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Computer Basics - Basic Troubleshooting Techniques
Computer basics -, basic troubleshooting techniques, computer basics basic troubleshooting techniques.
Computer Basics: Basic Troubleshooting Techniques
Lesson 19: basic troubleshooting techniques.
Do you know what to do if your screen goes blank? What if you can't seem to close an application, or can't hear any sound from your speakers? Whenever you have a problem with your computer, don't panic! There are many basic troubleshooting techniques you can use to fix issues like this. In this lesson, we'll show you some simple things to try when troubleshooting, as well as how to solve common problems you may encounter.
General tips to keep in mind
There are many different things that could cause a problem with your computer. No matter what's causing the issue, troubleshooting will always be a process of trial and error —in some cases, you may need to use several different approaches before you can find a solution; other problems may be easy to fix. We recommend starting by using the following tips.
- Write down your steps : Once you start troubleshooting, you may want to write down each step you take. This way, you'll be able to remember exactly what you've done and can avoid repeating the same mistakes. If you end up asking other people for help, it will be much easier if they know exactly what you've tried already.
- Take notes about error messages : If your computer gives you an error message , be sure to write down as much information as possible. You may be able to use this information later to find out if other people are having the same error.
- Restart the computer : When all else fails, restarting the computer is a good thing to try. This can solve a lot of basic issues you may experience with your computer.
Using the process of elimination
If you're having an issue with your computer, you may be able to find out what's wrong using the process of elimination . This means you'll make a list of things that could be causing the problem and then test them out one by one to eliminate them. Once you've identified the source of your computer issue, it will be easier to find a solution.
Let's say you're trying to print out invitations for a birthday party, but the printer won't print. You have some ideas about what could be causing this, so you go through them one by one to see if you can eliminate any possible causes.
First, you check the printer to see that it's turned on and plugged in to the surge protector . It is, so that's not the issue. Next, you check to make sure the printer's ink cartridge still has ink and that there is paper loaded in the paper tray . Things look good in both cases, so you know the issue has nothing to do with ink or paper.
Now you want to make sure the printer and computer are communicating correctly . If you recently downloaded an update to your operating system , it might interfere with the printer. But you know there haven't been any recent updates and the printer was working yesterday, so you'll have to look elsewhere.
You check the printer's USB cord and find that it's not plugged in. You must have unplugged it accidentally when you plugged something else into the computer earlier. Once you plug in the USB cord, the printer starts working again. It looks like this printer issue is solved!
This is just one example of an issue you might encounter while using a computer. In the rest of this lesson, we'll talk about other common computer problems and some ways to solve them.
Simple solutions to common problems
Most of the time, problems can be fixed using simple troubleshooting techniques, like closing and reopening the program. It's important to try these simple solutions before resorting to more extreme measures. If the problem still isn't fixed, you can try other troubleshooting techniques.
Problem: Power button will not start computer
- Solution 1 : If your computer does not start , begin by checking the power cord to confirm that it is plugged securely into the back of the computer case and the power outlet.
- Solution 2 : If it is plugged into an outlet, make sure it is a working outlet . To check your outlet, you can plug in another electrical device , such as a lamp .
- Solution 4 : If you are using a laptop , the battery may not be charged. Plug the AC adapter into the wall, then try to turn on the laptop. If it still doesn't start up, you may need to wait a few minutes and try again.
Problem: An application is running slowly
- Solution 1 : Close and reopen the application.
Problem: An application is frozen
Sometimes an application may become stuck, or frozen . When this happens, you won't be able to close the window or click any buttons within the application.
- Solution 2 : Restart the computer. If you are unable to force quit an application, restarting your computer will close all open apps.
Problem: All programs on the computer run slowly
- Solution 2 : Your computer may be running out of hard drive space. Try deleting any files or programs you don't need.
- Solution 3 : If you're using a PC , you can run Disk Defragmenter . To learn more about Disk Defragmenter , check out our lesson on Protecting Your Computer .
Problem: The computer is frozen
Sometimes your computer may become completely unresponsive, or frozen . When this happens, you won't be able to click anywhere on the screen, open or close applications, or access shut-down options.
- Solution 3 : Press and hold the Power button. The Power button is usually located on the front or side of the computer, typically indicated by the power symbol . Press and hold the Power button for 5 to 10 seconds to force the computer to shut down.
- Solution 4 : If the computer still won't shut down, you can unplug the power cable from the electrical outlet. If you're using a laptop, you may be able to remove the battery to force the computer to turn off. Note : This solution should be your last resort after trying the other suggestions above.
Problem: The mouse or keyboard has stopped working
- Solution 2 : If you're using a wireless mouse or keyboard, make sure it's turned on and that its batteries are charged.
Problem: The sound isn't working
- Solution 1 : Check the volume level. Click the audio button in the top-right or bottom-right corner of the screen to make sure the sound is turned on and that the volume is up.
- Solution 2 : Check the audio player controls. Many audio and video players will have their own separate audio controls. Make sure the sound is turned on and that the volume is turned up in the player.
- Solution 3 : Check the cables. Make sure external speakers are plugged in, turned on, and connected to the correct audio port or a USB port. If your computer has color-coded ports, the audio output port will usually be green .
Problem: The screen is blank
- Solution 1 : The computer may be in Sleep mode. Click the mouse or press any key on the keyboard to wake it.
- Solution 2 : Make sure the monitor is plugged in and turned on .
- Solution 3 : Make sure the computer is plugged in and turned on .
- Solution 4 : If you're using a desktop, make sure the monitor cable is properly connected to the computer tower and the monitor.
Solving more difficult problems
If you still haven't found a solution to your problem, you may need to ask someone else for help. As an easy starting point, we'd recommend searching the Web . It's possible that other users have had similar problems, and solutions to these problems are often posted online. Also, if you have a friend or family member who knows a lot about computers, they may be able to help you.
Keep in mind that most computer problems have simple solutions, although it may take some time to find them. For difficult problems, a more drastic solution may be required, like reformatting your hard drive or reinstalling your operating system. If you think you might need a solution like this, we recommend consulting a professional first. If you're not a computer expert, it's possible that attempting these solutions could make the situation worse.
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What Is Problem Solving? How Software Engineers Approach Complex Challenges
From debugging an existing system to designing an entirely new software application, a day in the life of a software engineer is filled with various challenges and complexities. The one skill that glues these disparate tasks together and makes them manageable? Problem solving .
Throughout this blog post, we’ll explore why problem-solving skills are so critical for software engineers, delve into the techniques they use to address complex challenges, and discuss how hiring managers can identify these skills during the hiring process.
What Is Problem Solving?
But what exactly is problem solving in the context of software engineering? How does it work, and why is it so important?
Problem solving, in the simplest terms, is the process of identifying a problem, analyzing it, and finding the most effective solution to overcome it. For software engineers, this process is deeply embedded in their daily workflow. It could be something as simple as figuring out why a piece of code isn’t working as expected, or something as complex as designing the architecture for a new software system.
In a world where technology is evolving at a blistering pace, the complexity and volume of problems that software engineers face are also growing. As such, the ability to tackle these issues head-on and find innovative solutions is not only a handy skill — it’s a necessity.
The Importance of Problem-Solving Skills for Software Engineers
Problem-solving isn’t just another ability that software engineers pull out of their toolkits when they encounter a bug or a system failure. It’s a constant, ongoing process that’s intrinsic to every aspect of their work. Let’s break down why this skill is so critical.
Driving Development Forward
Without problem solving, software development would hit a standstill. Every new feature, every optimization, and every bug fix is a problem that needs solving. Whether it’s a performance issue that needs diagnosing or a user interface that needs improving, the capacity to tackle and solve these problems is what keeps the wheels of development turning.
It’s estimated that 60% of software development lifecycle costs are related to maintenance tasks, including debugging and problem solving. This highlights how pivotal this skill is to the everyday functioning and advancement of software systems.
Innovation and Optimization
The importance of problem solving isn’t confined to reactive scenarios; it also plays a major role in proactive, innovative initiatives . Software engineers often need to think outside the box to come up with creative solutions, whether it’s optimizing an algorithm to run faster or designing a new feature to meet customer needs. These are all forms of problem solving.
Consider the development of the modern smartphone. It wasn’t born out of a pre-existing issue but was a solution to a problem people didn’t realize they had — a device that combined communication, entertainment, and productivity into one handheld tool.
Increasing Efficiency and Productivity
Good problem-solving skills can save a lot of time and resources. Effective problem-solvers are adept at dissecting an issue to understand its root cause, thus reducing the time spent on trial and error. This efficiency means projects move faster, releases happen sooner, and businesses stay ahead of their competition.
Improving Software Quality
Problem solving also plays a significant role in enhancing the quality of the end product. By tackling the root causes of bugs and system failures, software engineers can deliver reliable, high-performing software. This is critical because, according to the Consortium for Information and Software Quality, poor quality software in the U.S. in 2022 cost at least $2.41 trillion in operational issues, wasted developer time, and other related problems.
Problem-Solving Techniques in Software Engineering
So how do software engineers go about tackling these complex challenges? Let’s explore some of the key problem-solving techniques, theories, and processes they commonly use.
Breaking down a problem into smaller, manageable parts is one of the first steps in the problem-solving process. It’s like dealing with a complicated puzzle. You don’t try to solve it all at once. Instead, you separate the pieces, group them based on similarities, and then start working on the smaller sets. This method allows software engineers to handle complex issues without being overwhelmed and makes it easier to identify where things might be going wrong.
In the realm of software engineering, abstraction means focusing on the necessary information only and ignoring irrelevant details. It is a way of simplifying complex systems to make them easier to understand and manage. For instance, a software engineer might ignore the details of how a database works to focus on the information it holds and how to retrieve or modify that information.
At its core, software engineering is about creating algorithms — step-by-step procedures to solve a problem or accomplish a goal. Algorithmic thinking involves conceiving and expressing these procedures clearly and accurately and viewing every problem through an algorithmic lens. A well-designed algorithm not only solves the problem at hand but also does so efficiently, saving computational resources.
Parallel thinking is a structured process where team members think in the same direction at the same time, allowing for more organized discussion and collaboration. It’s an approach popularized by Edward de Bono with the “ Six Thinking Hats ” technique, where each “hat” represents a different style of thinking.
In the context of software engineering, parallel thinking can be highly effective for problem solving. For instance, when dealing with a complex issue, the team can use the “White Hat” to focus solely on the data and facts about the problem, then the “Black Hat” to consider potential problems with a proposed solution, and so on. This structured approach can lead to more comprehensive analysis and more effective solutions, and it ensures that everyone’s perspectives are considered.
This is the process of identifying and fixing errors in code . Debugging involves carefully reviewing the code, reproducing and analyzing the error, and then making necessary modifications to rectify the problem. It’s a key part of maintaining and improving software quality.
Testing and Validation
Testing is an essential part of problem solving in software engineering. Engineers use a variety of tests to verify that their code works as expected and to uncover any potential issues. These range from unit tests that check individual components of the code to integration tests that ensure the pieces work well together. Validation, on the other hand, ensures that the solution not only works but also fulfills the intended requirements and objectives.
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Evaluating Problem-Solving Skills
We’ve examined the importance of problem-solving in the work of a software engineer and explored various techniques software engineers employ to approach complex challenges. Now, let’s delve into how hiring teams can identify and evaluate problem-solving skills during the hiring process.
Recognizing Problem-Solving Skills in Candidates
How can you tell if a candidate is a good problem solver? Look for these indicators:
- Previous Experience: A history of dealing with complex, challenging projects is often a good sign. Ask the candidate to discuss a difficult problem they faced in a previous role and how they solved it.
- Problem-Solving Questions: During interviews, pose hypothetical scenarios or present real problems your company has faced. Ask candidates to explain how they would tackle these issues. You’re not just looking for a correct solution but the thought process that led them there.
- Technical Tests: Coding challenges and other technical tests can provide insight into a candidate’s problem-solving abilities. Consider leveraging a platform for assessing these skills in a realistic, job-related context.
Assessing Problem-Solving Skills
Once you’ve identified potential problem solvers, here are a few ways you can assess their skills:
- Solution Effectiveness: Did the candidate solve the problem? How efficient and effective is their solution?
- Approach and Process: Go beyond whether or not they solved the problem and examine how they arrived at their solution. Did they break the problem down into manageable parts? Did they consider different perspectives and possibilities?
- Communication: A good problem solver can explain their thought process clearly. Can the candidate effectively communicate how they arrived at their solution and why they chose it?
- Adaptability: Problem-solving often involves a degree of trial and error. How does the candidate handle roadblocks? Do they adapt their approach based on new information or feedback?
Hiring managers play a crucial role in identifying and fostering problem-solving skills within their teams. By focusing on these abilities during the hiring process, companies can build teams that are more capable, innovative, and resilient.
As you can see, problem solving plays a pivotal role in software engineering. Far from being an occasional requirement, it is the lifeblood that drives development forward, catalyzes innovation, and delivers of quality software.
By leveraging problem-solving techniques, software engineers employ a powerful suite of strategies to overcome complex challenges. But mastering these techniques isn’t simple feat. It requires a learning mindset, regular practice, collaboration, reflective thinking, resilience, and a commitment to staying updated with industry trends.
For hiring managers and team leads, recognizing these skills and fostering a culture that values and nurtures problem solving is key. It’s this emphasis on problem solving that can differentiate an average team from a high-performing one and an ordinary product from an industry-leading one.
At the end of the day, software engineering is fundamentally about solving problems — problems that matter to businesses, to users, and to the wider society. And it’s the proficient problem solvers who stand at the forefront of this dynamic field, turning challenges into opportunities, and ideas into reality.
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Quiz on Problem-Solving
Test your understanding of the key steps in problem-solving, pseudocode, and flowcharts.
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How to test for hardware failures in a computer
If you suspect a specific piece of hardware is not working correctly, click the appropriate links below. Otherwise, if you are unsure which hardware may have an issue, we suggest browsing through the whole document for a proper diagnosis. Although hardware failures most certainly may occur in your computer, it is important to check for as many software issues as you can before proceeding. The fact is, most errors are caused by software (such as drivers ) related problems, not by a failing hardware device. See basic troubleshooting for a good starting point.
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Although some programs, such as SpeedFan, helps monitor the voltage and power supplied to computer fans, there is no software utility to test the integrity of computer power supplies.
There are methods of testing the connectors on a power supply using a multimeter . However, due to potential damage to the power supply, the motherboard, and components connected to it, this information is not posted on Computer Hope. Due to their relatively low cost and easy installation, we recommend users replace the power supply if it's believed to be failing or bad.
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Ultimate Quiz On Problem Solving And Computers
Do you understand the concept of problem-solving using a computer? To test your knowledge, you can try these MCQs on problem-solving using the computer. Computer-based problem-solving is a process of designing, implementing, and using programming tools. Do you know the difference between pseudocode and an algorithm? What are the other terms associated with these two? Start this quiz, and check out your scores. All the best! You can share the quiz with others also.
An artificial language designed to express actions that control the behavior of a machine.
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A person who thinks rationally and objectively to get an unbiased solution to a problem.
Which of the following is not a model used in problem-solving?
In the expression count = count + 1, the value of count is
How does the waterfall model differ from the systems development life cycle model.
The stages are long and tedious
Iterations are difficult and must be done at the end
New problems cannot be incorporated into the solution
Users are not involved in its development
In programming, the value of a constant
Remains the same once the variable is given a value
Changes regularly in the program
Does not change during program execution
Is only affected when new values are given to it
One phase of the systems development model is
Testing of users
Training of users
Production of documentations
Evaluation of the new system
For a new system to be implemented, it must be backed by: i. the users ii. the systems development team iii. the managers of the company
I and ii only are needed to support the new system
I and iv only are needed to support the new system
I and iii only are needed to support the new system
I, ii, and iii must support the new system
This is a crucial attribute that is required of all problem solvers.
Which is true about Algorithms?
Algorithms can easily be converted into program codes.
Algorithms are written in formal notation.
Algorithms provide a sequence of steps that will solve a problem.
Algorithms are only used for math and computer-related problems.
How pseudocode differs from an algorithm?
Pseudocodes are precise, while algorithms are not.
Pseudocode must solve the problem, whereas the algorithm does not have to.
Pseudocode is a precursor to computer program codes.
An algorithm is written by the problem solver, while pseudocode is written by the code designer.
An area in memory where changeable values are stored is called
An assignment statement is recognized by.
An equal sign
A statement of value
A plus sign
When output must be sent to a file, we use the keyword.
If an area is fully understood by the users and developers, then which model would be suitable.
Consider the following codes: Begin Line 1 sum = 0 Line 2 input num1, num2, num3 Line 3 sum = num1+num2 +num3 Line 4 Print sum End If num1 = 2, num2 = 3, num3 = 4, and the codes were executed as is, what would be the result:
Consider the codes, where each variable contains its name as the value, such that A is A: BeginLine 1 c = a Line 2 a = b Line 3 b = c Line 3 Print a, b EndWhat is the printed upon termination
Consider the following codes:beginline 1 sum = 0 line 2 input num1, num2, num3 line 3 sum = num1+num2 +num3 line 4 print “your total is”, sum end if num1 = 8, num2 = 7, num3 = 9, and the codes were executed as is, what would be the result:.
Your total is 24
Your total is sum
"Your total is", 24
"Your total is 24"
In pseudocode the statements used must
Solve the problem
Be properly structured and indented to illustrate the flow of logic and control
Have good English meanings and be recognizable English words
One conversion method that can be used by the system development team while the users in the office are still in training is
At what stage of the SDLC is the complete system checked for compatibility?
The design phase
Which is true about systems?
A system boundary separates the system from its environment
The scope of the system extends beyond its boundary
System consists of interrelated components working together to achieve varying goals
The good system will solve all the organization's problems
Which of the following provides an accurate description of a problem?
A difficulty that cannot be solved
A difficulty that prevents the accomplishment of some objective
A difficulty that arises from some existing dilemma
A challenge that hinders progress that may have no solution
Which is most accurate about problem statements?
The problem statement helps the users to communicate the problem
The problem statement is just a summary of the issues faced
The problem statement is the backbone of the feasibility and the problem solution
It includes the symptoms and constraints and so often misleads users
The word INPUT is used to
Set aside some memory to run the program
Set aside some memory area to store the value of the constant inputted
Set aside some memory area to store the value of the variable entered
Used to give the variable its value
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- Published: 10 November 2023
Estimation of individuals’ collaborative problem solving ability in computer-based assessment
- Meijuan Li nAff1 ,
- Hongyun Liu ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-3472-9102 2 , 3 ,
- Mengfei Cai 4 &
- Jianlin Yuan 5
Education and Information Technologies ( 2023 ) Cite this article
In the human-to-human Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) test, students’ problem-solving process reflects the interdependency among partners. The high interdependency in CPS makes it very sensitive to group composition. For example, the group outcome might be driven by a highly competent group member, so it does not reflect all the individual performances, especially for a low-ability member. As a result, how to effectively assess individuals’ performances has become a challenging issue in educational measurement. This research aims to construct the measurement model to estimate an individual’s collaborative problem-solving ability and correct the impact of partners’ abilities. First, 175 eighth graders’ dyads were divided into six cooperative groups with different levels of problem-solving (PS) ability combinations (i.e., high-high, high-medium, high-low, medium-medium, medium–low, and low-low). Then, they participated in the test of three CPS tasks, and the log data of the dyads were recorded. We applied Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) measurement models to estimate an individual’s CPS ability and proposed a mean correction method to correct the impact of group composition on individual ability. Results show that (1) the multidimensional IRT model fits the data better than the multidimensional IRT model with the testlet effect; (2) the mean correction method significantly reduced the impact of group composition on obtained individual ability. This study not only successfully increased the validity of individuals’ CPS ability measurement but also provided useful guidelines in educational settings to enhance individuals’ CPS ability and promote an individualized learning environment.
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Authors and Affiliations
Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education (Beijing Normal University), Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
Psychology, Division of Social Science & Communication, Manhattanville College, Purchase, NY, USA
Educational Science Research Institute, Hunan University, Changsha, China
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Three human-to-human interaction tasks (Clown, Plant Growth, and Olive Oil) were employed in this study. The following is a detailed description of the coding scheme for the log data, using the "olive oil" task as an example.
1.1 The Olive Oil task
The “Olive Oil” task is a well-defined algorithm problem, which can be completed by two students’ collaboration. As Appendix Fig. 4 shows, the left side is student A’s interface and the right one is student B’s. Two students have jars with different volumes, student A’s is 3L and student B’s is 5L. The task goal is to fill up student B’s jar with 4L olive oil. The transfer pipe can be used to transfer olive oil from student A to B, and the unused olive oil can be put in the bucket. Students A and B need to type texts in the chat windows to communicate and collaborate on this task. The ideal path includes eight steps: 1, Student A filled up 3L olive oil; 2, Student A transfered the 3L olive oil to student B; 3, Student A filled up 3L olive oil again; 4, Student A transfered 2L olive oil to student B and kept 1L olive oil; 5, Student B poured all the olive oil in the 5L jar; 6, Student A transfered the left 1L olive oil to student B; 7, Student A filled up with 3L olive oil again; 8, Student transfered the 3L olive oil to student B so the later has 4L in total. Appendix Fig. 4 shows the instruction and the problem space on two screen tabs in the Olive Oil task.
The screenshot of student A (at the top) and student B (at the bottom) in the Olive Oil Task
1.2 Log data
Appendix Table 13 shows the original log data of a group of students completing the “Olive Oil” task recorded by a computer. It includes five variables: ID is the sequence number of a group’s behaviors and conversations while completing the task; GroupID is the group number; log_type shows the type of current event of the student; log_content shows the content of current event of the student; role is the student’s mission role. In addition, Table 14 has a detailed introduction of the data types in log_content.
The operation behaviors and conversations in the CPS process need to be coded by using the following methods:
1.3.1 Behavior coding
There are two steps in behavior coding. The first one is to delete the meaningless behaviors and keep the meaningful ones. Meaningful behaviors can reflect the progress of CPS mission. For example, students’ filling oil, transferring oil, and pouring oil conducted in the “Olive Oil” task. Meaningless behaviors include the ones that don’t provide any task progress information, such as clicking and dragging the mouse, moving the jar, and turning on and off the transfer pipe in the task.
The second step is to code the meaningful behavior data to describe students’ meaningful behaviors in the CPS process. In order to achieve the goal, the two students in the same group need to collaborate to clearly understand the problem-solving strategy and design a logical problem-solving process. To represent the students’ behavioral status in the CPS process, this type of coding needs to reflect the student’s operation, as well as the cumulated status of all the steps. For example, using the expression formula “A/B 3L/5L_fill/to/trans: 3L = X;5L = Y” to code students’ operation behaviors and the oil volumes in the jars. “A/B” stands for students’ roles; “3L/5L” means the jar volume in operation. Student A uses the 3L jar and student B uses the 5L jar; “fill” means adding oil, “to” means pouring oil, and “trans” means passing oil; “3L = X” is the oil volume in student A’s jar at this moment, and “5L = Y” is the oil volume in student B’s jar at this moment. For example, “A 3L_fill:3L = 3,5L = 0” represents student A added 3L oil at this moment, so his/her jar has 3L oil, while student B’s jar has 0L oil.
1.3.2 Language coding
Language coding has two steps. First, Language coding indicators are determined based on students’ performance, including four dimensions: sharing ideas, negotiating ideas, regulating problem-solving, and maintaining communication (Liu et al., 2015 ; Hao et al., 2017 ). 33 coding indicators found by Hao ( 2017 ) were expanded to 38 to distinguish students’ language characteristics in CPS process（Table 14 ). Among the added five indicators, four of them are about sharing ideas, which distinguish the content of sharing ideas (resources, mission progress status), proactivity, and the roles of questioning and responding. The other added indicator is about maintaining communication—students communicating the negative thoughts of giving up. The second step is to use manual coding to achieve language coding. It started with using a coding manual to train all the coding staff. Then 10 sets of data were chosen from each mission, and language contents from different time frames were double-coded. When two codes are inconsistent, it was discussed and finalized. Lastly, 20% of data were chosen and double-coded so the consistency coefficient was calculated. For the three missions, if Kappa coefficient reaches 0.98 on the CPS skills level and reaches 0.84 ~ 0.88 at the student performance (subcategories) level, then they have reached a sufficient consistency coefficient (Cohen, 1960 ). Once the coding consistency coefficient reaches 0.80, the rest of the data is single-coded .
1.4 Form structured log data
Through behavior coding and language coding, CPS structured log data is established. Appendix Table 15 presents the data example of structured log data in this task. “Eventtype” is the type of event, in which “action” stands for behaviors, and “chat” stands for language. “Event” represents the structured log data. For example, the fourth event in the group is “C11”, which means student A’s language type at this moment is “to share information related to mission resources with teammate”. The sixth event is “A 3L_fill:3L = 3;5L = 0”, which means at this moment student A is using the 3L jar to fill oil, then he/she has 3L oil, while student B has 0L oil.
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Li, M., Liu, H., Cai, M. et al. Estimation of individuals’ collaborative problem solving ability in computer-based assessment. Educ Inf Technol (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-023-12271-w
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Accepted : 09 October 2023
Published : 10 November 2023
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-023-12271-w
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