoid plagiarism c) To keep a record of reading/lectures d) To revise for exams e) To help remember main points 5 Note-making methods (Other answers possible) e notes are paraphrased, not copied from the text e source is included Symbols are used (>) Abbreviations (esp.) to save space Notes are organised in lists 7 Practice B (Example notes) Sleep and the memory process 1) Siesta can help improve memory > learning 2) New memories > hippocampus (short term) > Pre-frontal cortex (longterm) 3) Process happens during Stage 2 non-REM sleep 4) Univ. Calif. team researed process: 2 groups: a) stayed awake b) had siesta group b) performed beer at memory tasks in evening (Source: Kitselt, P. (2006) How the Brain Works, p. 73) 1.7 Summarising and Paraphrasing 1 What makes a good summary? A good summary requires: selection of most important aspects clear organisation accuracy 2 Stages of summarising 1 c) 2 d) 3 b) 4 a) 5 e) 3 Practice A – Meanical piers 1 = a (contains all key points) 2 = c (includes unnecessary examples) 3 = b (includes information not in original [e.g. increase in proﬁts] and fails to describe the maines) 4 Practice B (Model answers) b) i) Mobile phones have helped to establish new businesses in Africa. ii) ere is a link between higher phone ownership and increase in GDP. iii) Only half of Africans (wealthier and urban) have a mobile phone. iv) New developments should reduce costs and increase availability of telecom services. v) But growth is still held ba by high levels of taxation on telecom companies. c) (Model summary) e impact of mobile phones in Africa Recently, mobile phones have helped to establish new businesses in Africa, and there is a link between higher phone ownership and an increase in GDP. However, only half of Africans (mainly the wealthier and urban ones) currently have a mobile phone. New tenical developments should reduce costs and increase the availability of telecom services, but growth is still held ba by high levels of taxation on telecom companies. d) (Example summary) Although mobiles help create new African businesses, their use is limited to rier people. Advanced tenology may make them more accessible, but high taxes threaten the providers. 5 Practice C – e last word in lavatories? (Example summary) e Washlet is an expensive lavatory with a range of special features whi is popular in Japan, where homes are crowded. Its maker, the Toto company, is hoping to expand sales in the West, but European regulations about toilet design and electrical ﬁings make this a allenging goal. 7 Practice D – e causes of the Industrial Revolution 1) b. e best paraphrase, with all main points included and a signiﬁcantly diﬀerent structure. 2) a. ite good, but la of precision (at that time) and unsuitable register (bosses). 3) c. A poor paraphrase, with only a few words anged and extra and inaccurate information added (Britain was the only country…). 9 Practice E – Brains and sex (A number of possibilities are acceptable here. These are suggestions) a) It is generally considered that males and females think and behave in diﬀerent ways. Women seem to have superior memories, beer social abilities and are more successful at multitasking. Men, by comparison, seem to focus beer on single subjects and have superior motor and spatial abilities, although obviously many people do not follow these paerns. b) e explanation for these diﬀerences may be the way people behaved thousands of years ago, when men were hunters while women stayed at home as carers for their ildren. But another approa is to see the behaviour as resulting from the way our brains function. c) e brain functioning of 428 men and 521 women has been compared using brain scans in recent resear by Ragini Verma’s team at Pennsylvania University. Fascinating diﬀerences were found by traing the pathways of water molecules around the brain area. d) e cerebrum is the name for the upper part of the brain, and this consists of le and right halves. It is believed that logic is controlled from the le half, while the right side deals with intuition. Dr Verma’s resear discovered that the female molecule pathways were mainly between the two parts, but the male pathways were generally within the halves. Her conclusion is that these ﬁndings are an explanation for diﬀerences in skills between the sexes, for example, greater social ability in women in contrast to stronger male focus on limited areas. 10 Practice F – e past below the waves (Example answers) a) Araeologists can learn about multiple aspects of historic societies by studying shipwres, but most of the millions lying on the ocean ﬂoor are too deep for divers to examine. ey can only work above 50 metres, restricting them to coastal wres whi are more likely to have been disturbed. Resear in mid-ocean has required expensive submarines with their support vessels, limiting the number of wres that can be explored. But this may ange due to the latest cra, called an automatic underwater vehicle or AUV. Not requiring a support ship and operating independently, this will be used by an American team to examine part of the sea bed oﬀ the northern Egyptian coast close to the site of a harbour used around 2000 BCE. b) ere are millions of shipwres on the sea ﬂoor, providing historians with a vital insight into past trade and tenology. Previously, most wres were too deep to explore economically, but a new small automatic submarine (called an AUV) has been developed whi should allow these deeper sites to be investigated. 1.8 References and otations 1 Why use references? a) N b) Y c) Y d) N e) Y f) N g) Y 2 Citations and references Smith (2009) argues that the popularity of the Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) is irrational, as despite their high cost most are never driven oﬀ-road. In his view ‘they are bad for road safety, the environment and road congestion’ (Smith, 2009:37). e ﬁrst is a summary, the second a quotation. A summary allows the writer to condense ideas, while a quotation uses the words of the original author, whi have authenticity and may be diﬃcult to improve. 6 Practice (Example answers) a) According to Kelman (2016), McEwan (2015) points out that with an increasingly diverse body of both students and teaing staﬀ, the need to reduce the gap in their distinct expectations is vital. b) McEwan maintains that ‘student success at university level is partly dependent on narrowing the diﬀerence between student and staﬀ expectations’ (Kelman, 2016:45). c) According to Kelman, McEwan (2015) points out that with an increasingly diverse body of both students and teaing staﬀ, the need to reduce the gap in their distinct expectations is vital: ‘the student body includes an increasing proportion of international students, who may take longer to adapt to the university culture’ (Kelman, 2016:45). 9 Organising the list of references a) i) Bryman, A. (2004). Social Research Methods Carroll, J. (2007). A Handbook for Deterring Plagiarism in Higher Education Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving College: Rethinking the Causes and Cures of Student Attrition ii) Crisp, G., Palmer, E., Turnbull, D., Neelbe, T., Ward, L., LeCouteur, A., Sarris, A., Strelan, P. and Sneider, L. (2009). ‘First year student expectations: results from a university-wide student survey.’ iii) Ryan, J. and Carroll, J. (2005). ‛Canaries in the coalmine: international students in Western universities.’ In J. Carroll & J. Ryan (Eds). Teaching International Students – Improving Learning for All iv) White, P. (2013). Embracing Diversity. 7th Annual Learning and Teaing Conference, 9th January 2013, [online] v) Killen, R. (1994). ‘Diﬀerences between students’ and lecturers’ perceptions of factors inﬂuencing students’ academic success at university.’ Higher Education Research and Development Leese, M. (2010). ‘Bridging the gap: supporting student transitions into higher education.’ Journal of Further and Higher Education vi) Moore, D. and McCabe, G. (2006). Introduction to the Practice of Statistics b) Books: Author/Date/Title/Edition/Place of publication/Publisher Journal articles: Author/Date/Article title/Journal title/Issue/Page numbers c) Book and journal titles d) Book and journal titles are capitalised, journal article titles are not e) Name of publication (e.g. The Times) f) i) Bryman (2004) ii) Carroll (2007) iii) Cook and Leey (1999) iv) Crisp et al. (2009) v) Killen (1994) 1.9 Combining Sources 1 Referring to sources a) 6 b) Dalglish and Chan c) Academic support d) Ramsden e) His work is referred to twice for diﬀerent topics f) Diﬃculties faced by international students g) ii) Period of adjustment to new academic environment needed by international students iii) Cultural adjustments international students must make iv) Linguistic adjustments v) Length of time these adjustments require 2 Taking a critical approa a) (Example answers) Summary Original … steps should be taken … su as carbon dioxide. she mentions evidence of … levels of CO2 … it can be expected that … burning of fossil fuels. (2.1) Some critics claim … unrelated to CO2 levels. (2.2) b) puts forward/maintains/presents/mentions/discusses/considers c) However d) But/on the other hand 3 Combining three sources (Example answer) Additionally, Lahav (2010) raises the issue of the computer models whi are used to predict future climate and argues that these may be unreliable instruments for making critical decisions. He points out that climate-ange critics suggest that, given the uncertainty involved, it might be beer to allocate resources to social improvements rather than green tenology. 4 Practice (Example answer) ere is good evidence that globalisation has resulted in a considerable increase in world trade over the past 20–30 years (Costa, 2008). However, it has been pointed out (Lin, 2012) that the beneﬁts of this are not evenly shared. While multinationals are able to use the eapest labour for manufacturing, people in the poorest countries are no beer oﬀ than they were 40 years ago. In addition, Brokaw (2014) maintains that these large companies beneﬁt from reduced import duties and so can compete more successfully with local businesses, further strengthening their market dominance. Moreover, they are oen able to cut their tax payments by basing themselves where taxes are lowest. 1.10 Organising Paragraphs 1 Paragraph structure a) e topic is Spanish as a world language. See iv). 2 Practice A a) Topic sentence iv Example 1 v Example 2 iii Reason i Summary ii 3 Practice B a) Topic sentence Despite this, many countries encourage the growth of home ownership. Example Ireland and Spain, for instance, allow mortgage payers to oﬀset payments against income tax. Reason It is widely believed that owning your own home has social as well as economic beneﬁts. Supporting point 1 Compared to renters, homeowners are thought to be more stable members of the community who contribute more to local aﬀairs. Supporting point 2 In addition, neighbourhoods of owner-occupiers are considered to have less crime and beer sools. Supporting point 3 But above all, home ownership encourages saving and allows families to build wealth. b) for instance/It is widely believed/In addition/But above all c) Despite this 5 Practice C (Example answer) Trams Trams were ﬁrst introduced in the late nineteenth century, when they provided eap and convenient mass transport in many cities in America and Europe. But their drawbas were that the rail-based systems were expensive to maintain, and the ﬁxed tras made them inﬂexible as cities developed. Consequently, by the 1950s many European and Asian cities had closed their tramway systems. Today, however, trams are regaining their popularity. ey are seen as less polluting than cars and relatively eap to operate. As a result, cities su as Paris and Manester have built new systems. Despite this, the high cost of constructing tramways and diﬃculties with traﬃc congestion bloing the tras mean that trams remain a controversial transport option. 6 Practice D (Example answer) Rainfall in the UK in 2016 was slightly above average, with 105% of the longterm average. However, the ﬁrst half of the year, January to June, was signiﬁcantly weer than the second part, July to December. October was the driest month, with only 44% of average rainfall, while January was the weest, with nearly 160%. 1.11 Introductions and Conclusions 1 Introduction components a) Y/N i) A deﬁnition of any unfamiliar terms in the title Y ii) Your personal opinion on the subject of the essay N iii) Mention of some sources you have read on the topic Y iv) A provocative idea or question to interest the reader N v) A suitable quotation from a famous authority N vi) Your aim or purpose in writing Y vii) e method you adopt to answer the question Y viii) Some baground or context of the topic Y ix) Any limitations you set yourself Y x) An outline of the main body Y b) A) Baground (viii) B) Outline (x) C) Method (vii) D) Mention of sources (iii) E) Deﬁnition (i) F) Limitation (ix) G) Purpose (vi) 2 Introduction structure a) Deﬁnition: … in this paper ‘e-learning’ refers to any type of learning situation where content is delivered via the internet. b) Context: Learning is one of the most vital components of the contemporary knowledge-based economy. With the development of computing power and technology, the internet has become an essential medium for knowledge transfer. c) Reference to other researers: Various researchers (Webb and Kirstin, 2003; Honig et al., 2006) have evaluated e-learning in a healthcare and business context d) Aim: The … purpose of this study was to examine students’ experience of e-learning in an HE context. e) Method: A range of studies was first reviewed, and then a survey of 200 students was conducted to assess their experience of e-learning. f) Limitations: Clearly a study of this type is inevitably restricted by various constraints, notably the size of the student sample … students of Pharmacy and Agriculture. g) Outline: The paper is structured as follows …. the delivery of e-learning programmes. 3 Opening sentences (Example answers) a) In recent years, there has been steady criticism of the la of women in senior management positions. b) In the past decade, global warming or climate ange has become one of the most pressing issues on the international agenda. c) In the developing world, there has been some decline in rates of infant mortality over the last twenty years, but in many countries progress has been slow. d) Steady internal migration from the countryside to the cities is a feature of many developing societies. 4 Conclusions a) Yes b) Yes c) No d) Yes e) Yes f) Yes g) Yes h) No i) f ii) b iii) e iv) d v) g 6 Practice A 1 e 2 c 3 a 4 b 5 d 1.12 Rewriting and Proofreading 2 Practice A Comments on the ﬁrst dra might include some of the following: a) Too mu space given to basic points b) No references are given c) Sentences are too short d) Style (e.g. I personally think not suitable) e) estion in title not properly addressed 3 Practice B (Example rewrite) Organisations inevitably face risks by permiing researers to interview employees, so these must be understood and minimised by the design of the resear project. If employees criticise other workers in the organisation, they may be punished, or alternatively, they may feel unable to express their true feelings and so invalidate the interviews. Consequently, researers must protect the reputation of the organisation and the value of their own work by carefully explaining the purpose of the study and insisting on strict anonymity through the use of false names. By doing this, both parties should beneﬁt from the resear. 5 Practice C i) Africa is not a country: such as Nigeria ii) Innocence is a noun: Young and innocent iii) estion mark needed iv) Present perfect needed with ‘since’: Since 2005 there have been … v) ‘Successfulness’ is not a word: success vi) ‘pervious’ is incorrect: previous vii) ‘one of the…’ needs plural noun: one of the largest companies … viii) Repetition: the essay will conclude with an analysis of … ix) Time periods need deﬁnite article: the nineteenth century x) Three skills are needed for success … 6 Practice D a) Style – use ‘ildren’ b) Singular/plural – their lines c) Vocabulary – torment is too strong, use inconvenience d) Word ending – diﬀerent eﬀects e) Factual – 1973 f) Word order – overcome g) Punctuation – its h) Spelling – Hungary i) Missing word – the world j) Tense – were 7 Practice E – Bicycles (Corrected version) e bicycle is one of the most eﬃcient maines ever designed. Cyclists can travel four times faster than walkers while using less energy to do so. Various people invented early versions of the bicycle, but the ﬁrst model with pedals whi was successfully mass-produced was made by a Frenman, Ernest Miaux, in 1861. Later additions included pneumatic tyres and gears. Today hundreds of millions of bicycles are in use all over the world. PROGRESS CHECK 1 1 (Other answers may be possible) a) title b) sedule, timetable c) outline, plan d) sources e) making, taking f) teniques, skills g) dra h) plagiarism i) conclusion j) carefully/thoroughly k) references l) proofread 2 a) T see p. 4 b) F see p. 5 c) T see p. 6 d) F see p. 17 e) F see p. 14 f) T see p. 19 g) T see p. 26 h) T see p. 76 i) F see p. 36 j) T see p. 44 k) T see p. 51 l) F see p. 56 m) F see p. 72 n) F see p. 46 o) T see p. 80 p) T see p. 82 q) F see p. 84 r) T see p. 80 s) T see p. 13 t) F see p. 37 3 (Model summary) Although tool-making ability had been thought unique to primates, recent resear by an Oxford University team has demonstrated that crows can also develop tools (Grummi, 2010). e birds had previously been observed in the wild using stis to rea food, but the Oxford team gave crows lengths of wire whi the birds bent to extract unks of meat from inside a glass tube. As Grummi explains: ‘e Oxford experiment was designed to see if the same kind of bird could modify this ability to make a tool out of a material not found in their native forests (i.e. wire)’ (Grummi 2010:15). Reference Grummi, F. (2010) What Makes Us Human? Dublin: Roseberry Press. PART 2 ELEMENTS OF WRITING 2.1 Argument and Discussion 1 Discussion vocabulary (Model paragraph) Every year millions of students oose to study in a foreign country. is can have considerable beneﬁts, su as the ance to experience another culture and the opportunity to improve language ﬂuency. But it also involves certain disadvantages, whi may include feelings of isolation or homesiness. Another negative aspect may be the high cost, involving both fees and living expenses. However, most students appear to ﬁnd that the beneﬁts outweigh the negatives and that the ance to join an international group of students is a major advantage in developing a career. 2 Organisation Vertical: a simpler paern suitable for short essays Horizontal: this allows a more complex approa in longer essays 3 Practice A Possible ideas include: + − No time wasted commuting to work Gives employees more ﬂexibility Saves expensive oﬃce space Employees may feel isolated May not suit all employees Home may contain distractions Requires diﬀerent management style Example outline with vertical structure: a) Introduction: Reasons for growth of home-working: development in communication tenology, demand for more ﬂexible work paerns. b) Drawbas: Employees may feel isolated and be distracted by activities at home. May not suit all employees, some prefer more direct management. c) Beneﬁts: Companies need to provide less oﬃce space, less time spent on commuting = more work time, employees have more ﬂexibility. d) Discussion: Of beneﬁt to certain employees in some roles, but necessary to have regular contact with colleagues and managers. 5 Counter-arguments e writer’s position is essentially critical of the way prisons currently work. (Example answers) Counter-argument Your position It has been claimed that employees may waste time at home, but in practice there seems lile evidence for this. Although home-working may save companies money by reducing the need for expensive oﬃce space, employees need to have a well-equipped workspace in their home. 6 Providing evidence a) 2 b) Education system c) Many young people do not use ‘digital tools’ d) Sceptical of the ‘digital native’ theory 7 Practice B (Example answer) As social media su as Facebook and Snapat have become more important, and also more available through widespread ownership of 4G mobile phones and other devices, the age at whi ildren start using these media has tended to become lower. But various critics have warned of the negative consequences of allowing young ildren, at primary sool age or less, to access these websites. Yet it is argued (Dobrowsky, 2012) that in fact using these media has many beneﬁts. Dobrowsky claims that it is a harmless and enjoyable way of keeping in tou with friends and family, and moreover it is safer for ildren to be indoors using their mobile phones than being out on the streets. A further claim is that using social media sites allows ildren to develop computer skills that will beneﬁt them in later life. However, others su as Campbell and Childs (2014) strongly disagree, pointing out that young ildren have no understanding of the potential dangers of the virtual world. ey also warn that too mu time looking at a screen would reduce a ild’s ance of gaining real-life experience, and that su passive activity is unhealthy at an age when ildren need to be physically active. In addition, they say that su behaviour may become addictive and lead to poor sleep paerns. Overall, these arguments are convincing and suggest that parents should be cautious of these media. 2.2 Cause and Eﬀect 2 Practice A (Example answers) a) Higher rates of literacy oen lead to greater demand for secondary education. Greater demand for secondary education may result from higher literacy rates. b) As a result of the airport construction, more tourists arrived. More tourist arrivals were due to the construction of a new airport. c) Due to last year’s national election, a new government was formed. A new government was formed because of the national election last year. d) Installing speed cameras on main roads leads to a fall in the number of fatal accidents. A fall in the number of fatal accidents results from installing speed cameras on main roads. e) Opening a new hospital in 2012 reduced infant mortality. e reduction in infant mortality was due to the opening of a new hospital in 2012. f) More people shopping on the internet results in stores closing on the high street. Stores are closing on the high street owing to more people shopping on the internet. 3 Practice B (Example answers) a) Increasing use of email for messages has caused a decline in leer writing. b) e violent storms last week damaged power lines in the region. c) e new vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) will result in lower ild mortality. d) Building a high-speed railway line caused journey times to fall by 25%. e) e invention of the jet engine made eap mass travel possible. f) e serious motorway accident was due to thi fog. g) e high price of bread is owing to the poor harvest last summer. h) e increase in obesity is a result of a more sedentary lifestyle. i) Earthquakes are oen caused by movements in tectonic plates. j) e rising prison population was due to a harsher sentencing policy. 4 Practice C – Why do women live longer? (Other answers possible) a) because b) consequently/therefore/whi is why/hence/so c) because d) because of/due to/owing to e) due to/owing to/because of f) as a result of/because of/due to g) owing to/because of/due to 5 Practice D 1. a) (Example paragraph) An increase of 25% in the price of oil would have numerous results. First, it would lead to sharp rises in the cost of transport and freight, thus aﬀecting the price of most goods. Clearly, businesses for whi fuel was a signiﬁcant proportion of their costs, su as airlines, would ﬁnd it diﬃcult to maintain proﬁtability. Another consequence would be a reduction in oil consumption as marginal users swited to alternative fuels, su as gas, or made economies. ere would also be increased investment in exploration for oil, as the oil companies aempted to increase supply, and this in turn would stimulate demand for equipment su as oil rigs. Finally, there would be a number of more localised eﬀects, for instance, a ange in demand from larger to smaller and more economical vehicles. 2.3 Comparisons 2 Practice A a) Residential property in London is twice as expensive as in Rome. b) Property in Moscow is slightly eaper than in New York. c) Tokyo property is nearly as expensive as property in Paris. d) Singapore has signiﬁcantly eaper property than New York. e) London is the most expensive of the eight cities, while Sydney is the eapest. (Possible answers) f) Property in Paris is slightly eaper than Moscow property. g) Property in Sydney is 50% eaper than in New York. 5 Practice B a) Manester United had the highest income in European football. b) Bayern Muni’s income was almost twice as mu as Toenham’s. c) FC Barcelona earned considerably more than Juventus. d) Juventus had less revenue than Liverpool. e) Arsenal’s income was slightly less than Manester City’s. f) Arsenal earned approximately the same as Chelsea. 6 Practice C a) rate b) varies/ﬂuctuates c) same d) substantially/signiﬁcantly e) than f) over/approximately g) high 2.4 Deﬁnitions 2 Category words (Model examples) A lizard is a four-legged reptile with a long tail. A ain saw is a power tool used for felling trees. Malaria is a disease transmied by mosquito bite. Autocracy is a political system in whi the ruler has total power. Weaving is the process of making cloth from threads. Oats is a cereal crop that grows in cool damp climates. A limited company is a type of business organisation with limited liability. A parking ﬁne is a penalty imposed for breaking parking rules. Sculpture is a bran of the visual arts that employs metal, wood or stone. a) instrument b) organs c) organisation d) fabric e) behaviour f) process g) period h) root vegetables (Example answers) i) A lecture is an academic talk used for teaing purposes. j) Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease mainly aﬀecting the lungs. k) e Red Cross is a humanitarian organisation whi helps people aﬀected by disasters. l) An idiom is a colloquial phrase. 3 Complex deﬁnitions a) a failed project b) development c) aament d) self-brightening e) globalisation i) c ii) a, e iii) b, d iv) b (process), c (system), d (eﬀect) 4 Practice (Example definitions) a) Capital punishment means the execution by the state of convicted criminals. b) An entrepreneurial business is set up by somebody who demonstrates the eﬀective application of a number of enterprising aributes, su as creativity, initiative, risk taking, problem solving ability and autonomy, and who will oen risk his or her own capital. c) E-books are books in digital form whi can be read on electronic devices. d) Urban areas are predominantly built-up areas in whi roads, housing or commercial buildings are found. e) e) Obesity is a medical term meaning unhealthily overweight. 2.5 Examples 2 Phrases to introduce examples (Example answers) a) Some twentieth-century inventions, su as TV and the internet, aﬀected the lives of most people. b) Lately many countries, for instance China, have introduced fees for university courses. c) Various companies have built their reputation on the strength of one product; a case in point is Microso Windows. d) In recent years more women (e.g. Angela Merkel) have become political leaders. e) Certain countries su as Japan are frequently aﬀected by earthquakes. f) Many musical instruments, for example guitars, use strings to make music. g) Ship canals, for instance the Panama Canal, facilitate world trade. h) Politicians have discussed a range of possible alternative punishments to prison, for instance community work. 3 Practice A – Eating for health (Model answer) A hundred years ago most people’s diets consisted of a few staple items that were eap and also ﬁlling, for example, bread or rice. Today many people are able to aﬀord more variety, and regularly eat more expensive foods, su as fruit and meat. But along with the wider oice has come anxiety about the possible threats to health contained in certain foods. In recent years a broad range of products, including eggs, buer, salt, sugar, fats and smoked meat have been considered a risk to health. is has le many people confused, as mu of the ‘resear’ behind these claims is contradictory; in other words, a food may be condemned by one scientist but approved by another. One beneﬁciary of this process is the health food industry, a booming sector whi promotes food and drink products to health-conscious young people. However, many doctors argue that instead of focusing exclusively on what they eat or drink, people’s health would be improved by doing more exercise (e.g. swimming, running or cycling). 4 Practice B (Model paragraph) A new perspective Students who go to study abroad oen experience a type of culture sho when they arrive in the new country. Of course, there are always diﬀerent things (e.g. public transport systems) to learn about in a new town or city. But in addition, customs whi they took for granted in their own society, su as holidays and festivals or ways of greeting people, may not be followed in the host country. Even everyday paerns of life, for instance types of shops and shop opening times, may be diﬀerent. When these are added to the inevitable diﬀerences whi occur between every country, su as language and currency, students may at ﬁrst feel confused. ey can experience rapid anges of mood, for example depression or elation, or even want to return home. However, most soon make new friends and, in a relatively short period of two or three months, are able to adjust to their new environment. ey may even ﬁnd that they prefer some aspects of their new surroundings, su as freedom and independence, and forget that they are not at home for a while! 5 Restatement a) e company’s overhead, in other words the ﬁxed costs, doubled last year. b) e Roman Empire (27 BCE – 476 CE) was an empire in whi there was autocratic rule. c) e Indian capital, namely, New Delhi, has a thriving commercial centre. d) Survival rates for the most common type of cancer (i.e. breast cancer) are improving. e) Voting rates in most democracies are in decline, that is to say, fewer people are voting. 2.6 Generalisations 1 Using generalisations a) Invalid: England is not a particularly wet country. b) A widely accepted fact, supported by evidence. c) Similar to b), this is a well-researed link. d) is may be true in some cases but is a very sweeping generalisation. e) Clearly true in many cases but not valid for every situation (e.g. short journeys). 3 Practice A (Example answers) a) Regular rainfall is necessary for good crop yields. b) Honest judges are needed to ensure respect for the law. c) Adequate sleep is vital for academic success. d) Industrial growth tends to cause pollution. e) e) Cold weather is likely to increase demand for gas. f) Job satisfaction depends on having interesting work. g) Regular training is essential for sporting success. h) Creativity and skill are both needed to produce great art. 4 Practice B (Example generalisations) a) Graduates are more likely than undergraduates to study in the library. b) Female undergraduates generally prefer to work in silence. c) Few students oose to study outdoors. d) Male graduates prefer to study in the library, while females prefer their own room. e) More undergraduates than graduates work in bed. 5 Building on generalisations a) To introduce the topic b) e study whi compared the preferences of women in a range of countries c) To summarise the ﬁndings of the resear 6 Practice C (Example) a) e growth of tourism is oen seen as being detrimental to the host society. It is claimed that growth in visitor numbers causes pollution, overcrowding and even leads to crime. But the weakness of this argument can be shown by comparing several countries whi have experienced rapid growth in tourist numbers, with very diﬀerent results, both positive and negative. 2.7 Problems and Solutions 4 Practice A – e housing dilemma (Example answer) In many expanding urban areas, there is a serious housing shortage, caused by people moving from the country to seek urban opportunities. ere are various possible answers to this problem, but ea has its drawbas. e traditional response is to build family houses with gardens, whi oﬀer privacy and space but require a lot of land. Building these is slow and the growth of suburbs creates longer journeys to work. A second option is to build prefabricated three-storey houses, whi can be erected more quily and eaply than traditional houses and can be designed to aieve a higher density of population. In some places these may be the best solution, but they also require a lot of space and are too expensive for the average citizen. A beer solution is to construct tall blos of ﬂats, whi will accommodate more people at high density quite eaply while preventing cities from sprawling too widely. Although some families may ﬁnd them cramped, for the majority they are a convenient and aﬀordable answer to the housing problem. 5 Practice B – University expansion (Example argument) Currently there is increasing demand for university places, whi frequently leads to overcrowding of student facilities, su as lectures. It has been argued that fees should be increased to reduce demand for places, but this would discriminate against students from poorer families. Another proposal is for the government to pay for the expansion of universities, but against this is the view that this would unfairly beneﬁt the minority who aend university, who in any case go on to earn higher salaries. A fairer solution might be for the government to subsidise the fees of the poorest students. 2.8 Visual Information 1 Types of visuals TYPES USES EXAMPLE 1 Diagram g F 2 Table h B 3 Map a H 4 Pie art f D 5 Flow art d E 6 Line graph c A 7 Bar art e C 8 Plan b G 9 Scaer graph/plot i I 3 Describing visuals a) i) is beer. It comments on the main features of the art but does not repeat the statistics. b) a) density b) demonstrates/illustrates/shows c) between d) less crowded/less densely populated e) role/part f) since/as/because g) tend 5 Practice A a) shows/illustrates b) between c) majority d) substantially/signiﬁcantly e) Spain f) rise/increase g) than 6 Practice B (Example paragraph) e bar art compares the maximum speeds aained by some of the fastest mammals on earth. Humans are only capable of running at about 28 mph, while the fastest creature, the eetah, can rea 70 mph. is speed is mu greater than lions or hares can rea (50 mph), while animals su as greyhounds, horses and tigers are only capable of speeds in the 40–45 mph range. Progress e 2 1 advantage/positive aspect 2 horizontal – more suitable for short essays vertical – allows consideration of multiple perspectives, beer for longer papers 3 a position in opposition to the writer’s views 4 (Model examples) a) Unemployment rose due to the economic recession. b) e railway accident was caused by a faulty signal. c) e power cut was due to the hurricane. 5 (Model examples) Australia is approximately thirty times larger than New Zealand. e population density of New Zealand is substantially higher than Australia’s. Australians are signiﬁcantly wealthier than New Zealanders. 6 (Model examples) a) A semester is one of the two divisions of the academic year. b) A hammer is a tool with a metal head used for driving in nails. c) A midwife is a medical professional specialising in delivering babies. 7 (Model examples) a) Certain capital cities (e.g. Canberra) are smaller than the commercial centres of their country. b) Many varieties of fruit, su as oranges, contain vital vitamins. c) A few kinds of mammals (e.g. whales and seals) live in the sea. d) Most planets in our solar system, for example Jupiter, have moons. 8 In the past century, photography has gone from being an exclusive hobby to something accessible to everyone. is is largely due to the invention of the digital camera. In the last twenty years this has made it simple to take colour photographs eaply and to modify pictures easily by using editing programmes. So now that everyone has a smartphone, with its built-in camera, photography has become democratic and high-quality photographs can be produced by anybody. 9 (Other synonyms may be possible) a) e main allenge/diﬃculty/issue facing the engineers was the extreme cold. b) e only answer/remedy/option was to repeat the experiment. c) Sherlo Holmes found an unusual answer/solution to the mystery of the Missing Mask. d) e safe disposal of nuclear waste is a(n) issue/concern without an easy answer. 10 (Model example) e table illustrates the results of a survey of student evaluation of library facilities, contrasting undergraduate with graduate opinion. Most facilities are rated highly by both groups, especially the café and staﬀ helpfulness. Both student groups are least satisﬁed with the availability of short-loan sto. In most areas, graduates seem slightly more critical of facilities than undergraduates. PART 3 LANGUAGE ISSUES 3.1 Cohesion 2 Practice A Reference Reference word/phrase La Ferrera She new business start-ups they average life of only 3.4 years this one economic the former the other social the laer the former… ., the laer… … suﬃcient market resear these e failure to do market resear this 4 Practice B – Famous for? a. he b. his c. his d. it/this e. his f. he g. they/he h. is i. He j. his 6 Practice C – Velcro Velcro is a fabric fastener used with clothes and shoes. It was invented by a Swiss engineer called George de Mestral. His idea was derived from studying the tiny hooks found on some plant seeds. ey cling to animals and help disperse the seeds. Velcro has two sides, one of whi is covered in small hooks and the other in loops. When they are pressed together they form a strong bond. Mestral spent eight years perfecting his invention, whi he called ‘Velcro’ from the Fren words ‘velour’ and ‘croet’. It was patented in 1955, and today over 60 million metres of Velcro are sold annually. 7 Practice D – Nylon (Example answer) Wallace Carothers, the director of resear at the American DuPont Corporation, patented nylon in 1935. He had previously studied emistry and specialised in polymers, whi are molecules composed of long ains of atoms. Nylon was a strong but ﬁne synthetic ﬁbre whi was ﬁrst mass produced in 1939. It is used to make a wide range of products whi include stoings, toothbrushes, parautes, ﬁshing lines and surgical thread. 3.2 Deﬁnite Articles 3 Practice A a) Engineering is the main industry in the northern region. b) Insurance ﬁrms have made record proﬁts in the last decade. c) Global warming is partly caused by fossil fuels. d) e mayor has been arrested on suspicion of corruption. e) e moons of Jupiter were discovered in the eighteenth century. f) Tourism is the world’s biggest industry. g) e forests of Scandinavia produce most of Britain’s paper. h) e ai currency is the baht. i) Computer crime has grown by 200% in the last ﬁve years. j) e main causes of the Industrial Revolution are still debated. k) ree percent of the working population are employed in call centres. l) e latest forecast predicts warmer winters in the next decade. m) Resear on energy saving is being conducted in the Physics Faculty. n) e best deﬁnition is oen the simplest. o) During the last recession there was a sharp increase in ild poverty. 4 Practice B A Northern model? Norway is a/the global leader in the use of electric cars: in 2016 nearly 30% of vehicle sales were baery-powered or hybrid models. In the past ﬁve years, sales have increased sharply due to the development of beer baeries, so now the country’s ﬁve million people are the world’s largest electric car market. e Transport Minister talks of ending sales of cars powered by fossil fuels by 2025. e government is subsidising the installation of arging points on main roads and shopping centres. In addition, drivers of zero-emission vehicles pay no sales tax or parking fees, and may use bus lanes in cities. But this paern may not be a/the model for other countries: Norway has a surplus of eap electricity thanks to hydropower, and it taxes petrol and diesel fuel heavily. 3.3 Numbers 2 Percentages a) 50% b) 100% c) 400% 3 Simpliﬁcation a) Scores of students applied for the solarship. b) Since 1975 dozens of primary sools have been rebuilt. c) e students thought of a few/several good topics for their project. d) Various names were suggested but rejected for the new ocolate bar. e) Last year dozens of books were published on biogenetics. 4 Further numerical phrases (Example answers) a) e price of petrol has increased tenfold since 1975. b) Two-thirds of the students in the group were women. c) e new high-speed train halved the journey time to Madrid. d) e number of students applying for the Psyology course has risen by 50% since last year. e) More than twice as many British students as Italian students complete their ﬁrst degree course. f) Tap water is 700 times eaper than boled water. g) e highest rate of unemployment in Europe is in Greece and the lowest in Norway. h) A majority of members supported the suggestion, but a large proportion of these expressed some doubts. 5 Practice (Example answers) a) ere were twice as many sports at the Paris Olympics compared to the Athens games. b) e number of athletes competing doubled between the Tokyo and Beijing Olympics. c) In the Barcelona Olympics nearly a third of the athletes were women. d) e number of Olympic sports rose threefold between 1896 and 2008. e) A substantial minority of athletes at the London Olympics were women. 3.4 Passives 2 Structure a) e data was collected and the two groups (were) compared. b) 120 people in three social classes were interviewed. c) e results were eed and several errors (were) found. d) An analysis of the ﬁndings will be made. e) Four doctors were asked to give their opinions. f) e report was wrien and ten copies (were) distributed. 3 Use of the passive a) e vaccines were exposed to temperatures below the limit. b) It is believed that the Atacama desert was too dry for animal life. c) It is suggested that they can be damaged by foreign competition. d) e life cycles of three main bee species were researed. e) It was argued that prisons had a negative eﬀect on the inmates. 4 Adverbs with passives Mars mania In the past it was commonly believed that creatures lived on Mars. Due to the similarity of size with Earth, the planet was generally thought to have a climate that would permit life. It was additionally discovered that Mars had four seasons, although they were longer than their equivalents on Earth. Straight lines seen on the surface of Mars were ridiculously considered to be canals built by Martians. An invasion of Earth by superior beings from Mars was graphically described by H.G. Wells in his novel War of the Worlds. Even today it is occasionally claimed that primitive life exists on the planet. 5 Practice (Model answer) Making bread Bread is traditionally made from wheat ﬂour, salt, water and yeast. You mix the wholemeal or white ﬂour with a lile salt and yeast, and then gradually add lukewarm water. Other ingredients su as opped nuts or seeds may be included. en mix the dough until a so ball is formed, whi you can knead by hand. In the kneading process the dough is vigorously pounded and reshaped so that all the ingredients are fully combined. Aer thoroughly kneading the dough, leave it for a few hours to rise. When this is ﬁnished work the dough by hand to shape it into loaves or rolls. Aer two more hours the loaves will have risen again, due to the action of the yeast. Bake them in a hot oven for about half an hour and then allow them to cool. 3.5 Punctuation 9 Practice A a) e study was carried out by Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang of the National University of Singapore. b) Professor Rowan’s new book ‘e End of Privacy’ (2017) is published in New York. or Professor Rowan’s new book The End of Privacy (2017) is published in New York. c) As Keynes said: ‘It’s beer to be roughly right than precisely wrong’. d) Banks su as HSBC and Barclays were in penny-pining mode in the 1990s. e) As Matheson (1954) wrote: ‘It was the germ that was the villain’. f) ousands of new words su as ‘app’ enter the English language ea year. g) e BBC’s World Service is broadcast in 33 languages, including Somali and Vietnamese. h) She scored 56% on the main course; the previous semester she had aieved 67%. 10 Practice B Studying will play a vital part in your life as an Oxford student, but you will also ﬁnd an enormous amount to do in Oxford in your spare time. Oxford is the youngest city in England and Wales and has two universities: Oxford University and Oxford Brookes. irty-ﬁve percent of people who live here are aged 15–29, and 27% (40,000 of a total population of 150,000) are university students. If you ever feel like a ange of scene, the bus to London takes around 90 minutes and runs 24 hours a day. ere are now two railway stations: the central Oxford station and the recently opened Oxford Parkway. Oxford is a youthful and cosmopolitan city with plenty to see and do. ere are dozens of historic and iconic buildings, including the Bodleian Libraries, Ashmolean Museum, Sheldonian eatre, the cathedral and the colleges. In the city centre you will ﬁnd lots of shops, cafés, restaurants, theatres, cinemas, pubs and clubs. ere are plenty of green spaces too: riverside walks, England’s oldest botanic garden, the University Parks and college gardens. 3.6 Singular or Plural? 1 Five diﬃcult areas i. … and disadvantages (e) ii. are vaccinated (a) iii. rural areas (c) iv. … in crime (b) v. Ea company has its own policy (d) 4 Practice A a) Lile b) businesses c) experience/is d) travel broadens e) stone f) mu advice g) few interests h) civil war i) Irons were j) work 5 Practice B traﬃc travel work staﬀ Resear capitals vehicles day lives petrol jams factor stress advice is music 3.7 Style 3 Practice A (Example sentences) a) Another factor to consider is the possibility of crime increasing. b) Currently the rate of unemployment is high. c) In the near future a vaccine for malaria may be discovered. d) e ﬁreﬁghters were quily able to control the ﬁre. e) e numbers in that report are unreliable. f) e severe inﬂation led to poverty and social unrest. g) He was delighted to win the prize. h) Students should be paid to study. i) Women were enfranised in 1987. j) e main causes of the Russian Revolution were war and misgovernment. 4 Avoiding repetition and redundancy – Fast food (Example answer) Currently, fast food is growing in popularity. is is food that people can buy ready to eat or cook quily. is essay examines its advantages and drawbas. First, it is very convenient; most people who work in oﬃces are very busy, so they do not have time to go home for lun, but can eat in restaurants su as McDonald’s. e second beneﬁt is eapness. As it is produced in large quantities, the companies can keep costs down. As a result, it is usually less expensive than a meal in a conventional restaurant. 5 Varying sentence length (Example answers) Worldwide, enrolments in higher education are increasing. In developed countries over half of all young people enter college, while similar trends are seen in China and South America. is growth has put ﬁnancial strain on state university systems, so that many countries are requiring students and parents to contribute to the cost. is leads to a debate about whether students or society beneﬁt from tertiary education. China is one developing country (but not the only one) whi has imposed fees on students since 1997. e results have been surprising: enrolments, especially in the most expensive universities, have continued to rise steeply, growing 200% overall between 1997 and 2011. It seems in this case that higher fees aract rather than discourage students, who see them as a sign of a good education. ey compete more ﬁercely for places, leading to the result that a place at a good college can cost $8,000 per year for fees and maintenance. 6 e use of caution (Others are possible) Modals: might/may/could/should Adverbs: oen/usually/frequently/generally/commonly/mainly/apparently Verb/phrase: seems to/appears to/in general/by and large/it appears/it seems 7 Using modiﬁers a) e company’s eﬀorts to save energy were quite/fairly successful. b) e survey was (a fairly/quite a) comprehensive study of student opinion. c) His second book had a rather hostile reception. d) e ﬁrst-year students were quite fascinated by her lectures. e) e latest type of arthritis drug is rather expensive. f) is mountain tiger has become quite/rather rare. g) e class found the essay topic quite/rather allenging. 8 Practice B (Example answers) a) Private companies are oen more eﬃcient than state-owned businesses. b) Exploring space seems to be a waste of valuable resources. c) Older students may perform beer at university than younger ones. d) Word-of-mouth is commonly the best kind of advertising. e) English pronunciation can be confusing. f) Some cancers may be caused by psyological factors. g) It appears that global warming will cause the sea level to rise. h) Most shopping may done on the internet in ten years’ time. i) Online education can be inferior to taught classes. j) By 2025 driverless cars might be in common use. 3.8 Time Markers 2 Practice A a) Recently b) until c) for d) Last month e) by f) Since g) During h) Aer 4 Practice B – Napoleon a) before b) later c) at d) Aer e) by f) later g) during h) later i) Aer 5 Practice C – Eating out a) In/Over/During b) Since c) ago d) recently e) Currently f) by g) since h) During/In Progress e 3 1 William Shakespeare was born in Stratford-upon-Avon in 1564, into a wealthy landowning family. When he was only 18 he married Anne Hathaway, who was six years older than him. She subsequently had three ildren, but their only son, Hamnet, died young. Apparently William spent most of his time in London aer their marriage, where he acted and started to write plays. ey were mainly comedies at ﬁrst, and were very successful. In the early 1600s his work became darker, and this is when he wrote his most famous plays, su as ‘Hamlet’ and ‘King Lear’. ey have secured his worldwide reputation as a great dramatist and poet. He died in 1616 aged only 52, while Anne lived for another seven years. 2 a) b) the c) the d) a/the e) the f) g) the h) a i) the j) the k) the l) a m) a n) the o) the p) q) - 3 (Model paragraph) 250 international students were interviewed about their experience of study abroad. Of these a ﬁh were from China, a ﬁh from India, a tenth from Nigeria and the remaining half from a variety of European countries. A substantial majority were satisﬁed with their courses, but a ﬁh had concerns about the quantity of work required. Just 10% complained about the quality of teaing. Half the students said they found it easy to adapt to a diﬀerent culture and way of life, but of the others a signiﬁcant minority disliked the food, a ﬁh found living too expensive, and a small minority mentioned bad weather. 4 (Model paragraph) Our resear aimed to ﬁnd the best taxi business for campus use, so the performance of six local taxi companies was compared. Companies that had their oﬃces within a kilometre of the campus were selected. e response of ea company to requests made at the same time of day (7 p.m.) was timed. Response times varied from ten to 24 minutes. Ea driver was then asked to take the passenger to the railway station. e friendliness of the drivers and the length of time taken were recorded, as well as the fare the driver asked for. Overall AZ Taxis were found to have the fastest response and the eapest fare, but not the most friendly driver. 5 e Sool of Biomedical Sciences at Borester University is oﬀering two undergraduate degree courses in Neuroscience this year. Students can study either Neuroscience with Pharmacology or Neuroscience with Bioemistry. ere is also a Master’s course whi runs for four years and involves a period of study abroad during November and December. Professor Andreas Fiser is course leader for Neuroscience and enquiries should be sent to him via the website. 6 a) Several types of response were recorded. b) ree avenues of resear were suggested. c) One of the groups was eliminated from the competition. d) Half the graduates were from Indonesia. e) e government was defeated at the election. f) e performance of the athletes was improved by his training method. 7 (Model answer) Currently there is widespread concern that signiﬁcant numbers of people take insuﬃcient exercise, due to sedentary habits su as wating television, whi appears to be a major cause of obesity. Yet there is substantial resear whi demonstrates the mental and physical beneﬁts of walking regularly. 8 a) Dr Gonzalez went to Berlin ﬁve days ago. b) He was in Berlin for two days. c) During his stay in Berlin he gave a lecture. d) Aer leaving Berlin he went to Prague. e) While staying in Prague he met colleagues at Charles University. f) By June 10th he had travelled 2,300 kilometres. PART 4 Vocabulary for writing 4.1 Approaes to Vocabulary 4 Practice a) statement b) anecdote c) saying d) euphemism e) metaphor f) paradox g) simile h) proverb i) synopsis j) idiom k) slogan l) ambiguity m) clié 5 Confusing pairs a) principles b) lose c) aﬀect d) compliments e) its f) economic g) accepted 4.2 Abbreviations 6 Practice a) information and communications tenology/higher education/and others b) genetically modiﬁed/for example c) that is/the World Trade Organisation d) Note/curricula vitae/Human Resources/September e) approximately/Before common era f) e European Union/Value Added Tax g) Doctor of Philosophy (thesis)/tuberculosis/South East h) Figure 4/gross national product i) Vice-Chancellor/Postgraduate Certiﬁcate of Education j) Public relations/approximately/$75,000 k) With reference to/annual general meeting/as soon as possible l) Doctor/Master of Science/Master of Arts 4.3 Academic Vocabulary: Nouns and Adjectives 2 Nouns (NB: not all these words have close synonyms. This list is a guide to approximate meaning. Students should use a dictionary for a full understanding.) accuracy – precision analysis – examination approa – angle of study assessment – test assumption – informed guess authority – expert category – type claim – argument/thesis controversy – debate correlation – link deterrent – disincentive emphasis – weight put on one area evidence – proof exception – diﬀerent thing extract – part of a longer work ideology – belief implication – unstated suggestion innovation – new introduction intuition – understanding without thinking motivation – incentive perspective – angle of study phenomenon – unusual event policy – formal guidelines preference – favourite oice process – series of stages proposal – suggestion provision – supply sequence – series of stages strategy – plan substitute – replacement tenique – method validity – truth a) evidence b) proposals c) intuition d) provision e) claim f) phenomena g) process h) correlation 3 Nouns and adjectives (Model examples) Sherlo Holmes solved crimes by analytical methods; examining ea clue. Although quite famous, the professor was always approaable for students. Her book is the most authoritative work on the subject. Even today, the ideas of Karl Marx remain controversial. eir position was emphatic; the library would remain closed all week. His performance was exceptional, winning three prizes in his ﬁnal year. My objection to the book is ideological, despite it being well wrien. California oﬀers an innovative culture, where new ideas are welcomed. She had an intuitive feeling she would get the job. In addition to money, praise and recognition are both highly motivational. e Harry Poer books have been a phenomenal publishing success. First-class passengers are sure of preferential treatment. Until it’s approved by the council, the agreement is only provisional. e courses in this faculty are sequential: you must pass one to move to the next. e general’s retreat was just strategic – he lured the enemy into a trap. Tenical support for computer users is available 24/7. Your bus pass is valid until October next year. 4 Confusing nouns and adjectives Noun Adjective Noun Adjective approximation approximate particularity particular superiority superior reason reasonable strategy strategic synthesis synthetic politics political economy economic/al industry industrial culture cultural exterior external average average height high reliability reliable heat hot strength strong conﬁdence conﬁdent truth true width wide probability probable necessity necessary length long danger dangerous relevance relevant 5 Practice A a) conﬁdent b) particularities/strengths c) probability d) relevant e) necessary f) average g) danger h) necessity i) unreliable j) approximate k) economic l) synthesis 8 Practice B a) irrelevant b) subjective/irrational c) Concrete/Relevant d) approximate/rough e) relative f) logical/rational g) theoretical/abstract h) unambiguous 9 Practice C a) strategic – strategy b) analytical – analysis c) synthetic – synthesis d) major – majority e) cultural – culture f) theoretical – theory g) frequent – frequency h) critical – criticism/critic i) Social – society j) practical – practice 4.4 Academic Vocabulary: Verbs and Adverbs 1 Understanding main verbs (Approximate synonyms – infinitive form) adapt = modify arise = occur conduct = carry out aracterise = have features of clarify = explain concentrate on = look at closely be concerned with = deal with demonstrate = show determine = ﬁnd discriminate = distinguish establish = found exhibit = show focus on = look at closely generate = create hold = be true identify = pi out imply= suggest interact = work together interpret = explain manifest = show overcome = defeat propose = suggest prove = turn out recognise = accept relate to = link to supplement = add to undergo = experience yield = produce 3 Practice A (Some other verbs may be possible) a) A admied/accepted that he might have made a mistake… b) B denied saying that women make/made beer doctors than men. c) C stated/claimed/argued that small ﬁrms are/were more dynamic than large ones. d) D agreed with/supported C’s views on small ﬁrms. e) E assumed/presumed that most people work/worked for money. f) F concluded that allergies are/were becoming more common. g) G doubted that electric cars will/would replace conventional ones. h) H hypothesised/suggested a link between crime and sunspot activity. 5 Practice B (Other verbs may be possible) a) L criticised/censured her resear methods. b) M identiﬁed/classiﬁed four main types of ildren in care. c) N commended the company for its record for workplace safety. d) O interpreted the noises whales make/made as expressions of happiness. e) P identiﬁed/presented wind power and biomass as the leading green energy sources of the future. f) Q described/portrayed Darwin as the most inﬂuential naturalist of the nineteenth century. 7 Practice C a) Clearly b) Originally c) Alternatively d) Recently e) Similarly f) Clearly/crucially g) broadly h) factually 8 Practice D e earliest keys known to history were made by the Egyptians from wood and were signiﬁcantly improved upon by the Romans, who used metal. Today’s keys are basically the same: a piece of metal with teeth, conventionally produced by cuing and stamping. But recently a new tenology, 3D printing has made it possible to manufacture mu more intricate designs whi are virtually impossible to copy illicitly. Although substantially more expensive, these high-te keys oﬀer remarkable security. 4.5 Conjunctions 2 Types of conjunctions a) A few inventions, for instance television, have had a major impact on everyday life. b) Furthermore, many patients were treated in clinics and surgeries. c) e deﬁnition of ‘special needs’ is important since it is the cause of some disagreement. d) e tenology allows consumers a oice, thus increasing their sense of satisfaction. e) Four hundred people were interviewed for the survey, and then the results were analysed. f) However, another body of opinion associates globalisation with unfavourable outcomes. ii) Result d iii) Reason c iv) Opposition f v) Example a vi) Time e Biofuels Conjunction Type Conjunction Type a) su as example f) in other words example b) but opposition g) Consequently result c) Although opposition h) and addition d) for instance example i) neither … nor opposition e) however opposition 3 Common conjunctions (Others are possible) Addition: moreover/as well as/in addition/and/also/furthermore/plus Result: therefore/consequently/so/that is why (see Unit 2.2) Reason: because/owing to/as a result of/as/since/due to (see Unit 2.2) Opposition: but/yet/while/however/nevertheless/whereas/albeit/although/despite Example: su as/e.g./in particular/for instance (see Unit 2.5) Time: aer/while/then/next/subsequently (see Unit 3.8) 4 Practice A (Others are possible) a) Aer b) Although/While c) moreover/furthermore/additionally d) therefore/so e) for instance/for example f) Due to/Because of g) While h) As/Because/Since 5 Practice B – Geoengineering (Others are possible) a) su as b) Although c) either d) or e) for instance/for example f) While/Although g) due to/because of h) or i) erefore/at is why 7 Conjunctions of opposition (Example answers) a) i. Although the government claimed that inﬂation was falling, the opposition said it was rising. ii. e government claimed that inﬂation was falling, while the opposition said it was rising. b) i. is department must reduce expenditure, yet it needs to install new computers. ii. While this department must reduce expenditure, it also needs to install new computers. c) i. In spite of being heavily advertised, sales of the new car were poor. ii. Sales of the new car were poor despite it being heavily advertised. 8 Practice C (Example answers) a) In contrast to America, where gun ownership is common, few Japanese have guns. b) Despite leaving sool at the age of 14, he went on to develop a successful business. c) e majority displayed a positive aitude to the proposal, but a minority strongly disagreed. d) While the tutor insisted that the essay was easy, the students found it diﬃcult. e) Although the spring was cold and dry, the summer was warm and wet. f) He ﬁnished the project before the deadline, yet he still felt dissatisﬁed with it. g) She prefers speaking Fren; nevertheless her English is excellent. h) Since it was nearly dark they had to stop the experiment. 4.6 Preﬁxes and Suﬃxes 1 How preﬁxes and suﬃxes work ‘Prefabrication’ is the process of making something in advance of installation. ‘Revitalise’ is to give extra strength or impetus to something or someone. 2 Preﬁxes auto by itself co together ex (i) previous (ii) outside in front between large small many negative too mu many later in support of again below distance across (i) below (ii) not enough 3 Practice A a) social class at boom of society b) more tiets sold than seats available c) very local climate d) economy based on information not production e) not listed in the telephone book f) disappointed g) before marriage h) able to create or control situations 5 Practice B a) noun – withdrawal of a service b) adjective – two related events at the same time c) adverb – without cooperation d) adjective – related to evolution e) noun – person who protests f) adjective – not able to be forecast g) adjective – able to be sold h) noun – person being interviewed i) noun – belief that increasing consumption beneﬁts society j) adverb – in a way that suggests a symbol 6 Practice C a) joint production/junior company b) without oosing to/not hurt c) able to be reﬁlled/clear and obvious d) found new times/before sool e) cannot be provided/unusual f) failure in communication/new order g) faulty/ridiculous h) write again/hard to understand 4.7 Prepositions 1 Using prepositions c) Noun + prep = purpose of/development between/decline in/supply of Verb + prep = contributed to Adj + prep = valuable for Place = in Catalonia/in the factory context Time = in the period Phrase = In conclusion 2 Practice A b) adjective + preposition c) verb + preposition d) preposition of place e) noun + preposition f) phrase g) preposition of place h) preposition of time 3 Prepositions and nouns a) of b) in c) of of/relationship d) to e) of f) on 4 Prepositions in phrases a) on b) of c) of d) in e) of f) on g) in h) of 5 Prepositions of place and time a) Among b) from, to/between, and c) in, of d) in, in e) in, at f) On, between g) around, of/on h) Between 6 Practice B a) of b) in/to c) to/in d) among/in e) from/in f) between g) in h) of i) in/over j) between k) in l) in m) of n) to/in 8 Practice C a) focused on/concentrated on b) pointed out c) specialised in d) associated with e) divided into f) blamed for g) believed in h) learned from 4.8 Synonyms 1 How synonyms work Word/phrase synonym oil hydrocarbon company ﬁrm in the world global/internationally people employees Britain the UK 2 Common synonyms in academic writing (NB: Some of these pairs are approximate synonyms) Nouns area authority behaviour beneﬁt category component controversy diﬃculty drawba expansion feeling Verbs ﬁeld source conduct advantage type part argument problem disadvantage increase emotion accelerate alter analyse assist aa allenge clarify concentrate on conduct conﬁne develop speed up ange take apart help join question explain focus on carry out limit evolve framework goal interpretation issue method option results statistics study trend output structure target explanation topic system possibility ﬁndings ﬁgures resear tendency production evaluate found maintain predict prohibit raise reduce respond retain show strengthen examine establish insist forecast ban increase decrease reply keep demonstrate reinforce 3 Practice A (Others are possible) a) Professor His allenged the results of the study. b) e ﬁgures demonstrate a steady rise in applications. c) e institute’s forecast has caused a major debate. d) Cost seems to be the principal disadvantage to that method. e) ey will focus on the ﬁrst possibility. f) Aer the lecture she tried to explain her idea. g) ree topics need to be evaluated. h) e structure can be kept but the aim needs to be modiﬁed. i) OPEC, the oil producers’ cartel, is to reduceoutput to increase global prices. j) e tendency to smaller families has accelerated in the last decade. 4 Practice B UK – British – this country agency – organisation – body advertising campaign – publicity programme – advertising blitz to raise – to improve to cut – reduction before eating – prior to meals 5 Practice C (Example answers – others possible) build/make vehicles car makers principal problem obstacle automobile producers allenges forecast energy produced vehicles/maines Progress e 4 1 a, c, d 2 a) lose b) except c) site 3 a) International Monetary Fund/Gross Domestic Product b) Compare/anonymous/approximately/Before common era c) Master of Science/Genetically modiﬁed 4 a) absolute b) metaphorical c) subjective d) precise e) abstract 5 a) height b) synthesis c) length d) probability e) relevance 6 a) X claimed/argued that eating spiders is healthy. b) Y disagreed with X, insisting that his theory was based on poor resear. c) Z agreed with Y’s opinion of X’s work. 7 a) continuously b) locally c) particularly d) increasingly e) Traditionally 8 (Others are possible) a) Although b) since/because/as c) So/erefore d) and e) But f) because/as/since g) en h) because/as/since i) erefore/So j) and 9 a) adjective b) noun c) verb d) noun e) noun 10 antidote medicine to counter the eﬀects of poison correspondent person you write to regularly foreword preliminary section of book polytenic institute where many scientiﬁc subjects are taught proportion relation of one thing to another subcutaneous under the skin undervalue assess worth of something too eaply 11 In the eighteenth century, news travelled as fast as a horseman or sailing ship. It could take weeks for news of a bale in Europe to rea America. By the mid-nineteenth century railways had accelerated the distribution of newspapers, so that they reaed distant provinces in hours, and then the telegraph allowed news to be sent in seconds. Today we can be overwhelmed by the volume of news from all over the world whi we can continuously receive on our phones and laptops. 12 a) systems/controversy b) ﬁgures/show/advantages c) option/researing d) results/strengthen e) ﬁeld/study f) carried out/conduct PART 5 WRITING MODELS 5.1 Case Studies 1 Using case studies A case study has the advantage of providing a concrete experience/example. e disadvantages are that it is limited in place and time, and the example may not be applicable to other situations. Topics Case studies Methods of teaing dyslexic ildren Improving crop yields in semi-deserts Reducing infant mortality Building earthquakeresistant bridges Dealing with reoﬀending among prisoners Improving recycling rates in large cities An experimental approa to reading diﬃculties with ildren under eight in Singapore Using solar power to operate irrigation pumps in Ethiopia A programme to cut smoking among pregnant women in a Greek clinic. e lessons from Chile – how three structures withstood the 2010 quake Work and learning – how a Brazilian seme encouraged convicts to stay out of jail e Berlin experiment: increasing public participation in collecting and sorting waste 2 Model case study (Additional answers are possible here) a) Competition from rivals oﬀering free delivery Some products (e.g. single beds) not suited to Chinese tastes b) Store layouts mat Chinese apartments Products linked to New Year celebrations Reduced prices by sourcing production locally Produces thinner but more frequent catalogues Uses local aracters in adverts Aempts to provide beer service Stores located in downtown areas for public transport c) More ﬁnancial details of IKEA’s sales and proﬁts in the Chinese market More information about IKEA’s main competitors in this market 5.2 Literature Reviews and Book Reviews 2 Example literature review a) 2 (content & process) b) 7 c) 5 d) It is more convenient to use secondary sources in this kind of short literature review. If you were studying just one of these theorists (e.g. Herzberg), you might be expected to use primary sources. 4 Model book review e reviewer might have said what level of student would beneﬁt from reading the book (e.g. undergraduate/Master’s/PhD). 5.3 Writing Longer Papers 2 Example essay a) e writer appears to be in favour of nuclear energy. b) e writer ﬁrst presents the arguments in favour of nuclear power and compares it with alternatives sources of energy. e safety aspects of the various alternative energy sources are then examined. In the conclusion the writer summarises his/her position (‘nuclear energy can be seen … fossil fuels’). c) e paper is quite balanced and includes some useful statistical data. But it could be argued that the writer ignores some of the negative aspects of nuclear power, su as the high cost of building nuclear power stations and the diﬃculty of disposing of nuclear waste. Some of the sources used appear rather outdated. 3 Revision (Example answers) a) See Paragraph 1. b) ‘is essay aempts to assess the risks of using nuclear power in comparison with other sources of energy’. c) ‘e main arguments for employing nuclear energy are ﬁrst considered, followed by an examination of the safety issues around this source of power, including the safety and security concerns connected with nuclear waste’. d) ‘ … alternative energy sources to fossil fuels (i.e. oil, gas and coal…’) e) ‘Wind energy and solar power are frequently presented as alternative energy sources to fossil fuels’. f) ‘Mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent)’ g) ‘ … since the Chernobyl accident in 1986 there has been persistent concern…’ h) ‘ … burning all three fuels contributes to the greenhouse eﬀect whi is causing the world to heat up’. i) power j) ‘If this increase occurs the total global sto of oil and gas would only be adequate for 250 years…’ k) ‘It is estimated that in 2003, in the US, nuclear energy prevented the release of 680 million tons of CO2 …’ l) ‘However, its opponents argue that it can damage the environment by creating radioactive waste’. m) Bodansky (2004) n) ‘Lillington (2004) suggests that the cost of purasing fuel for nuclear energy is likely to remain low compared to other energy sources…’ 5.4 Reports 2 Essays and reports 1) Essay 2) Report 3) Report 4) Report/essay 5) Essay 3 Practice Introduction Due to the recent closure of the maintenance depot, a site approximately 250 metres long and 100 metres wide has become vacant on the west side of the university campus, and is ready for redevelopment. (e) e aim of the redevelopment is to improve facilities for both staﬀ and students and at the same time enhance the appearance of this part of the campus. (d) Two alternatives semes for redevelopment have been put forward, as can be seen in Plans A and B above. (b) is report aempts to compare the two semes and to establish whi is the more suitable. (c) e report takes into account a consultation exercise with staﬀ and students carried out last autumn. (a) (Example report) Proposals e central feature of Plan A is a circular park area in the middle of the site, whi would contain trees and seating. On one side of this is a small car park with space for 40 vehicles. On the other side is a blo of tennis courts. e alternative, Plan B, provides a larger car park along the side next to the Access Road with spaces for 100 cars. e other half of the site contains a building housing a café and a range of shops at one end, while at the other end is a swimming pool. Discussion Clearly the two proposals oﬀer quite diﬀerent amenities. Plan A provides some green space for relaxation, along with tennis courts and a limited amount of parking. It is a relatively low-key seme that could be completed quite eaply. In contrast, Plan B would be more expensive but would also oﬀer catering and sports facilities as well as extra parking. Recommendations It can be argued in favour of Plan B that a swimming pool would have wider appeal than tennis courts, and also that there is a severe shortage of parking on the campus. However, it is not clear that more shops and a café are really needed for the university, and few students actually drive cars. Plan A would also do more to improve the look of the campus by increasing the green space. In view of these considerations, the university should perhaps consider combining the best of both plans and replace the tennis courts in Plan A with a swimming pool. 5 Example report: Student experience of part-time work a) conducted b) random c) questionnaire d) questioned e) respondents/interviewees f) Interviewees/Respondents g) mentioned h) majority i) slightly j) minority k) questions l) common m) generally n) sample 5.5 Writing Letters and Emails 1 Letters a) Address of sender b) Address of recipient c) Sender’s reference d) Date e) Greeting f) Subject headline g) Reason for writing h) Further details i) Request for response j) Ending k) Signature l) Writer’s name and job title 2 Practice A (Example answer) 4 Practice B Sender = student/recipient = teaer A reply is unlikely, unless the recipient needs to comment on the aaed paper. 5 Practice C (Example answers) a) Hi Mark, We need to sedule a short meeting tomorrow. What time would suit you? See you soon, b) Hello Tricia, I’m looking for another source for this month’s essay. Could you recommend something suitable? Best wishes, c) Hi everyone, It’s only a week before the end of the course – what are we going to do to celebrate? Let me have your ideas – I’ll pass them on and hopefully get something good ﬁxed up for Sat. 12th! Dear Tim Carey, I’ve never had this book, so I can’t return it. Can you e your records please? 5.6 Writing in Groups 1 a) F b) T c) F d) F e) T f) F 2 Making group work successful 1 E. Get to know the other members. 2 C. Make everyone feel included. 3 A. Analyse the task. 4 G. Plan the job and the responsibilities. 5 B. Divide up the work fairly, according to the abilities of the members. 6 F. Select a co-ordinator/editor. 7 D. Finish the assignment on time. 3 Dealing with problems a) (i) e lazy students will learn nothing from this approa, and the same problem will occur the next time they are involved in group work. a) (ii) Although it may seem diﬃcult, this is the only positive solution. a) (iii) Your teaers are unlikely to help – group work is designed to make these problems your responsibility. b) (i) Your teaers are unlikely to help – group work is designed to make these problems your responsibility. b) (ii) is will not help you in the long run – you must learn to take part in discussion. b) (iii) e right approa. e other members probably don’t realise that you are having diﬃculties with their language. c) (i) If everyone in the group takes part, the oﬀender will be forced to accept that their behaviour is unhelpful. c) (ii) Your teaers are unlikely to help – group work is designed to make these problems your responsibility. c) (iii) You will run the risk that they will get a poor mark and so everyone will suﬀer. Index abbreviations in citations 60–1 abbreviations in writing 187–8 abbreviations, common 186–7 abbreviations, types 185 abstracts, reading 19–20 academic adjectives 193–4 academic style 21, 133, 161–2 academic texts 10–13 academic vocabulary 189–95 academic writing components 6–7 academic writing, format 4–6 academic writing, types 4 adjectives, academic 65, 193–4 adjectives, similar 193 adverbs, academic 196–201 adverbs, with passive 150 American English xxviii–xxx, 155 apostrophes 154 argument 91–5 argument, organisation of 92 articles 139 articles, deﬁnite 139–42 assessing internet sources critically 21–22 book reviews 229–33 brainstorming 35 capital leers 152 case studies 225–8 case study, model 226 category words 106–8 cause and eﬀect 96–100 caution 166–7 ange, language of 125–6 citation and quotation 56 citations and references 56 citations, abbreviations in 60–1 cohesion 135–8 colons 154 combining sources 64–70 commas 153 comparisons 101–5 comparison structures 101–2 conclusions 76–81 conclusion structure 81 confusing pairs 182–3 conjunctions 202–6 conjunctions, confusing 205 conjunctions of opposition 205–6 conjunctions, types 203–4 counterarguments 93–4 critical approa to sources 65–8 critical thinking 23–5 deﬁnitions 106–9 deﬁnitions, complex 108 deﬁnitions, simple 106 describing visuals 126–7 discussion language 93 discussion organisation 92 discussion vocabulary 91–2 electronic resources, searing 15–16 emails 249–52 essay length 36–7 essay titles, analysing 34 evidence, providing 94–5 examples 110–13 examples, introducing 111 fact and opinion 20–1 format of academic writing 4–6 full stops 153 generalisations 114–17 generalisations, structure 115 graphs and arts 122, 285 group phrases 158 groups, writing in 253–6 implied language 137 internet resources, assessing critically 21–2 introduction contents 78, 274 introductions 76–81 introduction structure 77–9 inverted commas 155 journals, academic 6 key points, ﬁnding 39–45 labelling visuals 128 language features 181 language of ange 125–6 language of discussion 93 length of essay 36–7 leers 249–50 library catalogues 14–15 linking paragraphs 74 list of references 61–2 literature reviews 229–33 longer papers 234–41 main verbs, understanding 196–7 mind maps 37, 87 modiﬁers, using 167 note-making 39–45 note-making methods 42–3 nouns and adjectives 189–95 nouns and adjectives, confusing 191–2 nouns, academic 189 nouns, uncountable 158–9 numbers 143–7 numbers, simpliﬁcation 144–5 numerical phrases 145–6 opening sentences 79–80 organisation of argument 92 organising paragraphs 71–5 outlines 37 paragraph structure 71–2 paragraphs 71–5 paragraphs, linking 74 paragraphs, organising 71–5 paragraphs, writing in 8–9 paraphrasing 28, 46–54 paraphrasing teniques 52 passives 148–51 passive, use of 149–50 percentages 144 phrases from other languages 183–4 plagiarism 26–32 plagiarism, degrees of 27–8 planning process 33 preﬁxes 207–10 prepositions 211–15 prepositions and nouns 212 prepositions and verbs 214 prepositions in phrases 213 prepositions of place and time 213 problems and solutions, structure 118–19 problems and solutions, vocabulary 119 proofreading 82–7 providing evidence 94–5 punctuation 152–6 purpose of academic writing 3 questionnaire design 212 quotation marks 155 quotations 55–63 reading academic texts 177, 179 reading lists 13 reading methods 17–18 reading texts, types of 13 reference systems 57 reference verbs 56 reference words 135 references 55–63 references and citations 56 references, list of 61–2 references, secondary 61 relevant points, ﬁnding 40–1 repetition and redundancy, avoiding 164–5 reports 242–8 reports, scientiﬁc 244–6 resources, internet 21–2 restatement 113 rewriting 82–7 scientiﬁc reports 244–6 searing electronic resources 15–16 secondary references 61 semi-colons 154 sentence length, varying 165–6 sentences, opening 79–80 sentences, simple and longer 7–8 singular or plural? 157–60 sources, anowledging 27 sources, combining 64–70 sources, ﬁnding suitable 10–16 style guidelines 162–3 style, academic 161–2 suﬃxes 207–10 summarising 46–54 summarising and paraphrasing 46–54 summarising, stages of 47 superlatives 103 synonyms 216–21 tenses 170 text features 18–19 text types 13 time markers 169–75 titles and sub-titles 18–19 titles, essay 34 titles, understanding 33–8 types of academic writing 4 types of reading texts 13 uncountable nouns 158–9 varying sentence length 165–6 verbs and prepositions 214 verbs of reference 198–9 verbs, academic 196–201 verbs, passives 201 verbs, understanding main 196–7 visual information 122–31 visuals, describing 126–7 visuals, labelling 128 vocabulary, approaes to 179–84 vocabulary, new 180–1 words and phrases from other languages 183–4 writing in groups 253–6
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- 2. Academic Writing Most international students need to write essays and reports for exams and coursework, but writing good academic English is one of the most demanding tasks students face. This new, fourth edition of Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students has been completely revised to help students reach this goal. The four main parts of Academic Writing are: • The Writing Process • Elements of Writing • Vocabulary for Writing • Writing Models Each part is divided into short units that contain examples, explanations and exercises, for use in the classroom or for self-study. The units are clearly organised to allow teachers and students to find the help they need with writing tasks, while cross-referencing allows easy access to relevant sections. In the first part, each stage of the writing process is demonstrated and practised, from selecting suitable sources, reading, note-making and planning through to rewriting and proofreading. The fourth edition of this popular book builds on the success of the earlier editions, and has a special focus on the vital topic of academic vocabulary in Part 3, ‘Vocabulary for Writing’. Part 3 deals with areas such as nouns and adjectives, adverbs and verbs, synonyms, prefixes and prepositions, in an academic context. More key features of the book include: • All elements of writing are clearly explained, with a full glossary for reference • Models provided for all types of academic texts: essays, reports, reviews and case studies • Full range of practice exercises, with answer key included • Use of authentic academic texts • A companion website offers further practice with a range of additional exercises • Fully updated, with sections on finding electronic sources and evaluating Internet material All international students wanting to maximise their academic potential will find this practical and easy-to-use book an invaluable guide to writing in English for their degree courses. Stephen Bailey is a freelance writer of materials for English for Academic Purposes. He has taught students in Barcelona, Tokyo, Johor Bahru and Prague, and more recently at Derby University and the University of Nottingham. His other books include Academic Writing for International Students of Business (Routledge).
- 3. International students have many adjustments to make as they enter British universities and Stephen’s book makes at least one area of their lives – academic study – much more approach- able. With its straightforward approach and improved layout, it will be a book many students will come to regard as an essential companion to their university lives. Stephen Dewhirst, Freelance EAP teacher, UK International students and indeed all students should find this book very helpful. It is accessible to read and engages in an explicit and sharply focused manner with many elements of the critical use of reading, of writing and of studying. The book usefully explains, exemplifies, and tests understanding. It deals with the problematic areas of plagiarism and grammatical work, of developing argument and counter argument, and essay expression. It should be very useful for international students engaged in academic writing. Professor Gina Wisker, University of Brighton, UK Stephen Bailey's Academic Writing is one of the few academic writing books that deal with core areas effectively - language, text type, academic conventions and the writing process. This is done by giving simple explanations, authentic examples and useful practice opportunities which can either be done in class or as self study. The book appeals to a range of levels including pre and in sessional students and equips them with a range of the key language and skills needed to embark on academic writing in higher education. Fiona Gilbert, Oxford Brookes University, UK This book provides international students with a useful introduction to the basic practices in reading and writing for academic purposes. It includes topics such as the typical content of article abstracts, the mechanics of citation and referencing, and some uses of sources in writing – topics that will help international students, studying in an English medium university for the first time, to meet their tutors’ expectations in reading and writing assignments. The chapter on reading advises a critical attitude to internet resources, advice most relevant to students today. Antonia Chandrasegaran, National Institute of Education, Singapore
- 4. Academic Writing A Handbook for International Students Fourth edition Stephen Bailey
- 5. Fourth edition published 2015 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN and by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2015 Stephen Bailey The right of Stephen Bailey to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. First edition published by Routledge 2003 Third edition published by Routledge 2011 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Bailey, Stephen, 1947– Academic writing: a handbook for international students/Stephen Bailey. – Fourth edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. English language – Rhetoric – Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. English language – Textbooks for foreign speakers. 3. Academic writing – Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title. PE1413.B28 2015 808⬘.0428 – dc23 2014012537 ISBN: 978-1-138-77849-8 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-138-77850-4 (pbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-76896-0 (ebk) Typeset in Galliard by Florence Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, Devon, UK Additional materials are available on the companion website at www.routledge.com/cw/bailey
- 6. Contents Acknowledgements xii Introduction for Teachers xiii Introduction for Students xv Academic Writing Quiz xvii Part 1 The Writing Process 1 1.1 Background to Writing 3 The purpose of academic writing 3 Common types of academic writing 4 The format of long and short writing tasks 4 The features of academic writing 6 Some other common text features 6 Simple and longer sentences 7 Writing in paragraphs 8 1.2 Reading: Finding Suitable Sources 9 Academic texts 9 Types of text 12 Using reading lists 12 Using library catalogues 13 Using library websites to search electronic resources 14 1.3 Reading: Developing Critical Approaches 16 Reading methods 16 Titles, sub-titles and text features 17 Reading abstracts 18
- 7. Fact and opinion 19 Assessing internet sources critically 19 Critical thinking 22 1.4 Avoiding Plagiarism 25 What is plagiarism? 25 Acknowledging sources 26 Degrees of plagiarism 26 Avoiding plagiarism by summarising and paraphrasing 27 Avoiding plagiarism by developing good study habits 29 Research 30 1.5 From Understanding Titles to Planning 31 The planning process 31 Analysing essay titles 32 Brainstorming 33 Essay length 34 Outlines 35 1.6 Finding Key Points and Note-making 36 Finding key points 36 Finding relevant points 37 Why make notes? 38 Note-making methods 39 Effective note-making 40 1.7 Summarising and Paraphrasing 42 What makes a good summary? 42 Stages of summarising 43 Paraphrasing 47 Techniques for paraphrasing 49 1.8 References and Quotations 52 Why use references? 52 Citations and references 53 Reference verbs 53 Reference systems 54 Using quotations 55 Abbreviations in citations 57 Secondary references 57 Organising the list of references 58 vi Contents
- 8. 1.9 Combining Sources 61 Mentioning sources 61 Taking a critical approach 62 Combining three sources 64 1.10 Organising Paragraphs 67 Paragraph structure 67 Example paragraph 67 Development of ideas 69 Introducing paragraphs and linking them together 70 1.11 Introductions and Conclusions 72 Introduction contents 72 Introduction structure 73 Opening sentences 76 Conclusions 76 1.12 Rewriting and Proofreading 78 Rewriting 78 Proofreading 81 Part 2 Elements of Writing 83 2.1 Argument and Discussion 85 Discussion vocabulary 85 Organisation 86 The language of discussion 88 Counterarguments 88 Providing evidence 89 2.2 Cause and Effect 91 The language of cause and effect 91 2.3 Cohesion 96 Reference words 96 Preventing confusion 97 2.4 Comparisons 100 Comparison structures 100 Forms of comparison 102 Using superlatives (e.g. the largest/smallest) 102 Contents vii
- 9. 2.5 Definite Articles 105 Use of articles 105 Using definite articles 106 2.6 Definitions 109 Simple definitions 109 Complex definitions 110 2.7 Examples 112 Using examples 112 Phrases to introduce examples 113 Restatement 115 2.8 Generalisations 116 Using generalisations 116 Structure 117 Building on generalisations 119 2.9 Passives 121 Active and passive 121 Structure 122 Using adverbs 122 2.10 Problems and Solutions 125 Paragraph structure 125 Alternative structure 126 Vocabulary 127 2.11 Punctuation 129 Capital letters 129 Apostrophes (’) 129 Semicolons (;) 130 Colons (:) 130 Commas (,) 130 Quotation marks/inverted commas (“. . .”/‘. . .’) 131 Full stops (.) 131 Others 132 2.12 Singular or Plural? 134 Five areas of difficulty 134 Group phrases 135 Uncountable nouns 135 viii Contents
- 10. 2.13 Style 138 Components of academic style 138 Guidelines 139 Avoiding repetition and redundancy 141 Varying sentence length 142 The use of caution 143 Using modifiers 144 2.14 Visual Information 146 Types of visuals 146 The language of change 148 Describing visuals 149 Labelling 150 Part 3 Vocabulary for Writing 153 3.1 Approaches to Vocabulary 155 Introduction 155 Discussing language 156 Practice 157 Confusing pairs 158 Words and phrases from other languages 159 3.2 Abbreviations 161 Types of abbreviation 161 Some common abbreviations 162 Punctuation 163 Duplicate abbreviations 163 Abbreviations in writing 163 3.3 Academic Vocabulary: Nouns and Adjectives 165 Introduction 165 Nouns 165 Using nouns and adjectives 167 Academic adjectives 169 3.4 Academic Vocabulary: Adverbs and Verbs 172 Understanding main verbs 172 Using verbs of reference 174 Further referring verbs 175 Using adverbs 176 Contents ix
- 11. 3.5 Conjunctions 178 Types of conjunctions 178 Common conjunctions 180 Conjunctions of opposition 181 3.6 Numbers 183 The language of numbers 183 Percentages 184 Simplification 184 Further numerical phrases 185 3.7 Prefixes and Suffixes 188 How prefixes and suffixes work 188 Prefixes 188 Suffixes 190 3.8 Prepositions 192 Using prepositions 192 Prepositions and nouns 193 Prepositions in phrases 194 Prepositions of place and time 194 Verbs and prepositions 195 3.9 Synonyms 197 How synonyms work 197 Common synonyms in academic writing 198 3.10 Time Markers 201 How time markers are used 201 Tenses 202 Part 4 Writing Models 205 4.1 Case Studies 207 Using case studies 207 Model case study 208 4.2 Literature Reviews and Book Reviews 211 Literature reviews 211 Example literature review 212 Book reviews 214 Model book review 214 x Contents
- 12. 4.3 Writing Longer Essays 216 Planning your work 216 Example essay 218 Revision 222 4.4 Reports 224 Writing reports 224 Essays and reports 225 Scientific reports 227 4.5 Surveys 229 Conducting surveys 229 Questionnaire design 229 Survey language 230 Question forms 232 Tenses 232 Test Your Progress 234 Glossary 236 Answers 241 Index 282 Contents xi
- 13. Acknowledgements I would like to thank the many students I have taught over the past 30 years, whose needs have provided the impetus for this book. Their enthusiasm and resilience has been a constant inspiration for me. My wife Rene has provided me with invaluable support, encouragement and advice on many aspects of academic writing during the development of this book. Final thanks are due to my daughter, Sophie, for helping me to keep the whole subject in perspective!
- 14. Introduction for Teachers Aims This course has been developed to help international students with their written assignments in English at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. Students who are not native speakers of English often find the written requirements of their courses very challenging. In addition to the vocabulary of academic English, they have to learn new conventions of style, referencing and format. Furthermore, their lecturers are often concerned by their lack of critical thinking skills, and also mention students’ failure to answer the specific question and their inability to develop answers logically. Issues around vocabulary, plagiarism and referencing skills are significant additional worries. The fourth edition of Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students sets out to address these problems directly. It recognises that while international students are not expected to write perfect English, accurate and effective language use is an essential skill for such students. What may be individually minor problems with prepositions, word endings, spelling or articles can result in essays that are barely comprehensible to the best-motivated marker. Structure To deal with this, students are guided through the stages of the writing process in Part 1 and then the related writing skills are explained and practised in Part 2. Part 3 is designed to assist students with aspects of academic vocabulary, understandably a prime concern for many non- native users of English. Part 4 provides models of some common writing formats, such as case studies. Teachers may wish to work through the writing process in Part 1 while referring to units in Part 2 as the group progresses. (Part 2 is not intended to be taught from start to finish: note the alphabetical organisation of Parts 2, 3 and 4.)
- 15. Part Topic Main application 1 The Writing Process Classroom use from finding sources to proofreading 2 Elements of Writing Classroom use and self-study from argument to visual information 3 Vocabulary for Writing Classroom use, self-study and reference from abbreviations to synonyms 4 Writing Models Self-study and reference from case studies to surveys Using the Book A feature of Academic Writing is its clear and logical organisation, which makes it ideal as a self-study and reference guide for students needing to work independently. This is a recognition that most courses in academic writing are inevitably time-constrained, and that some students may have no other option. It is designed to be used on both pre-sessional and in-sessional courses, and is suitable for subject-specific (e.g. law, medicine) and multi-discipline courses in English for Academic Purposes (EAP). The first three units in Part 1 assume a fairly low level of writing ability and deal with some basic issues, but beyond this the material becomes more demanding. Academic Writing uses authentic texts and examples taken from a wide range of disciplines. Extensive cross-referencing is provided to assist both teachers and students find relevant support. All exercises can be done individually or in pairs and groups. A full answer key, plus glossary and index, are included at the end of the book. Extra practice exercises are available on the book’s website: www.routledge.com/cw/bailey/. The material in this course has been extensively tested in the classroom, but improvements can always be achieved. Therefore, I would be very glad to receive any comments or suggestions about the book from teachers, for future editions. Stephen Bailey [email protected] xiv Introduction for Teachers
- 16. Introduction for Students Why is writing English more difficult than speaking? Many international students who arrive at college to study in English can speak the language well enough for normal life: shopping, travelling and meeting people. But the same students are often surprised to find that writing essays and reports in English is much more difficult. It can be helpful to think about the reasons for this situation. First, speaking is usually done face to face. If your listener cannot understand you, then they can look puzzled and ask you to repeat. But this does not work with a reader! When we write, we usually have little idea who may read our work, so we have to write as clearly as possible so that it is easy to understand. With academic writing, writers and readers have to learn special conventions, such as using capital letters in certain places. If you do not follow these conventions, your meaning may be unclear and your teacher can have difficulty assessing your work. Another issue is vocabulary. Most academic subjects require writers to use semi-formal language, which is different from the idiomatic language used in speech. One example is using a verb such as ‘continue’ instead of phrasal verbs such as ‘go on’. What is the purpose of the book? This book is designed to help you succeed in the writing tasks you may be given as part of your academic course. The kind of writing that you are asked to do may be different from the work you have done before, and for some this may be the first time you have had to write long essays or reports in English. Your teachers know that English is not your native language and will be sympathetic to the problems you have in your writing. But at the same time, you will want to learn to write as clearly and accurately as possible, not only to succeed on your current course, but also in preparation for your career. Almost all large companies and organisations expect their staff to be able to communicate effectively in written English, as well as orally. Therefore, during your
- 17. studies you have the ideal opportunity to learn to write English well, and this book can help you achieve that goal. In addition to accuracy, students on academic courses are expected to take a critical approach to their sources. This means that your teachers will expect you to question and evaluate everything you read, asking whether it is reliable or relevant. You are also expected to refer carefully to the sources of all your ideas, using a standard system of referencing. Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students will help you to develop these skills. How is the book organised? The book can be used either with a teacher or for self-study and reference. Each unit contains practice exercises that can be checked using the answer key at the end of the book. For ease of use, it is divided into the following sections: To help you get the most out of this course, note the following points: • Instructions are printed as shown here: 䊏 List your ideas below. • Links to relevant units are shown like this: 䉴 See Unit 2.13 Style These links help you to find extra information, but do not have to be read in order to complete the exercises. • Extra practice in some areas is provided on the Academic Writing website www. routledge.com/cw/bailey/. This is shown, for example, by: Referencing • Answers are provided for most exercises in the answer key at the end of the book. If no definite answer can be given, an example answer is usually offered. • The index can be used to locate specific information. The glossary explains academic terms that you may not be familiar with. Thousands of students have already found that Academic Writing helps them to write more clearly and effectively. This new edition has been developed using their feedback and ideas, and I would be very glad to receive comments and suggestions on any aspect of the book to help develop future editions. Stephen Bailey [email protected] xvi Introduction for Students
- 18. Academic Writing Quiz 䊏 How much do you know about academic writing? Find out by doing this fun quiz. 1 The main difference between academic writing and normal writing is that academic writing: (a) uses longer words (b) tries to be precise and unbiased (c) is harder to understand 2 The difference between a project and an essay is: (a) essays are longer (b) projects are longer (c) students choose projects’ topics 3 Teachers complain most about students: (a) not answering the question given (b) not writing enough (c) not referencing properly 4 The best time to write an introduction is often: (a) first (b) last (c) after writing the main body 5 Plagiarism is: (a) a dangerous disease (b) an academic offence (c) an academic website 6 Making careful notes is essential for: (a) writing essays (b) revising for exams (c) all academic work
- 19. 7 An in-text citation looks like: (a) (Manton, 2008) (b) (Richard Manton, 2008) (c) (Manton, R. 2008) 8 Paraphrasing a text means: (a) making it shorter (b) changing a lot of the vocabulary (c) adding more detail 9 Paragraphs always contain: (a) six or more sentences (b) an example (c) a topic sentence 10 The purpose of an introduction is: (a) to give your aims and methods (b) to excite the reader (c) to summarise your ideas 11 Proofreading means: (a) getting a friend to check your work (b) checking for minor errors (c) rewriting 12 Teachers expect students to adopt a critical approach to their sources: (a) sometimes (b) only for Master’s work (c) always (Answers on page 242) xviii Academic Writing Quiz
- 20. PART 1 The Writing Process
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- 22. Background to Writing UNIT 1. 1 1 The purpose of academic writing Writers should be clear why they are writing. The most common reasons for writing include: • to report on a piece of research the writer has conducted • to answer a question the writer has been given or chosen • to discuss a subject of common interest and give the writer’s view • to synthesise research done by others on a topic 䊏 Can you suggest any other reasons? • _________________________________________________________________________ • _________________________________________________________________________ Whatever the purpose, it is useful to think about the probable readers of your work. How can you explain your ideas to them effectively? Although there is no fixed standard of academic writing, it is clearly different from the written style of newspapers or novels. For example, it is generally agreed that academic writing attempts to be accurate and objective. What are its other features? Most academic courses test students through written assignments. These tasks include coursework, which may take weeks to write, and exam answers, which often have to be written in an hour. This unit deals with: • the names of different writing tasks • the format of long and short writing tasks • the structure of sentences and paragraphs
- 23. Notes A piece of research, either individual or group work, with the topic chosen by the student(s). Report The longest piece of writing normally done by a student (20,000+ words), often for a higher degree, on a topic chosen by the student. Project A written record of the main points of a text or lecture, for a student’s personal use. Essay A general term for any academic essay, report, presentation or article. Dissertation/ Thesis A description of something a student has done. Paper The most common type of written work, with the title given by the teacher, normally 1,000–5,000 words. 4 Part 1: The Writing Process 䊏 Working alone or in a group, list your ideas below. • _________________________________________________________________________ • _________________________________________________________________________ • _________________________________________________________________________ • _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Common types of academic writing Below are the most normal types of written work produced by students. 䊏 Match the terms on the left to the definitions on the right. Impersonal style – avoids using ‘I’ or ‘we’ 3 The format of long and short writing tasks Short essays (including exam answers) generally have this pattern: Introduction Main body Conclusion Longer essays and reports may include: Introduction Main body
- 24. Literature review Case study Discussion Conclusion References Appendices 䉴 See Unit 4.3 Longer Essays Dissertations and journal articles may have: Abstract List of contents List of tables Introduction Main body Literature review Case study Findings Discussion Conclusion Acknowledgements References Appendices 䊏 Find the words in the lists above that match the following definitions: (a) A short summary that explains the paper’s purpose and main findings. _______________________________________________________________________ (b) A list of all the sources the writer has mentioned in the text. _______________________________________________________________________ (c) A section, at the end, where additional information is included. _______________________________________________________________________ (d) A short section where people who have helped the writer are thanked. _______________________________________________________________________ (e) Part of the main body in which the views of other writers on the topic are discussed. _______________________________________________________________________ (f) A section where one particular example is described in detail. _______________________________________________________________________ 1.1: Background to Writing 5
- 25. 6 Part 1: The Writing Process sentence heading sub-title paragraph title phrase 4 The features of academic writing There are no fixed rules for the layout of academic work. Different schools and departments require students to follow different formats for written work. Your teachers may give you guidelines, or you should ask them what they want, but some general features apply to most formats. 䊏 Read the text below and identify the features underlined, using the words in the box. (a) A fishy story. (b) Misleading health claims regarding omega-3 fatty acids. (c) Introduction. (d) There has been considerable discussion recently about the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet. (e) It is claimed that these reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and may even combat obesity. Consequently, food producers have added omega-3s to products ranging from margarine to soft drinks in an attempt to make their products appear healthier and hence increase sales. (f) However, consumers may be unaware that there are two types of omega-3s. The best (long-chain fatty acids) are derived from fish, but others (short-chain fatty acids) come from cheaper sources such as soya. This latter group have not been shown to produce the health benefits linked to the long-chain variety. According to Tamura et al. (2009), positive results may only be obtained either by eating oily fish three times a week, or by taking daily supplements containing 500 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). (a) _______ (b) _______ (c) _______ (d) _______ e) _______ (f) _______ 5 Some other common text features (a) Reference to sources using citation: According to Tamura et al. (2009) (b) The use of abbreviations to save space: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (c) Italics: used to show words from other languages: Tamura et al. (= and others) (d) Brackets: used to give extra information or to clarify a point: . . . but others (short-chain fatty acids) come from cheaper sources such as soya. Title
- 26. 1.1: Background to Writing 7 6 Simple and longer sentences 䊏 Study the table below. Dragon Motors – vehicle production 2009–2013 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 135,470 156,935 164,820 159,550 123,075 All sentences contain verbs: In 2009, the company produced over 135,000 vehicles. Between 2009 and 2010, vehicle production increased by 20 per cent. Simple sentences (above) are easier to write and read, but longer sentences are also needed in academic writing. However, students should make clarity a priority, and avoid writing very lengthy sentences with several clauses until they feel confident in their ability. Sentences containing two or more clauses use conjunctions, relative pronouns or punctu- ation to link the clauses: In 2009, Dragon Motors produced over 135,000 vehicles, but the following year production increased by 20 per cent. (conjunction) In 2011, the company built 164,820 vehicles, which was the peak of production. (relative pronoun) Nearly 160,000 vehicles were produced in 2012; by 2013, this had fallen to 123,000. (punctuation) 䊏 Write two simple and two longer sentences using data from the table above. (a) _______________________________________________________________________ (b) _______________________________________________________________________ (c) _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (d) _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 䉴 See Unit 2.13.5 Style: Varying sentence length
- 27. 8 Part 1: The Writing Process 7 Writing in paragraphs 䊏 Discuss the following questions: • What is a paragraph? • Why are texts divided into paragraphs? • How long are paragraphs? • Do paragraphs have a standard structure? 䊏 Read the text below and divide it into a suitable number of paragraphs. BIOCHAR Charcoal is produced by burning wood slowly in a low-oxygen environment. This material, which is mainly carbon, was used for many years to heat iron ore to extract the metal. But when Abraham Darby discovered a smelting process using coke (produced from coal) in 1709 demand for charcoal collapsed. At approximately the same time the carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere began to rise. But a new use for charcoal, re-named biochar, has recently emerged. It is claimed that using biochar made from various types of plants can both improve soil quality and combat global warming. Various experiments in the United States have shown that adding burnt crop wastes to soil increases fertility and cuts the loss of vital nutrients such as nitrates. The other benefit of biochar is its ability to lock CO2 into the soil. The process of decay normally allows the carbon dioxide in plants to return to the atmosphere rapidly, but when transformed into charcoal this may be delayed for hundreds of years. In addition, soil containing biochar appears to release less methane, a gas which contributes significantly to global warming. American researchers claim that widespread use of biochar could reduce global CO2 emissions by over 10 per cent. But other agricultural scientists are concerned about the environmental effects of growing crops especially for burning, and about the displacement of food crops that might be caused. However, the potential twin benefits of greater farm yields and reduced greenhouse gases mean that further research in this area is urgently needed. 䉴 See Unit 1.10 Organising Paragraphs
- 28. Reading Finding Suitable Sources UNIT 1.2 Students often underestimate the importance of effective reading, but on any course it is vital to be able to find and understand the most relevant and suitable sources quickly. This unit: • examines the most appropriate text types for academic work • explores ways of locating relevant material in the library • explains the use of electronic resources 1 Academic texts You may need to read a variety of types of texts, such as websites or journal articles, for your course. So it is important to identify the most suitable texts and recognise their features, which will help you to assess their value. 䊏 You are studying Tourism Marketing. Read the text extracts 1–4 below and decide which are the most suitable for academic use, and why. Text Suitability? 1 2 3 4 Yes, it summarises some relevant research, and includes citations.
- 29. 10 Part 1: The Writing Process 1 To promote tourism and market destination, it is important to study the tourists’ attitude, behaviour and demand. The studies of Levitt (1986) and Kotler and Armstrong (1994) suggest that an understanding of consumer behaviour may help with the marketing planning process in tourism marketing. The research of consumer behaviour is the key to the underpinning of all marketing activity which is carried out to develop, promote and sell tourism products (Swarbrooke and Horner, 1999; Asad, 2005). Therefore, the study of consumer behaviour has become necessary for the sake of tourism marketing. 2 The romance of travel has always fascinated me, and our recent trip to Thailand lived up to expectations. We flew from Dubai and after a comfortable flight arrived in Bangkok just as the sun was rising. Our stay in the city lasted only a couple of days before we set off for the hill country around Chang Mai, where we were planning to visit some of the indigenous tribes who live in this mountainous region. When we arrived, the weather was rather disappointing, but after a day the heavy rain gave way to sparkling clear sunshine. 3 Holiday trips to the Antarctica have quadrupled in the past decade and last year more than 46,000 people visited the land mass and surrounding oceans. However, safety fears and concerns about the impact visitors are having on the delicate frozen landscape have soared and members of the Antarctic Treaty – an agreement between 28 nations, including the UK, on the use of the continent – are now meeting to discuss ways to regulate tourism. British officials are seeking to establish a ‘strategic agreement for tourism’ around the South Pole. If successful, it will see treaty members introduce new measures to improve the safety of tourist trips, while also reducing the impact that visitors will have on the environment. The regulations could see limits on the number of ships and landings, restrictions on how close they come to shore, a ban on building tourist facilities and hotels on the continent, and rules on waste discharges from ships.
- 30. 䊏 The main features of academic texts are listed in the table below. Find examples of each using the texts above. 4 Equally, from a political perspective, the nature of state involvement in and policies for tourism is dependent on both the political-economic structures and the prevailing political ideology in the destination state, with comparisons typically made between market-led and centrally planned economies. For example, the Thatcher–Reagan-inspired neo-liberalism of the 1980s, and the subsequent focus on privatisation and the markets in many Western nations contrasted starkly with the then centrally planned tourism sectors in the former Eastern Europe (Buckley and Witt, 1990; Hall, 1991). At the same time, of course, it has also long been recognised that the political-economic relationship of one nation with another or with the wider international community (that is, the extent of political-economic dependency) may represent a significant influence on tourism development (Telfer, 2002). Thus, in short, tourism planning and development in the destination tends to reflect both the structures and political ideologies of the state and its international political-economic relations. 1.2: Reading: Finding Suitable Sources 11 Feature Examples 1 Formal vocabulary 2 Use of references 3 Impersonal style 4 Long, complex sentences the marketing planning process in tourism marketing . . . the extent of political-economic dependency . . .
- 31. 2 Types of text 䊏 The table below lists the most common written sources used by students. Work with a partner to consider their likely advantages and disadvantages. 12 Part 1: The Writing Process Text type Advantages Disadvantages Textbook Website Journal article Official report (e.g. from government) Newspaper or magazine article e-Book Written for students May be too general 3 Using reading lists Your teacher may give you a printed reading list, or it may be available online through the library website. The list will usually include textbooks, journal articles and websites. If the list is electronic, there will be links to the library catalogue to let you check on the availability of the material. If the list is printed, you will have to use the library catalogue to find the texts. You do not have to read every word of a book because it is on the list. Your teacher will probably suggest which pages to read, and also tell you which parts are the most important. On reading lists, you will find the following formats: Books Miles T. R. Dyslexia: a hundred years on/T. R. Miles and Elaine Miles, 2nd ed. Open University Press, 1999. Journal articles Paulesu E. et al. Dyslexia: cultural diversity and biological unity. Science, 2001, 291, pages 2165–2167. Websites www.well.ox.ac.uk/monaco/dyslexia.shtml
- 32. 4 Using library catalogues University and college libraries usually have online catalogues. These allow students to search for the materials they want in various ways. If you know the title and author’s name, it is easy to check if the book is available, but if you are making a search for material on a specific topic, you may have to vary the search terms. For instance, if you have been given an essay title: ‘Is there a practical limit on the height of tall buildings? Illustrate your answer with reference to some recent skyscrapers.’ you might try: • skyscraper design • skyscraper construction • design of tall building • construction of tall buildings If you use a very specific phrase, you will probably only find a few titles. ‘Skyscraper construction’, for example, only produced three items in one library catalogue, but a more general term such as ‘skyscrapers’ found 57. 䊏 You have entered the term ‘skyscrapers’ in the library catalogue, and these are the first 10 results. In order to answer the essay title above, which would you select to borrow? Give your reasons. 1.2: Reading: Finding Suitable Sources 13 Full details Title Year Location Holdings 1 Skyscrapers: a history of the world’s most extraordinary buildings/by Judith Dupré; introductory interview with Adrian Smith 2013 Main library Availability 2 Manhattan skyscrapers/Eric P. Nash; photographs by Norman McGrath. 3rd ed. 2010 Main library Availability 3 Art deco San Francisco [electronic resource]: the architecture of Timothy Pflueger/ Therese Poletti; photography by Tom Paiva 2008 Fine Arts library Availability 4 Skyscraper for the XXI century/edited by Carlo Aiello 2008 Science library Availability 5 Taipei 101/Georges Binder [editor] 2008 Main library Availability 6 Tall buildings: image of the skyscraper/ Scott Johnson 2008 Fine Arts library Availability 7 Skyscrapers: fabulous buildings that reach for the sky/Herbert Wright 2008 Main library Availability
- 33. Full details If you click on this, you will get more information about the book, including the number of pages and a summary of the contents. If a book has had more than one edition, it suggests that it is a successful title. This may help you decide whether to borrow it. Year The books are listed by the most recent first; always try to use the most up-to-date sources. Location Many large universities have more than one library. This tells you which one the book is kept in. Holdings If you click on availability, it will tell you how many copies the library holds and if they are available to borrow or out on loan. 5 Using library websites to search electronic resources Journals are specialised academic publications produced on a regular basis, containing recent research. You need to be familiar with the main journals in your subject area. They are usually available in paper or electronic formats (e-journals). E-journals and other electronic resources such as subject databases are becoming increasingly important. Their advantage is that they can be accessed by computer, saving the need to visit the library to find a book. Most library websites have a separate portal or gateway for searching electronic resources. These are the results found in one database for journal articles on ‘skyscrapers’: 1 Skyscrapers Cesar Pelli Perspecta, Vol. 18, (1982), pp. 134–151 2 Skyscrapers Robert Phillips The Hudson Review, Vol. 60, No. 2 (Summer, 2007), p. 276 14 Part 1: The Writing Process Full details Title Year Location Holdings 8 Eco skyscrapers/Ken Yeang. 3rd ed. 2007 Science library Availability 9 Cost optimization of structures: fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, and parallel computing/ Hojjat Adeli, Kamal C. Sarma 2006 Science library Availability 10 Skyscrapers: a social history of the very tall building in America/by George H. Douglas 2004 Main library Availability
- 34. 3 Three New Skyscrapers MoMA, No. 25 (Winter, 1983), p. 4 4 Stars for Skyscrapers Lee Richard Hayman The Phylon Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 3 (3rd Qtr., 1958), p. 276 5 Dawn Rises over Skyscrapers Deane Fisher Phylon (1960–),Vol. 28, No. 2 (2nd Qtr., 1967), p. 138 6 Mario Palanti and the Palacio Salvo: The Art of Constructing Skyscrapers Virginia Bonicatto, Chris Miller Getty Research Journal, No. 5 (2013), pp. 183–188 Note that many of these articles will be out of date or irrelevant, but these search engines allow you to access a great variety of material quickly. It is usually sufficient to read the abstract to find out if the article will be relevant to your work. Note that most journal websites contain a search engine to allow you to search all back issues by subject. They may also offer links to articles in other journals on the same topic. The best way to become familiar with these methods is to practise. Library websites usually contain tutorials for new students, and librarians are always willing to give help and advice when needed. 䊏 Select a specific topic from your subject area. (a) Use the library catalogue to search for relevant books. Write down the most useful titles. (b) Look for a few relevant journal articles, using the library portal. Write a reference for each article. 1.2: Reading: Finding Suitable Sources 15
- 35. Reading Developing Critical Approaches UNIT 1.3 Students are expected to take a critical approach to sources, and this requires a good understanding of written texts. This unit: • explains effective reading methods • examines common text features, including abstracts • explores and practises a critical analysis of texts 1 Reading methods It is easy for students to underestimate the importance of reading skills. But, especially for international students, reading academic texts in the quantity required for most courses is a demanding task. Yet students will not benefit from attending lectures and seminars unless the preparatory reading is done promptly, while most writing tasks require extensive reading. Moreover, academic texts often contain new vocabulary and phrases, and may be written in a rather formal style. This means that special methods have to be learnt to cope with the volume of reading required, which is especially important when you are reading in another language. Clearly, you do not have time to read every word published on the topic you are studying, so you must first choose carefully what you read and then assess it thoroughly. The chart opposite illustrates the best approach to choosing suitable texts. 䊏 Complete the empty boxes in the chart with the following techniques: • Read intensively to make notes on key points • Scan text for information you need (e.g. names) • Survey text features (e.g. abstract, contents, index)
- 36. Choosing suitable texts 1.3: Reading: Developing Critical Approaches 17 Read title and sub-title carefully Skim text for gist – is it relevant? Read extensively when useful sections are found 䊏 Can you suggest any other reading skills to add to the chart above? • _______________________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________________ 2 Titles, sub-titles and text features Many books and articles have both a title and sub-title: The Right to Have Rights: Citizenship Practice and the Political Constitution of the EU The title is usually shorter and may aim to be eye-catching; the sub-title often gives more information about the focus. After finding a relevant text, it is worth checking the following text features before starting to read: Author Is the writer well known in his or her field? What else has he or she published? Publication date and edition Do not use a first edition if there is a (revised) second edition available.
- 37. 18 Part 1: The Writing Process Abstract See section 3 below. Contents A list of the main chapters or sections. This should tell you how much space is given to the topic you are researching. Introduction or preface This is where the author often explains his or her reasons for writing, and also describes how the text is organised. References This list shows all the sources used by the author and referred to in the text. (In the USA, this is usually called a bibliography.) It should give you some suggestions for further reading. Bibliography These are the sources the author has used but not specifically referred to. A bibliography is not required for most short writing tasks. (Note that in the USA this is usually the name given to the list of references.) Index An alphabetical list of all the topics and names mentioned in a book. If, for example, you are looking for information about a person, the index will tell you if that person is mentioned, and how often. 3 Reading abstracts Abstracts are normally found in peer-reviewed journal articles, where they are a kind of summary to allow researchers to decide if it is worth reading the full article. As a student, you will not normally have to write abstracts, but it is important to be able to read them effectively. 䊏 Study this example: Citizenship Norms and the Expansion of Political Participation Russell J. Dalton A growing chorus of scholars laments the decline of political participation in America, and the negative implications of this trend for American democracy. This article questions this position – arguing that previous studies misdiagnosed the sources of political change and the consequences of changing norms of citizenship for Americans’ political engagement. Citizenship norms are shifting from a pattern of duty-based citizenship to engaged citizenship. Using data from the 2005 ‘Citizenship, Involvement, Democracy’ survey of the Center for Democracy and Civil Society (CDACS) I describe these two faces of citizenship, and trace their impact on political participation. Rather than the erosion of participation, this norm shift is altering and expanding the patterns of political participation in America. (Dalton, R. J. (2008) Political Studies 56 (1): 76–98)
- 38. Abstracts normally have a standard structure: (a) Background (b) Aim and thesis of paper (c) Method of research (d) Results of research 䊏 Underline and label these components (a–d) in the abstract above. 4 Fact and opinion When reading, it is important to distinguish between facts: Kuala Lumpur is the capital of Malaysia and opinions: Kuala Lumpur is a welcoming, bustling city In addition, the reader needs to decide if the facts given are true: Singapore lies near the equator (true) Singapore was an ancient trading port (false) You need to be careful of texts that contain unsupported opinion or ‘facts’ that you think are wrong. 䊏 Read the following and underline facts ( _____ ) and opinions ( ......... ). Decide if the facts are true. (a) Sydney is the capital of Australia. (b) Australia is a dynamic, prosperous and enterprising country. (c) The majority of Australians live on sheep farms. (d) Most Australians are open-minded and friendly. (e) Australia is the largest island in the world, and has extensive mineral deposits. (f) Among the 22 million Australians are some of the world’s best cricket players. 5 Assessing Internet sources critically You cannot afford to waste time on texts that are unreliable or out of date. If you are using material that is not on the reading list, you must assess it critically to ensure that the material is trustworthy. Internet sources are plentiful and convenient, but you need to ask several questions about each site: 1.3: Reading: Developing Critical Approaches 19
- 39. 20 Part 1: The Writing Process • Is this a reputable website, for example with .ac (= academic) in the URL? • Is the name of the author given, and is he or she well known in the field? • Is the language of the text in a suitable academic style? • Are there any obvious errors in the text (e.g. spelling mistakes, which suggest a careless approach)? 䊏 Compare these two Internet texts on deforestation (the loss of forests). Which is likely to be more reliable? 1 We are destroying the last of our vital natural resources, just as we are starting to wake up to how precious they are. Rainforest once covered 14 per cent of the land now it’s down to a mere 6 per cent. Scientists predict that the rest could disappear in less than 40 years. Thousands of acres are cut down each second with dire consequences for the countries involved and the planet as a whole. Scientists estimate that we loose 50,000 species every year, many species every second including 137 plant types (not even species but whole groups of plant species) and as these plants disappear before science can record them so does the chance to gain helpful knowledge and possible medicines. 2 The scale of human pressures on ecosystems everywhere has increased enormously in the last few decades. Since 1980 the global economy has tripled in size and the world population has increased by 30 percent. Consumption of everything on the planet has risen – at a cost to our ecosystems. In 2001, The World Resources Institute estimated that the demand for rice, wheat, and corn is expected to grow by 40 per cent by 2020, increasing irrigation water demands by 50 per cent or more. They further reported that the demand for wood could double by the year 2050; unfortunately it is still the tropical forests that supply the bulk of the world’s demand for wood. There are several aspects of (1) that should make the reader cautious: the style is very personal (‘we are . . .’) and informal (‘it’s down to . . .’) and there is a word used wrongly (‘loose’ instead of ‘lose’). No sources are provided. But even more disturbing is carelessness with facts. Is it really possible that thousands of acres of rainforest are being cut down every second? The writer also claims that many species are being lost every second, but if we take the figure of 50,000 per year, it means one species is lost every 10 minutes. Clearly, the writer is seeking to dramatise the subject, but it is quite unsuitable as an academic source.
- 40. In contrast, the second text is written in accurate, semi-formal language and includes a source. It seems likely to be more reliable. 6 Further practice 䊏 Read the following texts and decide if you can trust the information. Give reasons for your decisions in the table below. 1.3: Reading: Developing Critical Approaches 21 1 Hard up? Why struggle when you could live in luxury? Solve your money worries easily and quickly by working for us. No experience needed, you can earn hundreds of pounds for just a few hours’ work per day. Work when it suits you, day or night. Don’t delay, call today for an interview on 07795-246791. 2 If you have money problems, there’s lots of ways you can save cash. Instead of spending money on new clothes, try buying them secondhand from charity shops, where you’ll find lots of stylish bargains. Eating out is another big expense, but instead you can get together with a few friends and cook a meal together; it’s cheaper and it’s fun. Bus fares and taxis can also cost a lot, so it might be worth looking for a cheap bicycle, which lets you travel where you want, when you want. 3 Most students find that they have financial difficulties at times. It has been estimated that nearly 55 per cent experience financial difficulties in their first year at college or university. It’s often hard living on a small fixed income, and the cost of accommodation and food can come as a shock when you first live away from your parents. The most important thing, if you find you are getting into debt, is to speak to a financial advisor in the Student Union, who may be able to help you sort out your problems. 1 _______________________________________________________________________ 2 _______________________________________________________________________ 3 _______________________________________________________________________
- 41. 22 Part 1: The Writing Process EDUCATING THE POOREST How can we get the world’s poorest children into school? This is a difficult question with no easy answer. In 1999 the UN adopted a set of goals called ‘Education for All’, but in many countries there has been little progress towards these aims. In Nigeria, for instance, the number of children not going to school has hardly changed since then. It is estimated that worldwide, about 72 million children never attend school, 45 per cent of whom are in sub-Saharan Africa. Even when schools and teachers are provided, there’s no guarantee that teaching is being done: World Bank research in India shows that a quarter of teachers don’t attend school on any one day. Several proposals have been made to improve matters. A British academic, Professor Tooley, argues that low-cost private schools are more effective in delivering education to the poor since parental pressure maintains good standards. State schools could also relate pay to performance: research by Muralihadan and Sundararaman in India found that this improved students’ test performance far more significantly than spending the same money on teaching materials. 䊏 You are writing an essay on expanding educational provision in developing countries, titled ‘Improving literacy in sub-Saharan Africa’. You find the following article in a current magazine. Read it critically and decide whether you could use it in your work. Positive aspects: ________________________________________________________________ Negative aspects: ________________________________________________________________ 7 Critical thinking Even when you feel that a text is reliable and that you can safely use it as a source, it is still important to adopt a critical attitude towards it. This approach is perhaps easiest to learn when reading, but is important for all other academic work (i.e. listening, discussing and writing). Critical thinking means not just passively accepting what you hear or read, but instead actively questioning and assessing it. As you read, you should ask yourself the following questions: (a) What are the key ideas in this? (b) Does the argument of the writer develop logically, step by step? (c) Are the examples given helpful? Would other examples be better? (d) Does the author have any bias (leaning to one side or the other)? (e) Does the evidence presented seem reliable, in my experience and using common sense? (f) Do I agree with the writer’s views?
- 42. 1.3: Reading: Developing Critical Approaches 23 䊏 Read critically the two articles on universities. A. COLLEGE CONCERNS Despite their dominance of global league tables (e.g. Shanghai Rankings Consultancy) American universities currently face significant criticism. The American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and the Goldwater Institute have recently published negative reports on US universities, while a highly critical book (Hacker and Dreifus) was published in 2010. The critics focus on the rising costs of American higher education, which have increased at a much faster rate than inflation, resulting in a situation where even middle-class families are finding the expense unsupportable. Another target of criticism is the focus on research at the expense of teaching. Students rarely meet the ‘star’ professors, being taught instead by badly-paid graduate students. It is claimed that in one year nearly half of Harvard’s history professors were on sabbatical leave. As a consequence, students work less; according to the AEI they currently study for 14 hours per week, whereas 50 years ago the figure was 24 hours per week. Despite this the proportion of students gaining a first or 2.1 degree has increased significantly: a situation described by the critics as ‘grade inflation’. B. A BRIGHTER TOMORROW? There is little doubt that a university degree is the key to a better future for any student. Despite the costs involved in terms of fees, it has been calculated that the average UK university graduate will earn £400,000 ($600,000) more over his or her lifetime compared to a non-graduate. Possession of a degree should also assist a graduate to find a satisfying job more quickly and give greater prospects for promotion inside the chosen career. A degree from a British university is recognised all over the world as proof of a high quality education. A university course will not only provide students with up-to-date knowledge in their subject area, but also provide practice with the essential skills required by many employers today, such as the ability to communicate effectively using ICT, or the skills of team working and problem solving. In addition, living away from home in an international atmosphere gives the opportunity to make new friends from all over the world, and build networks of contacts that may be invaluable in a future career. Studying at university is a unique opportunity for many young people to develop individually by acquiring independence, free from parental control. They will learn to look after themselves in a secure environment, and gain useful life skills such as cooking and budgeting. Most graduates look back at their degree courses as a valuable experience at a critical period of their lives.
- 43. 䊏 List any statements from the articles that you find unreliable, and add comments to explain your doubts in the table below. Then decide which article you find more reliable overall. 24 Part 1: The Writing Process Statements Comments A B 䉴 See Unit 2.1 Argument and Discussion
- 44. 1 What is plagiarism? Basically, plagiarism means taking ideas or words from a source (e.g. a book or journal) without giving credit (acknowledgement) to the author. It is seen as a kind of theft, and is considered to be an academic crime. In academic work, ideas and words are seen as private property belong- ing to the person who first thought or wrote them. Therefore, it is important for all students, including international ones, to understand the meaning of plagiarism and learn how to prevent it in their work. The main difficulty that students face is that they are expected: (a) to show that they have read the principal authorities on a subject – by giving citations. BUT (b) to explain these ideas in their own words and come to their own original conclusions. There are several reasons why students must avoid plagiarism: • To show that they understand the rules of the academic community • Copying the work of others will not help them develop their own understanding • Plagiarism is easily detected by teachers and computer software • Plagiarism may lead to failing a course or even having to leave college Avoiding Plagiarism UNIT 1.4 Plagiarism is a concern for teachers and students, but it can be avoided by understanding the issues involved. In the English-speaking academic world, it is essential to use a wide range of sources for your writing and to acknowledge these sources clearly. This unit introduces the techniques students need to do this. Further practice is provided in Units 1.7 Paraphrasing and Summarising and 1.8 References and Quotations.
- 45. 2 Acknowledging sources If you borrow from or refer to the work of another person, you must show that you have done this by providing the correct acknowledgement. There are two ways to do this: Summary and citation Smith (2009) claims that the modern state wields power in new ways. Quotation and citation According to Smith: ‘The point is not that the state is in retreat but that it is developing new forms of power . . .’ (Smith, 2009: 103). These in-text citations are linked to a list of references at the end of the main text, which includes the following details: 26 Part 1: The Writing Process Author Date Title Place of publication Publisher Smith, M. (2009) Power and the State Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan The citation makes it clear to the reader that you have read Smith and borrowed this idea from him. This reference gives the reader the necessary information to find the source if the reader needs more detail. 䉴 See Unit 1.8 References and Quotations 3 Degrees of plagiarism Although plagiarism essentially means copying somebody else’s work, it is not always easy to define. 䊏 Working with a partner, consider the following academic situations and decide if they are plagiarism. Situation Plagiarism? Yes/No 1 Copying a paragraph, but changing a few words and giving a citation. 2 Cutting and pasting a short article from a website, with no citation. 3 Taking two paragraphs from a classmate’s essay, without citation. Yes
- 46. This exercise shows that plagiarism can be accidental. For example, situation 10 above, when the author’s name is misspelt, is technically plagiarism, but really carelessness. In situation 9, your teacher may have told you to discuss the topic in groups, and then write an essay on your own, in which case it would not be plagiarism. Self-plagiarism is also possible, as in situation 7. It can be difficult to decide what is general or common knowledge (situation 6), but you can always try asking colleagues. However, it is not a good excuse to say that you did not know the rules of plagiarism, or that you did not have time to write in your own words. Nor is it adequate to say that the rules are different in your own country. In general, anything that is not common knowledge or your own ideas and research (published or not) must be cited and referenced. 4 Avoiding plagiarism by summarising and paraphrasing Quotations should not be overused, so you must learn to paraphrase and summarise in order to include other writers’ ideas in your work. This will demonstrate your understanding of a text to your teachers. 1.4: Avoiding Plagiarism 27 Situation Plagiarism? Yes/No 4 Taking a graph from a textbook, giving the source. 5 Taking a quotation from a source, giving a citation but not using quotation marks. 6 Using something that you think of as general knowledge (e.g. the ownership of mobile phones is increasing worldwide). 7 Using a paragraph from an essay you wrote and had marked the previous semester, without citation. 8 Using the results of your own research (e.g. from a survey you did), without citation. 9 Discussing an essay topic with a group of classmates and using some of their ideas in your own work. 10 Giving a citation for some information but misspelling the author’s name.
- 47. 28 Part 1: The Writing Process • Paraphrasing involves rewriting a text so that the language is significantly different while the content stays the same. • Summarising means reducing the length of a text but retaining the main points. 䉴 See Unit 1.7 Paraphrasing and Summarising Normally, both skills are used at the same time, as can be seen in the examples below. 䊏 Read the following text and then compare the five paragraphs below, which use ideas and information from it. Decide which are plagiarised and which are acceptable, and give your reasons in the table opposite. RAILWAY MANIAS In 1830 there were a few dozen miles of railways in all the world – chiefly consisting of the line from Liverpool to Manchester. By 1840 there were over 4,500 miles, by 1850 over 23,500. Most of them were projected in a few bursts of speculative frenzy known as the ‘railway manias’ of 1835–1837 and especially in 1844–1847; most of them were built in large part with British capital, British iron, machines and know- how. These investment booms appear irrational, because in fact few railways were much more profitable to the investor than other forms of enterprise, most yielded quite modest profits and many none at all: in 1855 the average interest on capital sunk in the British railways was a mere 3.7 per cent. (From The Age of Revolution by Eric Hobsbawm, 1995, p. 45) (a) Between 1830 and 1850 there was very rapid development in railway construction world wide. Two periods of especially feverish growth were 1835–1837 and 1844–1847. It is hard to understand the reason for this intense activity, since railways were not particularly profitable investments and some produced no return at all (Hobsbawm, 1995: 45). (b) There were only a few dozen miles of railways in 1830, including the Liverpool to Manchester line. But by 1840 there were over 4,500 miles and over 23,500 by 1850. Most of them were built in large part with British capital, British iron, machines and know-how, and most of them were projected in a few bursts of speculative frenzy known as the ‘railway manias’ of 1835–1837 and especially in 1844–1847. Because most yielded quite modest profits and many none at all these investment booms appear irrational. In fact few railways were much more profitable to the investor than other forms of enterprise (Hobsbawm, 1995: 45). (c) As Hobsbawm (1995) argues, nineteenth century railway mania was partly irrational: ‘because in fact few railways were much more profitable to the investor
- 48. than other forms of enterprise, most yielded quite modest profits and many none at all: in 1855 the average interest on capital sunk in the British railways was a mere 3.7 per cent’ (Hobsbawm, 1995: 45). (d) Globally, railway networks increased dramatically from 1830 to 1850; the majority in short periods of ‘mania’ (1835–1837 and 1844–1847). British technology and capital were responsible for much of this growth, yet the returns on the investment were hardly any better than comparable business opportunities (Hobsbawm, 1895: 45). (e) The dramatic growth of railways between 1830 and 1850 was largely achieved using British technology. However, it has been claimed that much of this development was irrational because few railways were much more profitable to the investor than other forms of enterprise; most yielded quite modest profits and many none at all. 1.4: Avoiding Plagiarism 29 Plagiarised or acceptable? Reason (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 5 Avoiding plagiarism by developing good study habits Few students deliberately try to cheat by plagiarising, but some develop poor study habits that result in the risk of plagiarism. 䊏 Working with a partner, add to the list of positive habits. • Plan your work carefully so you do not have to write the essay at the last minute. • Take care to make notes in your own words, not copying from the source. • Keep a record of all the sources you use (e.g. author, date, title, page numbers, publisher). • Make sure all your in-text citations are included in the list of references. • ___________________________________________________________________________ • ___________________________________________________________________________
- 49. 6 Practice 䊏 Revise this unit by matching the words on the left with the definitions on the right. 30 Part 1: The Writing Process Source Using the exact words of the original text in your work Citation To gain advantage dishonestly Summarise Short in-text note giving the author’s name and publication date Quotation To reduce the length of a text, but keeping the main points Reference Any text that students use to obtain ideas or information To cheat Full publication details of a text to allow a reader to access the original 7 Research Does your college or university have a policy on plagiarism? Look on their website to find out. It may raise some issues that you want to discuss with colleagues or your teachers. If you cannot find anything for your institution, try one of these sites: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/01/ www.uefap.com/writing/plagiar/plagfram.htm
- 50. 1 The planning process Teachers frequently complain that students do not answer the question set, but this can be avoided by more care at the start of the process. Planning is necessary with all academic writing, but clearly there are important differences between planning in exams, when time is short, and for coursework, when preparatory reading is required. However, in both cases, the process of planning should include these three steps: (a) Analyse the title wording (b) Decide how long each section should be (c) Prepare an outline using your favourite method With coursework, your outline will probably be revised as you read around the topic. 䉴 See Unit 4.3 Longer Essays From Understanding Titles to Planning UNIT 1.5 In both exams and coursework, it is essential for students to understand what an essay title is asking them to do. A plan can then be prepared, which should make sure the question is answered fully. This unit looks at: • key words in titles • essay length and organisation • alternative methods of essay planning
- 51. 2 Analysing essay titles Titles contain key words that tell the student what to do. Note that titles often have two (or more) parts: What is meant by a demand curve and why would we expect it to slope downwards? In this case, ‘what’ is asking for a description and ‘why’ for a reason or explanation. 䊏 Match the key words on the left to the definitions on the right. 32 Part 1: The Writing Process 3 Practice 䊏 Underline the key words in the following titles and consider what they are asking you to do. (a) Summarise the main reasons for the growth of e-commerce, and discuss the likely results of this. (b) Describe some of the reasons why patients do not always take their medication as directed. (c) What are the benefits of learning a second language at primary school (age 6–10)? Are there any drawbacks to early language learning? Analyse Give examples Assess/Evaluate Deal with a complex subject by reducing it to the main elements Describe Divide into section and discuss each critically Discuss Break down into the various parts and their relationships Examine/Explore Make a proposal and support it Illustrate Look at various aspects of a topic, compare benefits and drawbacks Outline/Trace Give a detailed account of something Suggest Explain a topic briefly and clearly Summarise Decide the value or worth of a subject
- 52. (d) What are the most significant sources of renewable energy? Evaluate their contribution to the reduction of carbon emissions. (e) Discuss the response of buildings and soil to earthquakes, indicating what measures can be used to ensure structural stability. 4 Brainstorming It is often helpful to start thinking about a topic by writing down the ideas you have, in any order. Taking the example from 3(a), you might collect the following points: Growth of e-commerce – likely results Main reasons • Businesses can offer a wider range of products via Internet • More convenient for customers than travelling to shops • Businesses can reduce overheads by centralising distribution centres • Prices can often be lower Likely results • Decline in conventional shops • Growth in delivery businesses • Shopping centres become entertainment areas 䊏 Working with a partner, brainstorm ideas for the title below. 1.5: From Understanding Titles to Planning 33 What are the beneﬁts of learning a second language at primary school (age 6–10)? Are there any drawbacks to early language learning?
- 53. 5 Essay length Coursework essays usually have a required length, normally between 1,000 and 5,000 words. You must keep to this limit, although 5 per cent more or less is generally acceptable. However, at the planning stage, you need to consider what proportion of the essay to give to each part of the question. As a basic guide, 20 per cent is usually sufficient for the introduction and conclusion together (references are not included in the word count). Therefore, in a 2,000-word essay, the introduction and conclusion would have 400 words and the main body 1,600 words. If this was the length given for title 3(a) above, you might decide on the following allocation: 34 Part 1: The Writing Process Main reasons – benefits for buyers 500 words – benefits for sellers 300 words Likely results – for businesses 400 words – for urban development 400 words Total 1,600 words This calculation is useful since it can guide the amount of reading you need to do, as well as providing the basis for an outline. Moreover, it prevents you from writing an unbalanced answer, in which part of the question is not fully dealt with. Essays in exams do not have a word limit, but it is equally important to plan them in similar terms (e.g. part 1: 40 per cent, part 2: 60 per cent). 䊏 Underline the key words in the following titles and decide what percentage of the main body to give to each part. Title Part 1 (%) Part 2 (%) (a) Describe the typical social, cultural and environmental impacts experienced by tourist destinations in developing countries. How can harmful impacts be reduced or avoided? (b) How can schools make better use of IT (information technology)? Illustrate your answer with examples. (c) Outline the main difficulties in combating malaria. Suggest possible strategies for more effective anti- malaria campaigns. (d) What is ‘donor fatigue’ in international aid, and how can it be overcome?
- 54. 6 Outlines An outline should help the writer to answer the question as effectively as possible. Care at this stage will save wasted effort later. The more detail you include in your outline, the easier the writing process will be. Note that for coursework, it is usually better to write the main body first, then the introduction and finally the conclusion. Therefore, you may prefer to outline just the main body at this stage. There is no fixed pattern for an outline; different methods appeal to different students. For example, with first part of title 3(a) above: ‘Summarise the main reasons for the growth of e-commerce.’ (a) The outline might be a list: 1 Benefits for buyers • greater convenience in shopping by computer at any time • lower prices • better choice 2 Benefits for sellers • cost saving by centralising distribution • global customer base • 24/7 trading (b) An alternative is a mind map: 1.5: From Understanding Titles to Planning 35 Greater convenience in shopping by computer at any time Lower prices Better choice 24/7 trading Cost saving by centralising distribution Global customer base Benefits for buyers Benefits for sellers 䊏 Discuss the advantages and drawbacks of each method with a partner. 䊏 Prepare an outline for the second part of the same title, using either method: ‘Discuss the likely results of this.’
- 55. Finding Key Points and Note-making UNIT 1.6 After finding a suitable source, identifying relevant sections of text and preparing an outline, the next step is to select the key points that relate to your topic and make notes on them. This unit explains and practises this process, which also involves skills further developed in Unit 1.7 Summarising and Paraphrasing. 1 Finding key points Before making notes, you need to find the main ideas in a text. One of these is often, but not always, in the first sentence of a paragraph. 䊏 Read the following paragraph, about the growing market for products designed for older people, and underline two key points. Then choose a title for the paragraph. Title: _______________________________________________________ The generation born after the Second World War, sometimes called the baby boomers, are now reaching retirement age, and businesses are starting to realise that they are a wealthier market than any previous retirement group. Financial products, travel and medicines are well-established industries that interest the over-60s, but others are now focusing on this age group. Volkswagen, for instance, has produced a car with raised seats and more interior space to appeal to their tastes. In Japan, with its ageing population, companies have more experience of selling to the retired, and have been successful with unusual products such as a robotic seal, which serves as a
- 56. 2 Finding relevant points When preparing to write an essay, you have to search for information and ideas relevant to your subject. Therefore, the key points that you select must relate to that topic. You are given an essay title: ‘Does the state have a role in promoting public health?’ 䊏 Read the following article and underline five key points that relate to your essay subject. pet substitute for the lonely. There are, however, certain difficulties in selling to this market. Some customers resent being addressed as ‘old’ since they see themselves as more youthful, while there is a huge variation in the profile of the baby boomers, ranging from healthy and active to the bed-ridden and infirm. 1.6: Finding Key Points and Note-making 37 A SLIMMER AMERICA? In the USA there has recently been more pressure for informative food labelling, and campaigns to encourage school children to eat more fruit and vegetables. Although Americans often dislike being told what to do by their government, these campaigns may finally be having an effect. Certainly about a third of the population attempt a slimming programme every year, and although many give up, it appears that the number of people who succeed may be rising. Currently over two-thirds of Americans are believed to be either overweight or obese, but recently it has been discovered that the situation may have stabilised. The rate of increase appears to have virtually stopped, so that on average women and children weigh no more now than they did ten years ago. This trend may have important consequences for the health care system: according to a recent study (Finkelstein et al., 2009) an obese American is likely to cost the system over 40 per cent more than someone with normal weight. This is due to the increased risks of medical conditions such as diabetes, to which should be added extra costs connected with illness and resulting absence from work. Until recently it was assumed that the long-term trend would continue so that ultimately all Americans would become overweight; Wang (2008) had estimated that this would happen by 2048. Obviously, such an assumption implies steadily rising medical insurance costs. If the new trend continues there are clear benefits for public health and the associated finances, but medical researchers still struggle to understand the basic causes of the problem, which is that obesity in America is now three times greater than fifty years ago.
- 57. There is substantial evidence that obesity is linked to social class: those with irregular and badly paid employment are more likely to eat what is convenient and tasty rather than have the time or energy to organise a healthy diet. The number of people in this category may have risen in recent years. Another possibility is that food now is cheaper relative to income, while free time is more valuable, so people are attracted to consuming convenient but often unhealthy fast food. In addition, washing machines and other devices mean that fewer calories are used in doing domestic chores around the house. Although valid, these factors apply in many other countries where the same growth in obesity has not been seen. (Herapath, T. (2012) Journal of Transatlantic Contexts 14: 319) 3 Practice A 䊏 Complete the notes for ‘Does the state have a role in promoting public health?’ using the key points underlined in (2) on p. 37. Source: (Herapath, T. (2012) Journal of Transatlantic Contexts 14: 319) Have Americans stopped getting fatter? 1 __________________________________________________________________________ 2 __________________________________________________________________________ 3 __________________________________________________________________________ 4 __________________________________________________________________________ 5 __________________________________________________________________________ US govt. campaigns to encourage healthy eating may be succeeding 4 Why make notes? 䊏 What are the main reasons for note-making? Add to the list below. (a) __________________________________________________________________________ (b) __________________________________________________________________________ (c) __________________________________________________________________________ (d) __________________________________________________________________________ (e) __________________________________________________________________________ To prepare for essay writing 38 Part 1: The Writing Process
- 58. 5 Note-making methods 䊏 You are looking for information on the current media revolution. Study the text below (key points underlined) and the notes in the box on p. 40. What do you notice about the language of the notes? • __________________________________________________________________________ • __________________________________________________________________________ 1.6: Finding Key Points and Note-making 39 THE DEATH OF THE PRESS? A hundred years ago news was exclusively provided by newspapers. There was no other way of supplying the latest information on politics, crime, finance or sport to the millions of people who bought and read newspapers, sometimes twice a day. Today the situation is very different. The same news is also available on television, radio and the internet, and because of the nature of these media, can be more up-to- date than in print. For young people especially, the internet has become the natural source of news and comment. This development means that in many countries newspaper circulation is falling, and a loss of readers also means a fall in advertising, which is the main income for most papers. Consequently, in both Britain and the USA newspapers are closing every week. But when a local newspaper goes out of business an important part of the community is lost. It allows debate on local issues, as well as providing a noticeboard for events such as weddings and society meetings. All newspapers are concerned by these developments, and many have tried to find methods of increasing their sales. One approach is to focus on magazine-type articles rather than news, another is to give free gifts such as DVDs, while others have developed their own websites to provide continuous news coverage. However, as so much is now freely available online to anyone with a web browser, none of these have had a significant impact on the steady decline of paid-for newspapers. (Source: New Business Monthly, May 2013, p. 37)
- 59. 40 Part 1: The Writing Process 6 Effective note-making Notes are for your personal use so you should create your own style. Your teachers will not read or mark them, but you need to make sure you can still understand your notes months after reading the original book or article: (a) To avoid the risk of plagiarism, you must use your own words and not copy phrases from the original. (b) The quantity of notes you make depends on your task: you may only need a few points, or a lot of detail. (c) Always record the source of your notes. This will save time when you have to write the list of references. (d) Notes are often written quickly, so keep them simple. Do not write sentences. Leave out articles (a/the) and prepositions (of/to). (e) If you write lists, it is important to have clear headings (underlined) and numbering systems (a, b, c, or 1, 2, 3) to organise the information. Do not crowd your notes. (f) Use symbols (+, >, =) to save time. (g) Use abbreviations (e.g. = for example). You need to make up your own abbreviations for your subject area. But do not abbreviate too much, or you may find your notes hard to understand in the future! 䉴 See Unit 3.2 Abbreviations Decline of Newspapers New Business Monthly, May 2013, p. 37) (a) Newspapers only source of news 100 yrs ago – now also TV, radio + www (b) Newspaper sales > decline in advertising > newspapers shutting (c) Attempts to attract readers: • more magazine content • free gifts • websites but none very effective
- 60. 1.6: Finding Key Points and Note-making 41 7 Practice B You have to write an essay titled ‘Improving student performance: an outline of recent research.’ 䊏 Read the following text, underline the relevant key points and make notes on them. SLEEP AND MEMORY In many countries, especially in hot climates, it is the custom to take a short sleep in the afternoon, often known as a siesta. Now it appears that this habit helps to improve the ability to remember and therefore to learn. Researchers have known for some time that new memories are stored short-term in an area of the brain called the hippocampus, but are then transferred to the pre-frontal cortex for long-term storage. They now believe that this transfer process occurs during a kind of sleep called stage 2 non-REM sleep. After this has occurred the brain is better able to take in new information, and having a sleep of about 100 minutes after lunch seems to be an effective way to permit this. Research by a team from the University of California sought to confirm this theory. They wanted to establish that a short sleep would restore the brain’s ability to learn. A group of about 40 people were asked to take part in two ‘lessons’; at 12 noon and 6 pm. Half the volunteers were put in a group which stayed awake all day, while the others were encouraged to sleep for an hour and a half after the first session. It was found that in the evening lesson the second group were better at remembering what they had learnt, which indicates that the siesta had helped to refresh their short-term memories. The most effective siesta seems to consist of three parts: roughly 30 minutes of light sleep to rest the body, followed by 30 minutes of stage 2 sleep which clears the hippocampus, and finally 30 minutes of REM sleep which is when dreams are experienced: possibly as a result of the new memories being processed as they are stored in the pre-frontal cortex. This process is believed to be so valuable that some researchers argue that a siesta can be as beneficial as a full night’s sleep. (Kitschelt, P. (2006) How the Brain Works. Berlin: Freihaus, p. 73) Note-making
- 61. 1 What makes a good summary? Summarising is a common activity in everyday life. It is used to describe the main features of the subject. 䊏 Write a short description of one of the topics below in no more than 20 words. (a) A book you have enjoyed (b) A town or city you know well (c) A film you have recently watched ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Summarising and Paraphrasing UNIT 1.7 Summarising and paraphrasing are normally used together in essay writing. Summarising aims to reduce information to a suitable length, allowing the writer to condense lengthy sources into a concise form, while paraphrasing means changing the wording of a text so that it is significantly different from the original source, without changing the meaning. Both are needed to avoid the risk of plagiarism, and this unit practises them separately and jointly.
- 62. 1.7: Summarising and Paraphrasing 43 䊏 Compare your summary with others in your class. What is needed for a good summary? • __________________________________________________________________________ • __________________________________________________________________________ • __________________________________________________________________________ 2 Stages of summarising Summarising is a flexible tool. You can use it to give a one-sentence outline of an article, or to provide much more detail, depending on your needs. Generally, a summary focuses on the main ideas and excludes examples or supporting information. In every case, the same basic steps need to be followed in order to meet the criteria discussed in (1) on p. 42. 䊏 Study the stages of summary writing below, which have been mixed up. Put them in the correct order (1–5). (a) Write the summary from your notes, reorganising the structure if needed. (b) Make notes of the key points, paraphrasing where possible. (c) Read the original text carefully and check any new or difficult vocabulary. (d) Mark the key points by underlining or highlighting. (e) Check the summary to ensure it is accurate and nothing important has been changed or lost. 3 Practice A 䊏 Read the following text and the summaries that follow. Which is best? Give reasons. MECHANICAL PICKERS Although harvesting cereal crops such as wheat and barley has been done for many years by large machines known as combine harvesters, mechanising the picking of fruit crops such as tomatoes or apples has proved more difficult. Farmers have generally relied on human labour to harvest these, but in wealthy countries it has become increasingly difficult to find people willing to work for the wages farmers are able to pay. This is partly because the demand for labour is seasonal, usually in the autumn, and also because the work is hard. As a result, in areas such as California part of the fruit harvest is often unpicked and left to rot.
- 63. (a) Fruit crops have usually been picked by hand, as it is difficult to mechanise the process. But in rich countries it has become hard to find affordable pickers at the right time, so fruit is often wasted. Therefore, intelligent machines have been developed that can overcome the technical problems involved, and also provide farmers with useful data about the plants. (b) Developing machines that can pick fruit such as tomatoes or apples is a challenging task, due to the complexity of locating ripe fruit in an unpredictable outdoor environment, where difficult conditions can be produced by wind or water. But recent developments in computing ability mean that growers can now automate this process, which should save them money and increase their profits. (c) Strawberries and grapes are the kind of crops that have always been hand- picked. But many farmers, for example in California, now find it increasingly difficult to attract enough pickers when the fruit is ripe. However, computing advances have produced a solution to this problem that will save farmers from worrying about the pickers, and also collect vital data. 1) _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 2) _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3) _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ There are several obvious reasons why developing mechanical pickers is challenging. Fruit such as grapes or strawberries comes in a variety of shapes and does not always ripen at the same time. Outdoors, the ground conditions can vary from dry to muddy, and wind may move branches around. Clearly each crop requires its own solution: machines may be towed through orchards by tractors or move around by themselves, using sensors to detect the ripest fruit. This new generation of fruit harvesters is possible due to advances in computing power and sensing ability. Such devices will inevitably be expensive, but will save farmers from the difficulty of managing a labour force. In addition, the more intelligent pickers should be able to develop a database of information on the health of each individual plant, enabling the grower to provide it with fertiliser and water to maintain its maximum productivity. 44 Part 1: The Writing Process
- 64. 1.7: Summarising and Paraphrasing 45 WEALTH AND FERTILITY For most of the past century an inverse correlation between human fertility and economic development has been found. This means that as a country got richer, the average number of children born to each woman got smaller. While in the poorest countries women often have eight children, the rate fell as low as 1.3 children per woman in some European countries such as Italy, which is below the replacement rate. Such a low rate has two likely negative consequences: the population will fall in the long-term, and a growing number of old people will have to be supported by a shrinking number of young. But a recent study by researchers from Pennsylvania University suggests that this pattern may be changing. They related a country’s fertility rates to its human development index (HDI), a figure with a maximum value of 1.0 which assesses life expectancy, average income and education level. Over 20 countries now have an HDI of more than 0.9, and in a majority of these the fertility rate has started to increase, and in some is approaching two children per woman. Although there are exceptions such as Japan, it appears that rising levels of wealth and education eventually translate into a desire for more children. 䊏 (b) Complete the notes of the key points below. (i) Falling levels of fertility have generally been found ___________________________ (ii) In some, number of children born ___________________________________________ (iii) Two results: smaller populations and ________________________________________ (iv) Recent research claims that _________________________________________________ (v) Comparison of HDI (human development index: life expectancy/income/ education) with fertility rate found that in most highly rated (+ 0.9) countries, ___________________________________________________________________________ 4 Practice B 䊏 (a) Read the following text and underline the key points. 䉴 See Unit 1.6 Finding Key Points and Note-making
- 65. 䊏 (c) Join the notes together and expand them to make the final summary. Check that the meaning is clear and no important points have been left out. Find a suitable title. 46 Part 1: The Writing Process Title: __________________________________________________________________________ This summary is about 35 per cent of the original length, but it could be summarised further. 䊏 (d) Summarise the summary in no more than 20 words. 5 Practice C 䊏 Summarise the following text in about 50 words. THE LAST WORD IN LAVATORIES? Toto is a leading Japanese manufacturer of bathroom ceramic ware, with annual worldwide sales of around $5 bn. One of its best-selling ranges is the Washlet lavatory, priced at up to $5,000 and used in most Japanese homes. This has features such as a heated seat, and can play a range of sounds. This type of toilet is successful in its home market since many flats are small and crowded, and bathrooms provide valued privacy. Now Toto hopes to increase its sales in Europe and America, where it faces a variety of difficulties. European countries tend to have their own rules about lavatory design, so that different models have to be made for each market. Although Toto claims that its Washlet toilet uses less water than the average model, one factor which may delay its penetration into Europe is its need for an electrical socket for installation, as these are prohibited in bathrooms by most European building regulations.
- 66. 6 Paraphrasing Paraphrasing and summarising are normally used together in essay writing, but while summarising aims to reduce information to a suitable length, paraphrasing attempts to restate the relevant information. For example, the following sentence: There has been much debate about the reasons for the Industrial Revolution happening in eighteenth-century Britain, rather than in France or Germany. could be paraphrased: Why the Industrial Revolution occurred in Britain in the eighteenth century, instead of on the continent, has been the subject of considerable discussion. Note that an effective paraphrase usually: • has a different structure to the original • has mainly different vocabulary • retains the same meaning • keeps some phrases from the original that are in common use (e.g. ‘Industrial Revolution’ or ‘eighteenth century’) 1.7: Summarising and Paraphrasing 47
- 67. (a) A focus on demand may help to explain the UK origin of the industrial revolution. At that time, workers’ pay was high, but energy from coal was inexpensive. This encouraged the development of mechanical inventions based on steam power, which enabled bosses to save money by mechanising production (Allen, 2009). (b) The reason why Britain was the birthplace of the industrial revolution can be understood by analysing demand in the early 1700s, according to Allen (2009). He maintains that, uniquely, Britain had the critical combination of cheap energy from coal and high labour costs. This encouraged the adoption of steam power to mechanise production, thus saving on wages and increasing profitability. (c) Allen (2009) claims that the clearest explanation for the UK location of the Industrial Revolution is seen by examining demand factors. By the eighteenth century, cheap energy and high wages were both aspects of the British economy. As a result, the mechanisation of industry through inventions such as the steam engine and mechanical spinning was profitable because employers were able to save money on employees by spending on coal. At that time, Britain was the only country with significant deposits of coal. 1) _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 2) _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3) _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ THE CAUSES OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Allen (2009) argues that the best explanation for the British location of the Industrial Revolution is found by studying demand factors. By the early eighteenth century high wages and cheap energy were both features of the British economy. Consequently, the mechanisation of industry through such inventions as the steam engine and mechanical spinning was profitable because employers were able to economise on labour by spending on coal. At that time, no other country had this particular combination of expensive labour and abundant fuel. 48 Part 1: The Writing Process 7 Practice D 䊏 Read the text below and then rank the three paraphrases in order of accuracy and clarity (1–3), giving reasons.