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Reference List: Author/Authors

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Note:  This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style  can be found here .

The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.).

Note:  Because the information on this page pertains to virtually all citations, we've highlighted a few important differences between APA 6 and APA 7 with underlined notes written in red.

Single Author

Last name first, followed by author initials.

Ahmed, S. (2012).  On being included: Racism and diversity in institutional life . Duke University Press.

Two Authors

List by their last names and initials. Separate author names with a comma. Use the ampersand instead of "and."

Soto, C. J., & John, O. P. (2017). The next big five inventory (BFI-2): Developing and assessing a hierarchical model with 15 facets to enhance bandwidth, fidelity, and predictive power. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 113 (1), 117-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000096

Three to Twenty Authors

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.  This is a departure from APA 6, which only required listing the first six authors before an ellipsis and the final author's name.

Nguyen, T., Carnevale, J. J., Scholer, A. A., Miele, D. B., & Fujita, K. (2019). Metamotivational knowledge of the role of high-level and low-level construal in goal-relevant task performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 117 (5), 879-899. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000166

More Than Twenty Authors

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author's name (do not place an ampersand before it). There should be no more than twenty names in the citation in total.

Pegion, K., Kirtman, B. P., Becker, E., Collins, D. C., LaJoie, E., Burgman, R., Bell, R., DelSole, R., Min, D., Zhu, Y., Li, W., Sinsky, E., Guan, H., Gottschalck, J., Metzger, E. J., Barton, N. P., Achuthavarier, D., Marshak, J., Koster, R., . . .  Kim, H. (2019). The subseasonal experiment (SubX): A multimodel subseasonal prediction experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 100 (10), 2043-2061. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0270.1

Group Author

Group authors can include corporations, government agencies, organizations, etc; and a group may publish in coordination with individuals. Here, you simply treat the publishing organization the same way you'd treat the author's name and format the rest of the citation as normal. Be sure to give the full name of the group author in your reference list, although abbreviations may be used in your text.

Entries in reference works (  e.g. dictionaries, thesauruses, and encyclopedias) without credited authors are also considered works with group authors.

Merriam-Webster. (2008). Braggadocio. In Merriam-Webster’s Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary . Merriam-Webster.

When a work has multiple layers of group authorship (e.g. The Office of the Historian, which is a part of the Department of State, publishes something), list the most specific agency as the author and the parent agency as the publisher.

Bureau of International Organization Affairs. (2018). U.S. contributions to international organizations, 2017 [Annual report]. U.S. Department of State. https://www.state.gov/u-s-contributions-to-international-organizations/

Unknown Author

When the work does not have an author move the title of the work to the beginning of the references and follow with the date of publication. Only use “Anonymous ” if the author is the work is signed “Anonymous.” This is a new addition to APA 7.

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Merriam-Webster.

NOTE : When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: ( Merriam-Webster's , 2003).

Two or More Works by the Same Author

Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year (earliest comes first). List references with no dates before references with dates.

Urcuioli, P. J. (n.d.).

Urcuioli, P. J. (2011). 

Urcuioli, P. J.  (2015).

When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.

Agnew, C. R. (Ed.). (2014). Social influences on romantic relationships: Beyond the dyad . Cambridge University Press.

Agnew, C. R., & South, S. C. (Eds.). (2014). Interpersonal relationships and health: Social and clinical psychological mechanisms. Oxford University Press.

References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same.

Arriaga, X. B., Capezza, N. M., Reed, J. T., Wesselman, E. D., & Williams, K. D. (2014). With partners like you, who needs strangers?: Ostracism involving a romantic partner. Personal Relationships, 21(4) , 557-569.

Arriaga, X. B., Kumashiro, M., Finkel, E. J., VanderDrift, L. E., & Luchies, L. B. (2014). Filling the void: Bolstering attachment security in committed relationships. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5 (4), 398-405.

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

If you are using more than one reference by the same author—or the same group of authors listed in the same order—published in the same year, first check to see if they have more specific dates ( this recommendation is new to APA 7) . Works with only a year should be listed before those with a more specific date. List specific dates chronologically.  If two works have the same publication date, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. If references with the same date are identified as parts of a series (e.g. Part 1 and Part 2), list them in order of their place in the series. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.g.: "Berndt (2004a) makes similar claims..."

Berndt, T. J. (2004a).  Children’s friendships: Shifts over a half-century in perspectives on their development and their effects.  Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 50 (3) , 206-223.

Berndt, T. J. (2004b).  Friendship and three A’s (aggression, adjustment, and attachment).  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 88 (1) , 1-4.

Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords

Cite the publishing information about a book as usual, but cite Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword (whatever title is applicable) as the chapter of the book.

Lang, J. M. (2018). Introduction. In Dujardin, G., Lang, J. M., & Staunton, J. A. (Eds.), Teaching the literature survey course (pp. 1-8). West Virginia University Press.

Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / How to cite in APA when there are multiple authors

How to cite in APA when there are multiple authors

This article covers how to cite a reference in APA style (7th ed.) when there are multiple authors. Broadly speaking, in an APA style “the author” refers to the person(s) or group(s) who should be given credit for the work being referenced.

Here’s a run-through of everything this page includes:

In-text citations when there are multiple authors

Reference list entries when there are multiple authors, troubleshooting.

APA 7th ed. uses the author-date citation system for citing references in text. Unless you are citing a source with no author in APA , the structure in parenthetical citations includes placing the author’s last name/surname, followed by a comma, and the publication year in parentheses. In narrative citations, this information is incorporated into the sentence.

Parenthetical citation for one author:

(Author Last Name, Year Published)

(Curtis, 2020)

Narrative citation for one author:

Author Last Name (Year Published)

Curtis (2020)

Two authors

For a work with two authors, include both authors’ last names in every in-text citation, whether narrative or parenthetical. In parenthetical citations, use an ampersand (&) between the authors’ last names.

Parenthetical citation for two authors:

(1st Author & 2nd Author, Year Published)

(Curtis & Williams, 2020)

Narrative citation for two authors:

1st Author & 2nd Author (Year Published)

Curtis & Williams (2020)

Three or more authors

When citing a journal paper in APA with three or more authors, only enter the last name of the first author listed and add “et al.” after it. “Et al.” is Latin for the phrase “and others,” which is why it is used as a substitute for two or more authors’ last names.

Parenthetical citation for three or more authors:

(1st Author et al., Year Published)

(Harris et al., 2020)

Narrative citation for three or more authors:

1st Author et al. (Year Published)

Harris et al. (2020)

Here is a page with more information on when to use “et al.” in APA style .

Group authors

The same guidelines for in-text citations apply when the authors of a source are a distinct group or organization such as a government agency, association, nonprofit organization, business, hospital, task force, or study group. To confirm whether a reference was written by individual author(s) or a group, check the cover or title page.

Hint: for an online resource, the author could be the name of the organization hosting the webpage or website, rather than the name of just one content contributor.

Before using an abbreviated group name as the author of your citation, spell out the abbreviation and define the group one time first in the text. Afterward, use the abbreviation of the group name throughout the rest of the paper.

Group author in-text citation examples:

First parenthetical citation with group abbreviation included: (Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities [AJCU], 2020)

Subsequent parenthetical citations: (AJCU, 2020)

First narrative citation with group abbreviation included: The Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities [AJCU] (2020)

Subsequent narrative citations: The AJCU (2020)

Avoiding ambiguity in in-text citations

Sometimes, in-text citations that have three or more authors, some of whom have the same last name, and the same publication year can look like they are the same reference when using the et al. abbreviation. For example, Curtis et al. (2020) could refer to

Curtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, and Tyler (2020)

Curtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, Maxey, Key, Smith, and Esparza (2020)

To avoid this ambiguity and confusion for the reader, write out as many names as possible for the in-text citation until the references are distinguished, and then add “et. al” to abbreviate the other authors’ names.

Curtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, et al. (2020)

Curtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, Maxey, et al. (2020)

When only the final author is different, list all of the names in every citation to avoid any confusion.

Curtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, and Esparza (2020)

APA has slightly different reference structures for different source types (e.g., book, website, journal article, etc.), but each structure generally includes the following:

Author last name, Author initials. (Date Published). Title. URL or DOI if available .

Need more help with citing a particular source? Find further guidance in this APA citations guide.

One or two authors

For references with one or two authors, cite using the four-part structure.

Two individual authors example:

Smith, J., & Jones, S. (1994). Making a movie star. Behind the Scenes Stories: A Journal of Celebrity Life, 44 (2), 192–200. https://doi.org/l4nds0r

One group author example:

The American Marine Society. (2003). Whale mating patterns in the new millennium. The American Marine Society Magazine , 17-20 . https://fams.gov/article/2003/whale-mating-patterns-in-the-new-millennium

2 – 20 authors

In APA 7th ed., up to 20 authors should be included in a reference list entry. Write out the last name and first initial(s) for each contributor.

2–20 authors example:

Wright, A., Komal, G., Siddharth, D., Boyd, G., Cayson, N., Beverley, K., Travers, K., Begum, A., Redmond, M., Mills, M., Cherry, D., Finley, B., Fox, M., Ferry, F., Almond, B., Howell, E., Gould, T., Berger, B., Bostock, T., Fountain, A. (2020). Styling royalty. London Bridge Press.

21+ authors

For references with more than 20 authors, after listing the 19th author replace any additional author names with an ellipsis ( … ) followed by the final listed author’s last name and first initial(s).

21+ authors example:

Wright, A., Komal, G., Siddharth, D., Boyd, G., Cayson, N., Beverley, K., Travers, K., Begum, A., Redmond, M., Mills, M., Cherry, D., Finley, B., Fox, M., Ferry, F., Almond, B., Howell, E., Gould, T., Berger, B., Bostock, T., . . . Booker, T. (2020). Eating well: Tips from 23 lifestyle authors. Food Magazine. https://foodmag.com/article/2020/tips-from-22-lifestyle-authors

Solution #1: How to order the names of multiple authors in an APA reference

Authors should be cited in the exact order that they are listed by the source, even if they have not been listed alphabetically.

Solution #2: How to cite an article with more than 20 authors in APA style

If an article has more than 20 authors, all authors do not need to be listed in the reference. Instead, name the first 19, then use an ellipsis (…), then add the name of the final author listed. The ellipsis acts as a substitute for all the names between the first 19 and the final authors. No ampersand (&) is needed before the final name.

For example:

Richards, B.A., Lillicrap, T. P., Beaudoin, P., Bengio, Y., Bogacz, R., Christensen, A., Clopath, C.

Costa, R. P., de Berker, A., Ganguli, S., Gillon, C. J., Hafner, D., Kepecs, A., Kriegeskorte,

N., Latham, P., Lindsay, G. W., Miller, K. D., Naud, R., Pack, C. C., … Kording, K. P. (2019). A deep learning framework for neuroscience. Nature Neuroscience ,  22 (11), 1761–1770. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0520-2

When making an in-text citation, only write the first author’s last name followed by “et. al.” This applies to both parenthetical and narrative citations.

(Richard et al., 2019)

Richard et al. (2019)

Solution #3: How to cite an article written by an organization in APA style

  • Organization as author

When an article is written by an organization, use the typical four-part APA structure (author, date, title, publisher) and cite the organization as the author.

American Nurses Association. (2019). 2018 Annual Report, American Nurse Today, 14 (6), 29-36.

https://www.nursingworld.org/~49d621/globalassets/docs/ana/ana-annual-report-for-

  • Organization as author and publisher

If the organization that authored an article is also its publisher , omit the publisher’s name in the citation.

  • In-text citation when an organization is an author

Use the organization’s name as the author. For example:

American Nurses Association [ANA] (2019)

If an organization’s name is long, abbreviate it by doing the following:

  • First, write the organization’s name in full the first time, followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis.
  • After this, you may use the abbreviation without including the complete name.

1 st in-text narrative citation: American Nurses Association [ANA] (2019)

1 st in-text parenthetical citation: (American Nurses Association [ANA] (2019)

After this distinction is made, abbreviations in-text can be used as demonstrated below:

Narrative citations: The ANA (2019)

Parenthetical citations: (ANA, 2019)

Published October 28, 2020.

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To cite a source with multiple authors and an edition number in APA style, you need to know the names of the authors, title of the book, edition number, and publisher. The in-text citation of a book with multiple authors and an edition number is similar to citing a journal or a book reference with multiple authors. An example of a book reference with three authors and an edition number, along with a template, is given below:

In-text citation template and example:

Author Surname et al. (Publication Year)

LeBuffe et al. (2012)

Parenthetical

(Author Surname et al., Publication Year)

(LeBuffe et al., 2012)

Reference list entry template and example:

Author Surname, F. M., Author Surname, F. M., & Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Book title (edition number). Publisher

LeBuffe, P. A., Naglieri, J. A., & Manderth, A. (2012). Devereux early childhood assessment for preschoolers (2nd ed.). Kaplan Early Learning Company.

Use numerals to indicate an edition number. The word “edition” is abbreviated as “ed.” Italicize the book title and follow sentence case for capitalization.

Citing a source that has multiple authors with the same last name and same initials is the same as citing a source with different authors. There is no need to add the initials of the authors in in-text citations as all surnames (although the same) appear in a single source. Examples of a book reference with three authors with the same last name and initials and their templates are given below:

Dunn et al. (2007)

(Dunn et al., 2007)

Author Surname, F. & Author Surname, F. (Publication Year). Book title. Publisher.

Dunn, L. M., Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (2007). Peabody picture vocabulary test-IV. American Guidance Service.

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APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide

  • Information for EndNote Users

Number of authors

Format of authors, order of authors, when the author isn't a person, no author or anonymous, who's the author.

  • In-Text Citations
  • Reference List
  • Books & eBooks
  • Book chapters
  • Journal Articles
  • Conference Papers
  • Newspaper Articles
  • Web Pages & Documents
  • Specialised Health Databases
  • Using Visual Works in Assignments & Class Presentations
  • Using Visual Works in Theses and Publications
  • Using Tables in Assignments & Class Presentations
  • Custom Textbooks & Books of Readings
  • ABS AND AIHW
  • Videos (YouTube), Podcasts & Webinars
  • Blog Posts and Social Media
  • First Nations Works
  • Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries
  • Personal Communication
  • Theses and Dissertations
  • Film / TV / DVD
  • Miscellaneous (Generic Reference)
  • AI software
  • APA Format for Assignments
  • What If...?
  • Other Guides
  • How many authors do you have?
  • 1-2 Authors
  • 3-20 authors
  • More than 20 authors

How many authors?

APA has strict rules for how to show the author's names in the text of your assignment and in your reference list. You need to check the number of authors you have for your work, and then format your references accordingly:

  • 1-2 authors

See the tabs on this box for details.

Things to Note:

Pay attention to the use of commas, the ampersand (&), and the word "and".

  • You use the word "and" when you are using the author's names as part of your sentence, but an "&" when the names are in the brackets or the reference list.
  • In text, you will always use a comma after each author (except the last one) when you have more than two names. In your reference list, you put a comma after each author (except the last one).

You always put a full stop after the al. in et al., because it is short for "et alia" ("and others").

For one or two authors , always mention the names of all authors

Narrative citation: Zhang and Webb (2019) noted that students who read bilingual books performed better in vocabulary tests.

Parenthetical citation: Students who read bilingual books may perform better in vocabulary tests ( Zhang & Webb, 2019).

In Your Reference List:

Zhang, Z., & Webb, S. (2019). The effects of reading bilingual books on vocabulary learning. Reading in a Foreign Language, 31 (1), 109–139.  http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/April2019/April2019/articles/zhang.pdf

When you have 3 or more authors , you only use the first author's surname in text, and abbreviate the rest of the list with "et al." (Latin for "and others"). In your reference list, you list all of the authors (up to 20) .

Narrative citation: Boers et al.'s (2017) research i  nto the use of pictures in glosses found they may decrease the amount of attention given to the words.

Parenthetical citation: Using pictures to illustrate glosses may, in fact, decrease the amount of attention given to the words ( Boers et al. , 2017).

Boers, F., Warren, P., He, L., & Deconinck , J. (2017). Does adding pictures to glosses enhance vocabulary uptake from reading? System, 66, 113-129. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.system.2017.03.017

When you have more than 3 authors (regardless of how many) , you only use the first author's surname in text, and abbreviate the rest of the list with "et al.". In your reference list, you list the first 19 authors and the last one, using an ellipses (...) to show that some authors have been omitted (do not use an ampersand &).

Narrative citation: Tobler et al.'s (2017) research found genetic evidence that suggests Australian Aboriginal people have inhabited the Australian landmass for approximately 50,000 years.

Parenthetical citation: Genetic evidence suggests the Australian Aboriginal people have inhabited the Australian landmass for approximately 50,000 years ( Tobler et al. , 2017).

Always include no more than twenty names, the first 19 and the last one:

Tobler , R., Rohrlach , A., Soubrier , J., Bover , P., Llamas, B., Tuke , J., Bean, N., Abdullah-Highfold , A., Agius , S., O'Donoghue , A., O'Loughlin , I., Sutton, P., Zilio , F., Walshe , K., Williams, A. N., Turney , C. S. M., Williams, M., Richards, S. M., Mitchell, N., ... Cooper, A. (2017) . Aboriginal mitogenomes reveal 50,000 years of regionalism in Australia. Nature, 544 (7649), 180-184. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature21416

  • Use only initials of author's first or given names within the reference list
  • If the author's first name is hyphenated then format as initial, full stop, hyphen and second initial. For example, Jean-Luc Picard is formatted as Picard, J.-L.
  • For hyphenated surnames include both names and the hyphen in the reference list and the in text citation. For example: (Jones-Smith, 2015)
  • For surnames with multiple parts that do not include a hyphen include both names separated by a space in the reference list and the in text citation. For example: Arce Arias, A. (2017).
  • If the surname includes a particle (for example, van, der, den, la, von etc), include the particle before the surname in the reference list and the in text citation. Follow the authors example regarding capitalisation. For example: (van der Woodsen, 2021) (Del Castillo, 2017)
  • If the authors name has a suffix, include the suffix after the second initial in the reference list. For example, Jones, H. W., Jr., & Jones, H. W., Sr. (1941) ... Do not include the suffix in the in-text citation

Some points to remember about authors:

  • Do not alter the order of the authors within a citation (that is, the first, second, third etc authors of a work). You should leave them in the order they appear on the work.
  • Your reference list will be placed in alphabetical order based on the name of the first author for each reference. See the page on Reference list structure for more information about the order of your references.
  • (Corbin, 2015; James & Waterson, 2017; Smith et al., 2016).
  • (Corbin, 2015; 2018)
  • (Queensland Health, 2017a; 2017b)
  • Use only the surnames of your authors in text (e.g., Smith & Brown, 2014) - however, if you have two authors with the same surname who have published in the same year, then you will need to use their initials to distinguish between the two of them (e.g., K. Smith, 2014; N. Smith, 2014). Otherwise, do not use initials in text .

Notes on et al.:

"Et al." is short for "et alia" - which means "and others". Note this is plural - "other s " - you only use it when there is more than one "other" (which is why you never use it for a work with two authors - always name both authors). Never use et al. to replace one person.

If you have the same first author and date for two works, but the other authors are not the same for both works, keep listing authors until the citations are clearly different, and then use et al. for the remaining authors.

For example:

Chan, G. C., Leung, J., Quinn, C., Kelly, A. B., Connor, J. P., Weier, M., & Hall, W. D. (2016). Rural and urban differences in adolescent alcohol use, alcohol supply, and parental drinking. The Journal of Rural Health, 32 (3), 280-286. https://doi.org/10.1111/jrh.12151

Chan, G. C., Kelly, A. B., Connor, J. P., Hall, W., Young, R. M., Toumbourou, J. W., & Williams, J. (2016). Regional versus urban differences in teenage alcohol use: Does parental disapproval account for these differences? Australian Journal of Rural Health, 24 (1), 3-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12177

If you used both of these works for your paper you would cite them like this:

(Chan, Leung, et al., 2016)

(Chan, Kelly, et al., 2016)

If the first two or three (etc) authors are the same, keep adding authors until they are different.

(Chan, Kelly, Smith, et al., 2016)

(Chan, Kelly, White, et al., 2016)

Remember, you don't use et al. for only one person, so if there were only three authors and you needed to name the first two authors in your in-text citation, you would name all three authors. If you had only four authors, and you had to include the first three authors to make the citation clear, then you would include all four authors.

When this happens, use an & between your last two authors:

(Smith, Jones & Brown, 2016)

(Taylor, Brown, Gwyrdd & Schwarz, 2016)

There are circumstances where you cannot find a person to use as your author because the "author" is a group, a company or an organisation. Some times there is no author, in which case see " No author or anonymous " below.

Is the author a company or organisation?

  • Government bodies (such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics or the Department of Education and Training) are often the official "author" of the works they publish.
  • Companies are usually the authors of their web pages

Write the company's name in full, the first time you use them, in text, then you can use an acronym. Always write the name in full in the reference list.

For example :

In text, the first time:

Narrative: The American Psychological Association (APA, 2012) noted that...

Parenthetical: The consumer price index is collated by using around a million pricing structures (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2018).

In text, subsequent times:

Narrative: As noted by the APA (2012)...

Parenthetical: New weights were used to maximise transaction data (ABS, 2018).

In the reference list:

Do not use acronyms unless the acronym is the official name of the company/organisation - and even then try to find the full version (e.g. CSIRO is Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation). Check the legal information or copyright pages of the organisation's web site.

American Psychiatric Association. (2012). How to write an APA style reference when information is missing . http://blog.apastyle.org/files/missing-pieces---apa-style-reference-table.pdf

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2018). Consumer price index, Australia, Dec 2017 (No. 6410.0). http://www.abs.gov.au

N.B. Write author names "as is" to the best of your ability. Use their capitalisation, spacing and punctuation. If they use an "and" or and "&" in their name (e.g. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) retain the version of "and/&" they have used.

Is there a corporate body (like a government department or a company) who is responsible for the work? They're probably your author. Take a look at " When the Author isn't a person " above.

Is the work anonymous, or without a byline?

  • Sometimes newspaper articles and dictionary or encyclopedia entries don't have an author attributed. Editorials in peer reviewed journals may not have a byline. These works are unattributed, but they are not "anonymous".
  • Only list the author as "anonymous" if the article/work has been attributed to "Anonymous" or "Anon". If there is no attribution, follow the advice below.

When there is no attributed author, move the title of the article (or encyclopedia entry, etc) to the first position in the reference list. In text, use the title of the document in "quotation marks" where you would use the author's name. For long titles, it is okay to use only the first few words.

Narrative: In the Nature editorial, "On the March" (2017), it was suggested that crowds might be "painted as hostile" (p. 137) by the media.

Parenthetical: During the 2017 presidential inauguration, there were some moments of awkwardness ("Mrs. Obama Says ‘Lovely Frame’", 2018).

Please note: In text, the title of the article is given title case - that is, major words are capitalised. You do not use title case in the reference list.

On the march. (2017). Nature, 554 , 137. https://www.nature.com/articles/544137a.pdf

Mrs. Obama says ‘lovely frame’ in box during awkward handoff. (2018, February 1). AP News . https://www.apnews.com/31f3520500c94a6ebfdbd2a0db5f4b60

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APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Journal Article with 3–20 Authors

  • General Style Guidelines
  • One Author or Editor
  • Two Authors or Editors
  • Three to Five Authors or Editors
  • Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
  • Article in a Reference Book
  • Edition other than the First
  • Translation
  • Government Publication
  • Journal Article with 1 Author
  • Journal Article with 2 Authors
  • Journal Article with 3–20 Authors
  • Journal Article 21 or more Authors
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Basic Web Page
  • Web page from a University site
  • Web Page with No Author
  • Entry in a Reference Work
  • Government Document
  • Film and Television
  • Youtube Video
  • Audio Podcast
  • Electronic Image
  • Twitter/Instagram
  • Lecture/PPT
  • Conferences
  • Secondary Sources
  • Citation Support
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Formatting Your Paper

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

What is a DOI? A DOI ( digital object identifier ) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. 

NOTE: It is regarded as the most important part of the citation because it will accurately direct users to the specific article.

Think of it as a "digital fingerprint" or an article's DNA!

The rules for DOIs have been updated in the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. They should be included as URLs, rather than just the alphanumeric string.

Correct:  

  • http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-12-114
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-12-114

Incorrect:     

  • doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-12-114
  • Retrieved from http://doi:10.1186/1471-2288-12-114
  • FREE DOI Look-up (Cross-Ref)
  • DOI System: FAQ
  • Looking up a DOI
  • DOI Flowchart

Journal Article with Three to Twenty Authors

Helpful Tips:

DOI: If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference as a URL.

Online Database: For works from databases that publish works of limited circulation (such as the ERIC database) or original, proprietary material available only in that database (such as UpToDate), include the name of the database or archive and the URL of the work. If the URL requires a login or is session specific, meaning it will not resolve for readers, provide the URL of the database or specific archive home page or login page instead of the URL for the work.

Print: If you viewed a journal article in its print format , be sure to check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article.

Date: When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication.

Surnames and initials for  up to twenty authors  should be provided in the reference list.  For more than 20 authors, list the first 19, followed by an ellipsis, then list the final author.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname et al., Year)

NOTE: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened to the first author's name, followed by et al. and the year.

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial.Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. http://doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx

(Westhues et al., 2001)

(Westhues et al., 2001, p. 40)

Westhues, A., Lafrance, J., & Schmidt, G. (2001). A SWOT analysis of social work education in Canada. Social Work Education, 20 (1), 35-56. http://doi.org/10.1080/02615470020028364

(Dietz et al., 2007)

(Dietz et al., 2007, p. 1518)

Dietz, P. M., Williams, S. B., Callaghan, W. M., Bachman, D. J., Whitlock, E. P., & Hornbrook, M. C. (2007). Clinically identified maternal depression before, during, and after pregnancies ending in live births.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 164 (10), 1515-1520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.061118936

ePub Ahead of Print

ePub Ahead of Print  articles, also labeled  Advanced Online Publication  articles, may not have a volume number, issue number, or page numbers assigned to them. If you cannot find a fully published version of the article that includes this information, you can cite the article as an advanced online publication, noting its status where you would usually include the volume, issue, and page numbers. If possible, update your reference to the final version of the source when it becomes available.

Muldoon, K., Towse, J., Simms, V., Perra, O., & Menzies, V. (2012). A longitudinal analysis of estimation, counting skills, and mathematical ability across the first school year.  Developmental Psychology . Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028240

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How to Cite Multiple Authors in APA style

How to Cite Multiple Authors in APA style

3-minute read

  • 18th June 2023

According to the Guinness Book of World Records , the highest number of authors to work on a single peer-reviewed academic paper is 15,025. While you may not ever encounter a source with that many authors during your own research , you’ll probably come across works with more than one author.

In this post, we’ll show you how to cite multiple authors in APA style, both in the text and on the reference page.

Creating a Reference List Entry for Two Authors

To write a reference list entry for a work with two authors, follow this basic format when listing the authors:

List the authors by their last names and initials, and use a comma followed by an ampersand to separate the two names. Here’s an example of what this might look like for a book entry:

Citing 3–20 Authors on a Reference Page

APA 7 differs from APA 6 on how to cite 3–20 authors on a reference page. APA 6 requires listing up to six names in full, followed by an ellipsis and the final author’s name. APA 7 requires that you list all the authors’ names, with an ampersand separating the last two. Follow this basic format for up to 20 authors in APA 7:

Here’s what this might look like for a book on the reference page:

Citing More than 20 Authors on a Reference Page

In APA 7, if a work contains 21 or more authors, list the surnames and initials of the first 19, followed by a comma, an ellipsis, and the name of the final author. Follow this basic format:

Note that you should not use an ampersand in this scenario, only an ellipsis.

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How to Cite Multiple Authors in the Text

When writing a narrative citation for a work with two authors, use “and” between the authors’ names rather than an ampersand. Immediately follow the authors’ names with the year of publication in parentheses. For example:

However, for a parenthetical citation , use an ampersand between the authors’ names, followed immediately by a comma and the year of publication. For example:

When citing a work with three or more authors, include the first named author, followed by “et al.” and the year of publication. In a narrative citation, this will look like:

And here’s an example of this in a parenthetical citation:

For direct quotations, you should also include the page number(s) along with the names and year.

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How to Reference Single and Multiple Authors in APA Format

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

how to cite 9 authors apa

Emily is a board-certified science editor who has worked with top digital publishing brands like Voices for Biodiversity, Study.com, GoodTherapy, Vox, and Verywell.

how to cite 9 authors apa

  • Multiple Authors

APA format establishes a number of clear rules for how to list reference works using author information. How you reference different sources varies depending on the number of authors to whom the source is attributed. For example, the way that you reference a single author will differ somewhat from how you reference a source with multiple authors.

Before you create a reference section for a psychology paper, it is important to know how to properly list books, articles, and other sources as well as in-text citations in APA format. The following guidelines can help you prepare a reference section for your APA format paper.

These guidelines are sometimes referred to as APA 7 since the guidebook for APA formatting is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition .

APA Format for No Author

Articles and other works that do not provide an author attribution should begin with the title of the work . If the title is a book, list the title in italics. The volume number, issue number (if available), and page numbers should follow journal titles, while book titles should be followed by the publisher's name.

For example:

  • A student guide to APA format. (1997). Psychology Weekly, 8, 13-27.
  • The ultimate APA format guidebook. (2006). Student Press.

For in-text citations or those referenced within the body of the text, you will also use the title, either in italics (for books) or in quotation marks (for articles). For example: Using proper APA format ("A student guide to APA format," 1997).

APA Format for One Author

Works by a single author should list the author's last name and initials. The date of publication should be enclosed in parentheses and followed by the title of the article or book. Books and journal titles should be listed in italics. The volume number, issue number, and page numbers of the article should follow journal titles, while book titles should be followed by the name of the publisher.

  • McCrae, R. R. (1993). Moderated analyses of longitudinal personality stability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 (3), 577-585.
  • Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Prentice-Hall.

One-author in-text citations should include the surname without any suffixes (Jr.) and the date of publication in parenthesis. For example: As Bandura (1997) mentions... or (Bandura, 1977). If you are citing different authors with the same last name, include the first initial: (A. Alper, 2004) and (B. Alper, 2005).

APA Format for Multiple Authors

The APA format for multiple authors varies depending on how many authors a publication has.

Two Authors

Works by two authors should list the last names and first initials separated by an ampersand (&). These names should be followed by the date of publication enclosed in parentheses.

If the work is a journal article, the title of the article should immediately follow the publication date. Next, the title of the book or journal should be listed in italics. If the reference is a journal article, provide the volume number, issue number, and page numbers. For books, list the name of the publisher.

  • Kanfer, F. H., & Busemeyer, J. R. (1982). The use of problem-solving and decision-making in behavior therapy . Clinical Psychology Review, 2 (2) , 239-266.
  • Buss, A. H., & Pomin, R. (1975). A temperament theory of personality development . Erlbaum.

In-text citations of works by two authors should include the surnames of both authors separated by the word "and" or by an ampersand if using parenthesis. For example: Studies by Buss and Pomin (1975) support... or (Buss & Pomin, 1975).

Three to 20 Authors

According to APA 7 guidelines, works by three to 20 authors are cited by listing the last names and first initials of each author separated by an ampersand. Author names should be followed by the date of publication enclosed in parentheses.

If the work is a journal article, include the title of the article immediately following the publication date. The title of the book or journal should then be listed in italics. If the reference is a journal article, provide the volume number, issue number, and page numbers. For books, list the name of the publisher.

  • Abma, J. C., Chandra, A., Mosher, W. D., Peterson, L. S., & Piccinino, L. J. (1997). Fertility, family planning, and women’s health: New data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital and Health Statistics, 23 (9), 1-67.
  • Alper, S., Schloss, P. J., Etscheidt, S. K., & Macfarlane, C. A. (1995). Inclusion: Are we abandoning or helping students? Corwin Press.

In-text citations for works by three or more authors should list the first author's name, followed by "et al." in every citation. For example: Alper, et al. (1995) supports...or (Alper, et al, 1995).

However, if you are citing multiple works by similar groups of authors, you may need to include multiple names to avoid confusion. For example: Alper, Schloss, Etscheidt, et al. (1995) discovered...or (Alper, Schloss, Etscheidt, et al., 1995).

Whether citing a source with three, five, seven, or 20 authors, the APA format is the same.

More Than 20 Authors

When a work is credited to more than 20 authors, the reference is listed by providing the names of the first 19 authors followed by . . . and then the final author. The remainder of the reference follows the same format as that for 20 or fewer authors.

Authors' last names and initials are followed by the date of publication enclosed in parentheses. The name of the article is listed immediately after the publication date. The title of the journal or the book title should be provided in italics. The volume number, issue number, and page number should follow journal titles, while book titles should be followed by the publisher's name.

  • Pegion, K., Kirtman, B. P., Becker, E., Collins, D. C., LaJoie, E., Burgman, R., Bell, R., DelSole, R., Min, D., Zhu, Y., Li, W., Sinsky, E., Guan, H., Gottschalck, J., Metzger, E. J., Barton, N. P., Achuthavarier, D., Marshak, J., Koster, R., . . . Kim, H. (2019). The subseasonal experiment (SubX): A multimodel subseasonal prediction experiment.  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society ,  100 (10), 2043-2061.
  • Arlo, A., Black, B., Clark, C., Davidson, D., Emerson, E., Fischer, F., Grahmann, G., Habib, H., Ianelli, I., Juarez, J., Kobayashi, K., Lee, L., Martin, M., Naim, N., Odelsson, O., Pierce, P., Qiang, Q., Reed, R., Scofield, S., . . . Thatcher, T. (2001). Instructive falsehoods: Examples and sources . Thommel-Reed.

In-text citations should list the first author's name, followed by "et al." in every citation. You can read more about a few different aspects of referencing sources in APA format if you have book references , article references , and electronic sources .

Frequently Asked Questions

How do i cite a website with no author in apa format.

If a website has no author, cite the title (or the first few words of the reference list entry) followed by the year. APA website citations will also include the website name and URL.

How do I cite a publication with no author in APA format?

If there's no author, the title of the work is listed first followed by the volume number, issue number (if available), and page numbers. If it's a book, the title should be in italics and followed by the publisher's name.

How do I cite an author with two last names?

Works by an author with two last names should list both names. If the name is hyphenated, include both names and the hyphen.

American Psychological Association.  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association  (7th ed.). Washington DC: The American Psychological Association; 2019.

Purdue Online Writing Lab. In-text citations: Author/authors .

Purdue Online Writing Lab. Reference list: Author/authors .

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

APA 7th Edition Citation Examples

Two authors, three or more authors, group author, no authors listed, two or more works by the same author in the same year.

  • Volume and Issue Numbers
  • Page Numbers
  • Undated Sources
  • Citing a Source Within a Source
  • In-Text Citations
  • Academic Journals
  • Encyclopedia Articles
  • Book, Film, and Product Reviews
  • Online Classroom Materials
  • Conference Papers
  • Technical + Research Reports
  • Court Decisions
  • Treaties and Other International Agreements
  • Federal Regulations: I. The Code of Federal Regulations
  • Federal Regulations: II. The Federal Register
  • Executive Orders
  • Charter of the United Nations
  • Federal Statutes
  • Dissertations and Theses
  • Interviews, E-mail Messages + Other Personal Communications
  • Social Media
  • Business Sources
  • PowerPoints
  • AI: ChatGPT, etc.

Reference list citation

Courtois, C. A. (2004).

In-text citation

(Courtois, 2004)

Kelley, P. C., & Chang, P. L. (2007).

(Kelley & Chang, 2007)

Hughes, J. C., Brestan, E. V., & Valle, L. A. (2004).

*When there are more than 20 authors, include the first 19 authors' names followed by an ellipsis (. . .) and the final author's name.

(Hughes et al., 2004)

When a work has three or more authors, in-text citations consist of the first author's name followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the date.

American Dietetic Association. (1999).

First citation: (American Dietetic Association [ADA], 1999)

Subsequent citations: (ADA, 1999)

None to claim their bones: Relics of an old Brooklyn graveyard. (1888, April 12). New York Times , pp. 3-4.

List the source by title in your reference list. Alphabetize reference list entries beginning with a title using the primary word of the title (excluding a , an , and the ).

("None to Claim Their Bones," 1888)

In cases where the title contains a colon, use only the text before the colon in your in-text citation.

Koriat, A. (2008a). Easy comes, easy goes? The link between learning and remembering and its exploitation in metacognition. Memory & Cognition, 36 , 416–428. https://doi.org/10.3758/MC.36.2.416

Koriat, A. (2008b). Subjective confidence in one’s answers: The consensuality principle. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34 , 945–959. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.34.4.945

When works have the same author and were published in the same year, alphabetize the references by title (disregarding the words A , An , and The  at the beginning of a title) and then add a lowercase a , b , c , etc. after the year in both the in-text citation and the reference list entry.

(Koriat, 2008a).

(Koriat, 2008b).

For sources without a date, use a dash (-) to connect the additional letters. Example:  (Smith, n.d.-a) and (Smith, n.d.-b)

See  Publication Manual , pp. 289-291.

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APA Citations (7th ed.)

  • General Formatting
  • Professional Paper Elements - Title Page
  • Student Paper Elements - Title Page
  • In-text Citation Basics
  • In-text Citation Author Rules
  • Citing Multiple Works
  • Personal Communications
  • Classroom or Intranet Resources
  • Secondary Sources
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  • Edited Book Chapters and Entries in Reference Works
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  • Audiovisual Works
  • Audio Works
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  • Webpages & Websites
  • Basics & Formatting
  • Avoiding Plagiarism

Author Rules

APA has different rules for in-text citations depending on:

  • The number of authors of a work
  • Whether you are citing a group author that has an abbreviation
  • If an author is unknown or anonymous
  • If more than one work has the same author and date
  • If multiple authors share surnames

Look to the right to find rules about each of these circumstances.

Number of Authors to Include in In-text Citations

For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation.

     (McCall, 2019)

     (Moyer & Hendricks, 2014)

     Thornton and Manning (2016)

For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity.

     (Huerta et al., 2019)

     Kapoor, Bloom, Montez, et al. (2017)

     Kapoor, Bloom, Zucker, et al. (2017)

To learn more about avoiding ambiguity in in-text citations, see pp.266-267 of the manual.

Group Authors, With and Without Abbreviations

Authors may be groups. For example, you may cite a work written by the National Institute of Mental Health, or NIMH.

If a work is authored by one or two groups, include the group author name(s) in every citation.

     (Morningside College, 2019)

     (Harvard University & Cambridge College, 2018)

     (U.S. Department of Agriculture et al., 2019)

If a group author has an abbreviation, introduce the abbreviation in the first citation. In subsequent citations, use the abbreviation in place of the full group name.

      First citation:  (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2015)

      Subsequent citations:  (MADD, 2015)

Unknown or Anonymous Author

For works with an unknown author, include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation.

If the title of the work is italicized in the reference list, also italicize the title in the in-text citation. If the title of the work is not italicized in the reference list, use double quotation marks around the title in the in-text citation.

Capitalize titles in in-text citations using title case, even though sentence case is used in the reference list entry.

      Book with no author:  ( The Future of Entrepreneurship , 2018)

      Magazine article with no author:  ("Towards a Psychology of Collective Memory," 2015)

When the author of a work is overtly designated as "Anonymous," this takes the place of the author name in the in-text citation.

     (Anonymous, 2016)

See pp. 264-265 of the manual for more information.

Works With the Same Author and Same Date

When multiple references have an identical author (or no authors) and publication year, include a lowercase letter after the year. This lowercase letter is also included in the reference entry.

Use only the year with a letter in the in-text citation, even if the reference list entry contains a more specific date.

     (LaBlanc & Ibarra, 2019a)

     (LaBlanc & Ibarra, 2019b)

     (Kirk, n.d.-a, n.d.-b)

Authors With the Same Surname

If the first authors of multiple references share the same surname but have different initials, include the first author's initials in all in-text citations, even if the year of publication differs.

     (J. R. Stuart & Frey, 2016; M. Stuart, 2019)

If the first authors of multiple references share the same surname and the same initials, cite the works in the standard author-date format.

     (Grant, 2019; Grant & Reese, 2017)

If multiple authors within a single reference share the same surname, the initials are not needed in the in-text citations.

     (Chen & Chen, 2018)

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  • Next: Citing Multiple Works >>
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Citing Sources: APA

  • Citation Basics
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About APA 7th edition

Recently updated by the American Psychological Association, the 7th edition of the APA style has some new best practices. It is still most widely used for research papers in psychology, social sciences, and many STEM courses.

Citing a source in this style consists of two parts:

  • An  in-text citation
  • A  reference list  entry

See  How to Format In-Text Citations ,  How to Format the Reference List , and the  Examples  in the left navigation for details.

how to cite 9 authors apa

How to Format In-Text Citations (Section 8 of the APA Manual)

For more detailed information see  Publication Manual  sections 8.10-8.22.

An in-text citation provides your reader with two pieces of information:

  • The  last name(s) of the author(s)  from the corresponding reference list entry
  • The  date  of the cited information

Standard Formatting of the In-Text Citation

Children with bipolar disorder are treated in similar ways as adults (National Institute of Mental Health, 2015).

Polls show that black workers approve of labors unions more than white workers ("Black Workers Matter," 2016).

  • No Date (section 9.17) : use n.d. in place of the date.

When to Include Page Numbers

For more detailed information see  Publication Manual  sections 8.23-8.36.

When  paraphrasing , APA style does not require page numbers in the in-text citation. However, authors are encouraged to include page numbers if it will help the reader locate the relevant information in longer texts. Consult with your professor regarding the need for page numbers for paraphrased information.

For  direct quotations , the author, year, and page number must be included. The page number can be given in parentheses at the end of the exact quotation or incorporated into the in-text citation. For one page, use "p." and for two or more pages, use "pp."

Newman (1994) concluded "sibling conflict is so common that its occurrence is taken for granted" (p. 123).

Such findings have prompted one researcher to conclude, “Sibling conflict is so common that its occurrence is taken for granted” (Newman, 1994, pp. 123).

For direct quotations from sources without page numbers , use paragraph numbers, if visibly numbered in the document. Otherwise, use the heading name and count the number of paragraphs after the heading to the paragraph containing the quotation.

(Smith, 2016, para. 1)

(Lee 2015, Discussion section, para. 4)

How to Format the Reference List (Section 9 of the APA Manual)

The reference list provides the full details on the sources you used in the research for your paper.

Each entry should include the following reference components:

Publication Date

Publication source.

See the examples in the left navigation for the required elements for each type of source. Continue reading below for details on formatting each reference component and ordering the reference list.

Formatting of Reference Components

For more information see: Publication Manual , section 9.7-9.12.

  • Invert the names of all authors (the last name followed by initials).
  • Keep author names in the order they appear on the document.
  • Put commas between the names.

Dillard, J. P., & Shen, L. Guastello, D., Braun, S., Gutierrez, J., Johnston, K., & Olbinski, B.

National Institute of Mental Health.

Black workers matter.

For more information see: Publication Manual , sections 9.13-9.17.

(2016, January). (2016, March 7). (2016, Summer).

  • End the component with a period.

For more information see: Publication Manual , sections 9.18-9.22.

Factors influencing infants’ ability to update object representations in memory.

Imaginary companions: An evaluation of parents as reporters.

Heritage language education: A new field emerging.

  • For works that are part of a greater whole (e.g. journal articles, book chapters, etc.): do not italicize the title or use quotation marks, and do capitalize the first word of the title, subtitle, and any proper nouns.
  • For works that stand alone (e.g. books, webpages, etc.): italicize the title, and capitalize the first word of the title, subtitle, and any proper nouns.
  • Finish the component with a period.

For more information see: Publication Manual , sections 9.23-9.37.

  • Include the periodical title, volume number, issue number, and page range or article number.
  • Capitalize the major words of the publication title, italicize the title, and put a non-italicized comma after the title.
  • Put the volume number after the title.
  • Italicize the volume number.
  • Put the issue number for any publication with an issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number with no space. Do not italicize the issue number.
  • Put the page range of the article after a comma after the issue number. Do not italicize the issue number.

Psychological Science , 20 (7), 805–812. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02377.x

  • For works associated with specific locations (e.g. a conference paper), include the location: city; province, territory, or state using U.S. postal abbreviations for states; and country.
  • Publisher names change over time. Use the spelling and capitalization listed on the work you are citing.
  • Spell out the names of associations, companies, and university presses.
  • If the author is the same as the publisher, do not include the publisher in the reference (leave only as the author).

Guilford Press.

Formatting and Ordering the Reference List

For more information see: Publication Manual , 2.12 and 9.1-9.52.

General Guidelines

  • Start a new page for the reference list.
  • Capitalize, bold, and center the word References on the page.
  • Double space the entries.
  • Use the hanging indent feature of your word processor to indent the second and subsequent lines of the entries.

Brown, L. (2016). Brownfield, G. (2015). Browning, R. (2013).

Order of Works with the Same First Author

Brown, L. (n.d.). Brown, L. (2013). Brown, L. (2016).

Oliver, M. B. (2003). Oliver, M. B., Ash, E., & Woolley, J. K. (2013). Oliver, M. B., Ash, E, Woolley, J. K., Shade, D. D., & Kim, K. (2014).

Feigenson, L., & Carey, S. (2003). Feigenson, L., & Carey, S. (2005).

de Villiers, J., & Pyers, J. (1997a). de Villiers, J., & Pyers, J. (1997b, April).

Order of Works by Authors with Same Last Name

Alphabetize by first initial.

Moher, J. (2012). Moher, M., & Feigenson, L. (2013).

Order of Works by Group Authors

Alphabetize by the first significant word; do not abbreviate name.

Moher, J. (2012). National Institute of Mental Health. (2015). Oliver, M. B. (2003).

How do I deal with ___?

Missing citation elements.

Consult Table 9.1 in the Publication Manual for more details about how to format a reference list when information is missing.

  • Determine whether an organization is responsible for the content. If so, use that organization's name as the author.
  • If the author information is missing, include the title, date, and source.
  • Include the author, and "n.d." as well as the title and source.
  • Include the author and date, describe the work in square brackets [ ], and then include the source.
  • If you are citing personal communications, do not include it in the reference list. Cite the personal communication in the text only (see section 8.9 of the Publication Manual).

Examples: Books, Chapters

For more information see: Publication Manual , section 10.2, pp. 321-326.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Book title . Publisher Name. DOI or URL

Anderson, A. (2018). Psyche and ethos: Moral life after psychology. Oxford University Press.

Brace, L. (2018). The politics of slavery . Edinburgh University Press. www.jstor.org/stable/10.3366/j.ctt1tqxvk1

National Institute of Mental Health (n.d.). National Institute of Mental Health: Strategic plan for research . www.nimh.nih.gov/about/strategic-planning-reports/nimh_strategicplanforresearch_508compliant_corrected_final_149979

Whetham, E. H. & Currie, J. I. (1969). The economics of African countries . Cambridge University Press.

Note: when there is no date, dates are listed as (n.d.); when the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher field.

Chapter in a Book

For more information see: Publication Manual , section 10.3, pp. 326-329.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Chapter or entry title. In A. Editor, & B. Editor (Eds.),  Book title (pp. xx-xx). Publisher Name. DOI or URL

Loxley, J. (2018). The 1970s: Shocks, stagflation, and the second UN decade of development. In J. A. Ocampo, A. Chowdhury, & D. Alcarón (Eds.),  The world economy through the lens of the United Nations (pp. 86-117). Oxford University Press.

Markus, H., & Oyserman, D. (1989). Gender and thought: The role of the self-concept. In M. Crawford, & M. Gentry (eds.),  Gender and thought: Psychological perspectives (pp. 100-127). Springer-Verlag.

Book with editor but no author

For more information see: Publication Manual , section 10.2, pp. 321-326 and Table 9.1, p. 284.

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). Book title . Publisher. DOI or URL

​ Ferber, M. A. & Nels, J. A. (Eds.). (1993). Beyond economic man: Feminist theory and economics . The University of Chicago Press.

Examples: Articles

Journal articles.

For more information see: Publication Manual , section 10.1, pp. 316-321.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, vv (ii), pp-pp. DOI or URL

The vv after the title of the journal is the volume number; ii is the issue number; and pp is the pages. If no DOI is assigned and you retrieved it online, give the URL of the journal's home page.

Anderson, P. M., Butcher, K. F., Hoynes, H. W., & Schanzenbach, D. W. (2016). Beyond income: What else predicts very low food security among children? Southern Economic Journal, 82 (4), 1078–1105. https://doi.org/10.1002/soej.12079

Chen, S. H., Hua, M., Zhou, Q., Tao, A., Lee, E. H., Ly, J., & Main, A. (2014). Parent–child cultural orientations and child adjustment in Chinese American immigrant families. Developmental Psychology, 50 (1), 189–201. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032473

Cooper, E., Driedger, M., & Lavoie, J. (2019). Building on strengths: Collaborative intergenerational health research with urban First Nations and M é tis women and girls. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 14 (1), 107-125. https://doi.org/10.32799/ijih.v14i1.31932

Note: The 7th edition of the Publication Manual specifically says to capitalize most terms related to Indigenous Peoples (see p. 261).

Magazine Articles

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Magazine , vv (ii), pp-pp. DOI or URL

Omit the day if one is not provided. The vv after the title of the magazine is the volume number, ii is the issue number, and pp is the pages. If you retrieved it online, include the URL.

Clay, R. A. (2019, August). Moving assessment out of the clinic. Monitor on Psychology, 50 (7). https://www.apa.org/monitor/2019/07-08/moving-assessment

Tufekci, Z. (2019, July 1). False promise. Wired, 27 (7), 20.

Newspaper Articles

For more information see: Publication Manual , chapter 10.1, pp. 321-326. Note that online newspapers are cited differently from news websites. See the section on Online Media for news websites examples.

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper , pp.

The pp after the newspaper title is page numbers. 

Finucane, M. (2019, May 14). Study looks at creative peaks. Boston Globe , B2.

Murray, M. M. (2019, July 23). Why are native Hawaiians protesting against a telescope? New York Times . https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/22/us/hawaii-telescope-protest.html

Examples: Websites, Blogs, Social Media

For more information see: Publication Manual section 10.16, pp. 350-352.

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of work . Site name. URL

Note:  For pages that are intended to change frequently, include a retrieval date in the citation. For websites that are archived or not intended to change, a retrieval date is unnecessary. See Publication Manual, p. 290, for more information.

Note:  When a website has the same name as the author, do not include the site name in the citation.

Note: If a date is a copyright or “last reviewed”, it does not necessarily indicate when the content was last changed, so do not include it.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Weekly U.S. influenza surveillance report . Retrieved January 3, 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/index.htm

Handy, G. (2020, January 1). The region which legislates who you can love. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-50822222

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2019, August 1). HHS Secretary Azar statement on National Immunization Awareness Month . https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/ 201 9/08/01/azar-statement-on-national-immunization-awareness-month.html

For more information see: Publication Manual, section 10.1, p. 320.

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title. Title of blog . URL

​ Hong, S. (2019, August 5). Do yield curve inversions predict recessions in other countries? On the economy . https://www.stlouisfed.org/on-the-economy/2019/august/yield-curve-inversions-predict-recessions-other-countries

Social Media

For more information see: Publication Manual, section 10.15, pp. 348-350.

Twitter and Instagram

Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Post content up to the first 20 words . [Description of audiovisuals]. Site name. URL

Facebook and other social media

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Post content up to the first 20 words . [Description of audiovisuals]. Site name. URL

Note:  For pages that are intended to change frequently, include a retrieval date in the citation (for example, a profile page). Social media posts that are archived, a retrieval date is unnecessary. See Publication Manual, p. 290, for more information.

Note:  For social media posts that have audiovisual or non-textual components, include a description of those in brackets after the Post content.

Wellesley College [@Wellesley]. (2019, July 25). How can #editwars and #vandalism turn a common good for the free flow of information into a tool for molding [Audio file attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.  https://twitter.com/Wellesley/status/1154383860731396096

Wellesley College [@Wellesley]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved January 3, 2020, from https://twitter.com/Wellesley

Examples: Music, Film, TV, Images

For more information see: Publication Manual , section 10.13, pp. 344-346.

Artist, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Song]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Label.

​ Robinson, J. M., Friedman, M., Fredriksson, R., Trantor, J., & Michaels, J. (2018). Make Me Feel [Song]. On Dirty Computer . Bad Boy Records.

Artist, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of album [Album]. Label.

​ Robinson, J. M., Friedman, M., Fredriksson, R., Trantor, J., & Michaels, J. (2018). Dirty Computer [Album]. Bad Boy Records.

For more information see: Publication Manual , chapter 10.12, pp. 342-344.

Director, D. D. (Director). (Year). Title of film [Film]. Production Company.

Gerwig, G.G. (Director). (2017). Lady bird [Film]. IAC Films.

Youtube or Streaming Video

For more information see: Publication Manual , section 10.12, pp. 342-344.

Uploader, U.U. [Username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Hosting site name. URL

Note: The person who uploaded the video is considered to be the author

Wellesley College [WellesleyCollege]. (2019, December 18). Wellesley: Always your home [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jpi0ptUL69Y

Speaker, S. S. (Year, Month). Title of video [Video]. TED Conference. URL

Note: The person who uploaded the video is considered to be the author UNLESS it comes from the TED website, in which case the speaker is listed as the author. Use the YouTube or streaming video example above if you have retrieved the talk from somewhere other than the TED website.

Della Flora, O. (2019, January). Creative ways to get kids to thrive in school [Video]. TED Conference. https://www.ted.com/talks/olympia_della_flora_creative_ways_to_get_kids_to_thrive_in_school

Television Series Episode

Writer, A. A. (Writer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of episode (Season No., Episode No.) [TV series episode]. In P. P. Producer (Executive Producer), Title of television show . Production Company.

Miller, B. (Writer), & Morano, R. (Director). (2017). Offred (Season 1, Episode 1) [TV series episode]. In I. Chaiken (Executive Producer), The Handmaid’s Tale . Hulu.

Note: When there are multiple production companies, separate them with a semicolon.

For more information see: Publication Manual , section 10.14, pp. 346-347

Artist, A. A. (Year of creation). Title of work [Medium]. Museum Name, Museum Location.

Wiley, K. (2007). Officer of the Hussars [Painting]. Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, MI.

Podcast Episode

See Publication Manual , section 10.13, pp. 344-346

Host, H. H. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Episode No. 111) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of podcast . Production Company. URL

Favreau, J. (Host). (2019, July 26). 2020: Bernie Sanders on democratic socialism and Cardi B. In Pod save America . Crooked. https://crooked.com/podcast-series/pod-save-america/

Note: omit episode number element of the citation if the podcast does not number its individual episodes.

Examples: Data Sets & Reports

For more information see: Publication Manual , section 10.9, pp. 337-338.

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of data set (Version Number) [Data set]. Publisher name. DOI or URL

Marshall, N., Roberts, J., & Robeson, W.W. (2013). Massachusetts early care and education and school readiness study, 2001-2008 (ICPSR 33968) [Data set]. ICPSR. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR33968.v1

Reports and Other Gray Literature

For more information see: Publication Manual , section 10.4, pp. 329-331.

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of report (Report No. 111). Publisher Name. DOI or URL

Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day). Title of gray literature [Description]. Publisher Name. DOI or URL

National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. (2019). Triennial report on monitoring adherence to the NIH policy on the inclusion of women and minorities in clinical research (FY 2016-2018) . National Institutes of Health. https://report.nih.gov/UploadDocs/2019-NCATS-Triennial_Inclusion_Report.pdf

National Women’s Law Center. (2019, December 20). NWLC reacts to Trump administration finalizing backdoor abortion ban [Press release]. https://nwlc.org/press-releases/nwlc-reacts-to-trump-administration-finalizing-backdoor-abortion-ban/

Examples: Unpublished & Archival Materials

Interview/discussions materials.

For more information see: Publication Manual, sections 8.7-8.9, pp. 259-261.

Personal communication including unpublished interviews and class discussions are cited in the text only because they do not provide recoverable data that readers can access. An example of an in-text citation would be:

(P. A. Johnson, personal communication, July 19, 2019).

Archival Materials

For more information see: Publication Manual, section 10.8, pp. 335-337.

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of material [Description of Material]. Name of Collection (Call number, Box number, File name or number, etc.). Name of Repository, Location.

If there is no title on the document, include a description of the material in square brackets.

History department. (1974, December). First Semester Final Examination . History Department Records (30, box 1, folder 14). Wellesley College Archives, Wellesley, MA.

Publicity office. (1971). Slides for admissions representatives . [Photographic slides]. Publicity Office Records (1SD 1969-1975, box 21). Wellesley College Archives, Wellesley, MA.

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how to cite 9 authors apa

Citing References in Text

Learn how to cite references in the text, including how to implement the basic in-text citation formats, cite multiple works, achieve clarity, and format in-text citations with missing author and/or date information.

Academic Writer

© 2023 American Psychological Association.

Narrative:  Follow the author-date method of an  in-text  citation when using APA Style. For a narrative citation, which is when you refer to the author(s) within the sentence, use author (year).

  • For  example:  Smith (2021) found...

Parenthetical:  For a parenthetical citation, which is when you refer to the author(s) after the idea is presented, use (author, year).

  • For example: Citing in-text and parenthetically is necessary (Smith, 2021).

Two authors:  Use both authors in-text with "and" between them and use both authors parenthetically with an ampersand "&" between them.

  • Narrative example: Jones and Smith (2022) asserted...
  • Parenthetical example: (Jones & Smith, 2022).

Three or more authors:  Use the first author's name followed by et al. in-text and parenthetically.

  • Narrative example: Lee et al. (2021) asserted...
  • Parenthetical example: (Lee et al., 2021).

Unknown author:  If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.

  • Narrative example: In "How to Cite Using APA Style: A Case Study" (2021), a study was conducted about students learning to cite APA in their papers.
  • Parenthetical example:  A study was conducted about students learning to cite APA in their papers ("How to Cite," 2021).

Organization or Group  author (i.e., Staff Writer) :  If the author is writing on behalf of an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in-text and parenthetically the first time you cite the source. If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.  

  • Narrative example first time: According to the American Psychological Association (APA, 2020),...
  • Narrative example subsequent citations: According to APA (2020),...
  • Parenthetical example first time: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2020).
  • Parenthetical example subsequent citations: (APA, 2020).

Two or more works in the same parenthesis:  When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them alphabetically separated by a semi-colon.

  • Example: (Jones, 2021; Smith, 2023).

Authors with the same last name: To prevent confusion in a parenthetical citation, use first initials when citing two authors with the same last name (alphabetize by the first initial).

  • Example: (A. Jones, 2021; R. Jones, 2022).

Indirect or Secondary sources:  Make sure you are always citing the author(s) whose work you are reading. If those authors cite a source, then that is an indirect source and would be cited as follows:

  • Davis (2015) is the indirect source that is found in Smith (2021).
  • This format shows that the idea originated with Davis (2015) but that you found the idea in Smith (2021).
  • Davis (2015) does not need to appear on your reference page, but you will reference Smith (2021) as that is the source you read and referenced.

If you are referring to an idea from another work but you are paraphrasing or summarizing and not directly quoting the material, then you do not need to use the page number in your in-text citation . 

Citing Long Paraphrases:  A paraphrase may continue for several sentences in a paragraph. After citing the resource it is not necessary to repeat the citation if it is clear the information is from the same source. 

  • If the paraphrase continues into a new paragraph, reintroduce the citation. 
  • Repeat the citation if the paraphrased material incorporates multiple sources or switches among sources.
  • Long Paraphrases
  • Omitting the Year in  Repeated Narrative Citations

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how to cite 9 authors apa

Introduction

In APA style, citations include at least these two elements:

  • publication year

A third element is necessary when citing a specific part of a source, such as when quoting, and entails an indicator of the specific part. This element is often a page or paragraph number. A page number is used for a source with pages, such as a book or journal article.  A paragraph number is used for a source without pagination, such as a long webpage. The indicator can alternatively be the section of a document for which a page or paragraph number is not a suitable choice, a timestamp for videos or audiobooks, or a slide number in a PowerPoint presentation. Some examples include the following:

See APA 7, Section 8.13 for more information and examples.

Citations in your paper are necessary to provide credit to the proper sources; failure to cite properly could result in plagiarism.

Although it is important to cite any ideas retrieved from sources, such as paraphrased explanations, quotations, statistics, or figures. It is not necessary to cite common knowledge (i.e., you do not need to cite that the Earth is round). Credit a source in each sentence that references material from a source. For examples of how often to cite a source in a paragraph, see some examples on the Citing Sources Properly page.

APA style citations are all in-text citations, meaning the information about the source appears in the body of the paper rather than in endnotes or footnotes.

How to Cite

Here is an example of citations within a paragraph:

True and Noble (2009) found many students are highly confused about citation. They also indicated some students receive erroneous information about citations or some professors are too lenient with them, causing even more confusion. In fact, Jones (2011) found 99 out of 100 students agreed citing work could seem like a "complex, maddening process" (p. 64).

In this example, note five main elements:

Sources are cited narratively or parenthetically in each sentence in which they are used. The author and date citation can be left out, however, in contiguous following sentences that further explain the same source as long as the sentences clearly signal that the same source is being discussed. Parenthetical citations appear within the ending punctuation of a sentence. Publication years appear after the authors. Quotation page numbers appear after the quotation. Note that the page number is represented as p. 64, and a paragraph would be represented as para. 4. If a quotation spans multiple pages, use pp. The full word "and" is used for citations in the narrative, and the ampersand symbol (&) is used for parenthetical citations.

How Often to Cite

Citation issues can appear when writers use too few citations, use too many citations, or use too much information from a source in place of blending the source information with their own informed analysis and commentary on the information. Here are some factors to consider when citing sources:

1. Did I provide adequate commentary on the cited material?

Cited material should illustrate rather than substitute for your point. Make sure your paper is more than a collection of ideas from your sources; it should provide an original interpretation of that material. For help with creating this commentary while also avoiding personal opinion, see our Commentary vs. Opinion resource.

2. Did I begin and end my paragraphs in my own voice?

The opening sentence of each paragraph should be your topic sentence , and the final sentence in the paragraph should conclude your point and lead into the next. Without these elements of a paragraph, you leave your reader without a sense of the paragraph's main purpose. Additionally, the reader may not understand your reasons for including that material.

3. Have I used the cited material to support my specific thesis?

All material that you cite should contribute to your main argument (also called a thesis or purpose statement). When reading the literature, keep that argument in mind, noting ideas or research that speak to the issues in your particular draft. See our synthesis demonstration for help learning how to use the literature to support your thesis.

4. Have I relied too heavily on one source?

Most research papers should include a variety of sources from the last 3-5 years. You may find one particularly useful study, but try to balance your use and citations of that study with research from other authors. Otherwise, your paper becomes a book report on that one source and lacks richness of theoretical perspective.

5. Have I included too many direct quotations?

In academic writing, rely primarily on paraphrase when using evidence. Although direct quotations can be useful for illustrating a rhetorical choice of your author, in most other cases paraphrasing the material is more appropriate. Using your own words by paraphrasing will better demonstrate your understanding and will allow you to emphasize the ways in which the ideas contribute to your paper's main argument.

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how to cite 9 authors apa

Benefits of Citing Book in APA Form for Reader

A PA format stands for the American Psychological Association form, a guideline for formatting academic documents such as research papers, essays, and theses. It is to cite social science disciplines such as psychology, sociology, and education.

APA format specifies guidelines for various elements of an academic paper, including the title page, abstract, body, and reference page. The APA form intends to provide consistency in academic writing, making it easier for readers to understand the analysis presented in a paper. It also helps authors ensure that their work meets the standards of their field. 

How to Use the APA Citation Format

If you’re curious about how to cite a book in APA, this is the right section. Although many college students find it hard to cite books, there are several ways to get this done. We’ll list helpful tips below.

Paraphrasing and Reference List 

When writing data, the author’s last name and year of publication are still included in brackets, without including the page number. Example: (Smith, 2019) or Smith (2019) argued that…

A reference list is a separate page at the end of the paper that lists all data cited within. It is organized alphabetically by the author’s last name, year of publishing, the title of the work, plus publication information.

Use Proper Formatting 

APA citation needs a specific form for the referencing list, including double spacing, hanging indentation, and italicizing book and journal titles. When citing electronic sources, the author’s name, publication year, or title must be there, followed by a URL.

Outsource Your APA Style Papers 

Some find it hard to cite books in APA, especially if they are new or are unfamiliar with the guidelines. Suppose you’re a student like this who wants to get your paper written in APA format , or you need just a quality essay. In that case, you can always outsource it to academic platforms where you have an opportunity to hire a writer to help you get this done in record time. 

On these platforms, students choose writers who have years of experience. They have skills in all types of citations, like APA, so you’ll get proper value for the service. 

Use In-text Citations and Direct Quotes 

When listing ideas from a source within the text, the author’s last name and the year of publication are in brackets. For example, (Smith, 2019).

Direct quotes must be enclosed in quotation marks. Also, include the page number where quotes are found. For example, “This is a direct quote” (Smith, 2019, p. 10).

The Benefits of Citing Your Books With APA 

The APA form is essential to academic research and publication, as it promotes consistency, accuracy, and professionalism. Here are some of the benefits of using this citation for your books.

  • Clear and Consistent: It provides clear guidelines for citing data that promote reference consistency.
  • Avoid Plagiarism: It helps writers to avoid plagiarism by referencing their data accurately.
  • Easy to Follow: It provides specific guidelines for in-text citations, reference lists, and other formatting requirements that are easy to follow.
  • Widely Accepted: It is accepted across disciplines, including social sciences, education, nursing, psychology, and other fields.
  • Boost Reliability: By citing sources according to APA guidelines, writers prove their professionalism by showing that they have conducted thorough probing and are well-versed in the relevant literature.
  • Allows Replication: It allows other researchers to replicate the study by providing clear guidelines on how to cite the data.
  • Provides a Standard Form: It provides a standard form for referencing data, which makes it easy for readers to locate the data cited in a particular work.

Why APA Citation is Used in Books Across Several Disciplines 

Writing has different citation forms, but the APA form is widely accepted because it cuts across various disciplines. Here are reasons why it is so popular in the academic sector.

Standardization

APA form provides a standard way of referencing data recognized by many disciplines. Using a common format helps ensure everyone is on the same page regarding referencing data.

Clarity and Accuracy

APA form aims to promote clarity in reference data. This is important in all aspects, ensuring readers can verify the data cited in a given work. It certifies that they can easily understand the information presented. This clearness ensures correctness since the readers know exactly what they’re reading.

Range 

One can use the APA form for different data varieties, which include books, journals, articles, and websites. APA has a range wide enough to cut across several disciplines for any type of research. One of the reasons why the APA form is so broad is that it provides specific guidelines for referencing different types of data. For example, when referencing a college book , the author’s name, publication date, book title, and publisher information when referencing a college book.

Historical Use

APA form has been used for over 80 years, making it a well-established citation form. Due to how long it has existed in academic publishing, APA is now a standard in the educational sector. The APA created the guidelines to address the need for consistency and standardization.

The first APA Publication Manual aired in 1952, with the latest being the 7th, published in 2019. Over the years, the APA form has improved to show changes in academic publishing.

Flexibility 

While APA form has specific guidelines for referencing data, it also allows variation. This means researchers can adapt it to suit the requirements of their discipline.

Conclusion 

There are many benefits to citing books in APA form for readers. The use of APA promotes accuracy across disciplines. By referencing data in APA form, readers verify the data cited in a given work, ensuring that the data is correct. This is important in a study where accuracy is crucial.

APA helps to boost clarity in analysis, making it easier for others to build upon previous work. The APA form’s uniformity also helps ensure everyone is on the same page regarding citing data. It is crucial that everyone learns how this works to ensure smooth reading.

The post Benefits of Citing Book in APA Form for Reader appeared first on Sunny Sweet Days .

Benefits of Citing Book in APA Form for Reader

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SUPPLY CHAIN ATTACK —

Backdoor found in widely used linux utility breaks encrypted ssh connections, malicious code planted in xz utils has been circulating for more than a month..

Dan Goodin - Mar 29, 2024 6:50 pm UTC

Internet Backdoor in a string of binary code in a shape of an eye.

Researchers have found a malicious backdoor in a compression tool that made its way into widely used Linux distributions, including those from Red Hat and Debian.

The compression utility, known as xz Utils , introduced the malicious code in versions ​​5.6.0 and 5.6.1, according to Andres Freund, the developer who discovered it. There are no known reports of those versions being incorporated into any production releases for major Linux distributions, but both Red Hat and Debian reported that recently published beta releases used at least one of the backdoored versions—specifically, in Fedora Rawhide and Debian testing, unstable and experimental distributions. A stable release of Arch Linux is also affected. That distribution, however, isn't used in production systems.

Because the backdoor was discovered before the malicious versions of xz Utils were added to production versions of Linux, “it's not really affecting anyone in the real world,” Will Dormann, a senior vulnerability analyst at security firm Analygence, said in an online interview. “BUT that's only because it was discovered early due to bad actor sloppiness. Had it not been discovered, it would have been catastrophic to the world.”

Several people, including two Ars readers, reported that the multiple apps included in the HomeBrew package manager for macOS rely on the backdoored 5.6.1 version of xz Utils. HomeBrew has now rolled back the utility to version 5.4.6. Maintainers have more details available here .

Breaking SSH authentication

The first signs of the backdoor were introduced in a February 23 update that added obfuscated code, officials from Red Hat said in an email. An update the following day included a malicious install script that injected itself into functions used by sshd, the binary file that makes SSH work. The malicious code has resided only in the archived releases—known as tarballs—which are released upstream. So-called GIT code available in repositories aren’t affected, although they do contain second-stage artifacts allowing the injection during the build time. In the event the obfuscated code introduced on February 23 is present, the artifacts in the GIT version allow the backdoor to operate.

The malicious changes were submitted by JiaT75, one of the two main xz Utils developers with years of contributions to the project.

“Given the activity over several weeks, the committer is either directly involved or there was some quite severe compromise of their system,” Freund wrote. “Unfortunately the latter looks like the less likely explanation, given they communicated on various lists about the ‘fixes’” provided in recent updates. Those updates and fixes can be found here , here , here , and here .

On Thursday, someone using the developer's name took to a developer site for Ubuntu to ask that the backdoored version 5.6.1 be incorporated into production versions because it fixed bugs that caused a tool known as Valgrind to malfunction.

“This could break build scripts and test pipelines that expect specific output from Valgrind in order to pass,” the person warned, from an account that was created the same day.

One of maintainers for Fedora said Friday that the same developer approached them in recent weeks to ask that Fedora 40, a beta release, incorporate one of the backdoored utility versions.

“We even worked with him to fix the valgrind issue (which it turns out now was caused by the backdoor he had added),” the Ubuntu maintainer said. "He has been part of the xz project for two years, adding all sorts of binary test files, and with this level of sophistication, we would be suspicious of even older versions of xz until proven otherwise."

Maintainers for xz Utils didn’t immediately respond to emails asking questions.

The malicious versions, researchers said, intentionally interfere with authentication performed by SSH, a commonly used protocol for connecting remotely to systems. SSH provides robust encryption to ensure that only authorized parties connect to a remote system. The backdoor is designed to allow a malicious actor to break the authentication and, from there, gain unauthorized access to the entire system. The backdoor works by injecting code during a key phase of the login process.

“I have not yet analyzed precisely what is being checked for in the injected code, to allow unauthorized access,” Freund wrote. “Since this is running in a pre-authentication context, it seems likely to allow some form of access or other form of remote code execution.”

In some cases, the backdoor has been unable to work as intended. The build environment on Fedora 40, for example, contains incompatibilities that prevent the injection from correctly occurring. Fedora 40 has now reverted to the 5.4.x versions of xz Utils.

Xz Utils is available for most if not all Linux distributions, but not all of them include it by default. Anyone using Linux should check with their distributor immediately to determine if their system is affected. Freund provided a script for detecting if an SSH system is vulnerable.

reader comments

Promoted comments.

how to cite 9 authors apa

Oh, so having one init to rule them all and take over every function of your system was a great idea right?

salsa.debian.org

debian/patches/systemd-readiness.patch · master · Debian SSH Maintainers / openssh · GitLab

salsa.debian.org

debian/patches/systemd-socket-activation.patch · master · Debian SSH Maintainers / openssh · GitLab

salsa.debian.org

While this is particularly pernicious in open source since anybody can see the code, who contributed, etc., I don't believe it would be difficult to do this with corporate code. With a little social engineering you could figure out who works on what bits of Windows and/or OSX. With the right convincing said developer could sneak code into those projects. Particularly if they're messing with macros, changing flags to valgrind or its equivalent, etc.

how to cite 9 authors apa

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  1. How to Cite Books with Multiple Authors: APA, MLA, & Chicago

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  4. How to Cite a PDF File in APA: 9 Steps (with Pictures)

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  1. Mastering APA 7th Edition: Citing Multiple Authors

  2. How to cite and reference in research projects, dissertations and projects

  3. APA style: How to Cite Books

  4. How do you cite more than 3 authors in APA?

  5. Know the difference between APA 6 & APA 7

  6. Building a Reference List in APA

COMMENTS

  1. Reference List: Author/Authors

    Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here. The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.).

  2. How to cite in APA when there are multiple authors

    Solution #2: How to cite an article with more than 20 authors in APA style. If an article has more than 20 authors, all authors do not need to be listed in the reference. Instead, name the first 19, then use an ellipsis (…), then add the name of the final author listed. The ellipsis acts as a substitute for all the names between the first 19 ...

  3. APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.)

    In-text citations briefly identify the source of information in the body text. They correspond to a full reference entry at the end of your paper. APA in-text citations consist of the author's last name and publication year. When citing a specific part of a source, also include a page number or range, for example (Parker, 2020, p.

  4. Authors

    When you have 3 or more authors, you only use the first author's surname in text, and abbreviate the rest of the list with "et al." (Latin for "and others").In your reference list, you list all of the authors (up to 20).. In Text: Narrative citation: Boers et al.'s (2017) research i  nto the use of pictures in glosses found they may decrease the amount of attention given to the words

  5. APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Journal Article with 3-20 Authors

    General Format. In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Author Surname et al., Year) NOTE: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened to the first author's name, followed by et al. and the year. In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

  6. How to Cite Multiple Authors in APA style

    To write a reference list entry for a work with two authors, follow this basic format when listing the authors: Last Name, A. & Last Name, B. List the authors by their last names and initials, and use a comma followed by an ampersand to separate the two names. Here's an example of what this might look like for a book entry:

  7. Author-date citation system

    Use the author-date citation system to cite references in the text in APA Style. In this system, each work used in a paper has two parts: an in-text citation and a corresponding reference list entry. In-text citations may be parenthetical or narrative. In parenthetical citations, use an ampersand (&) between names for a work with two authors ...

  8. How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition)

    APA in-text citations The basics. In-text citations are brief references in the running text that direct readers to the reference entry at the end of the paper. You include them every time you quote or paraphrase someone else's ideas or words to avoid plagiarism.. An APA in-text citation consists of the author's last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system).

  9. Reference Single and Multiple Authors in APA Format

    More Than 20 Authors. When a work is credited to more than 20 authors, the reference is listed by providing the names of the first 19 authors followed by . . . and then the final author. The remainder of the reference follows the same format as that for 20 or fewer authors. Authors' last names and initials are followed by the date of ...

  10. How to Cite Sources in APA Citation Format

    In this situation the original author and date should be stated first followed by 'as cited in' followed by the author and date of the secondary source. For example: Lorde (1980) as cited in Mitchell (2017) Or (Lorde, 1980, as cited in Mitchell, 2017) Back to top. 3. How to Cite Different Source Types.

  11. Basic principles of citation

    The following are guidelines to follow when writing in-text citations: Ensure that the spelling of author names and the publication dates in reference list entries match those in the corresponding in-text citations. Cite only works that you have read and ideas that you have incorporated into your writing. The works you cite may provide key ...

  12. Authors and Contributors

    Multiple Authors (up to 20) When there are multiple authors (up to 20), list all authors in the order in which they appear on the source. Names should be inverted with last name first, followed by a comma and the first and middle initial (if given). Names are separated by a comma with an & symbol connecting the final author.

  13. UMGC Library: APA 7th Edition Citation Examples: Authors

    When works have the same author and were published in the same year, alphabetize the references by title (disregarding the words A, An, and The at the beginning of a title) and then add a lowercase a, b, c, etc. after the year in both the in-text citation and the reference list entry. In-text citation (Koriat, 2008a). (Koriat, 2008b).

  14. LibGuides: APA Citations (7th ed.): In-text Citation Author Rules

    For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation. (McCall, 2019) (Moyer & Hendricks, 2014) Thornton and Manning (2016) For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity.

  15. Elements of reference list entries

    Reference list entries include the four elements of the author, date, title, and source. This page describes each element in detail: the author element, including the format of individual author names and of group author names. the date element, including the format of the date and how to include retrieval dates.

  16. Citing Sources: Introduction & In-Text Citations

    Chapter 10 of the 7th ed. APA Manual provides many more reference examples for numerous types of reference materials. This guide provides only a few of the citations. For more examples, see the manual. ... Author type: Parenthetical citation: Narrative citation: One author (Luna, 2020) Luna (2020) Two authors (Salas & D'Agostino, 2020) Salas ...

  17. APA

    When to Include Page Numbers. For more detailed information see Publication Manual sections 8.23-8.36.. When paraphrasing, APA style does not require page numbers in the in-text citation.However, authors are encouraged to include page numbers if it will help the reader locate the relevant information in longer texts.

  18. Citations

    Unknown author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Narrative example: In "How to Cite Using APA Style: A Case Study" (2021), a study ...

  19. PDF Quick Guide to Citations in APA Style (nn)

    According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199). II. In-Text Citations: Author/Authors APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system. There

  20. Publication Manual of the American Psychological ...

    Dedicated chapter for new users of APA Style covering paper elements and format, including sample papers for both professional authors and student writers. ... Reference elements. Author. 9.7 Definition of Author 9.8 Format of the Author Element 9.9 Spelling and Capitalization of Author Names 9.10 Identification of Specialized Roles 9.11 Group ...

  21. Overview

    In APA style, citations include at least these two elements: A third element is necessary when citing a specific part of a source, such as when quoting, and entails an indicator of the specific part. This element is often a page or paragraph number. A page number is used for a source with pages, such as a book or journal article. A paragraph ...

  22. Benefits of Citing Book in APA Form for Reader

    A reference list is a separate page at the end of the paper that lists all data cited within. It is organized alphabetically by the author's last name, year of publishing, the title of the work ...

  23. Self-regulation among students with LD and ADHD.

    The current chapter discusses, research on self-regulation and self-regulated learning among students with learning disability (LD), ADHD, and their normally achieving peers it seems safe to say that self-regulation interventions have been established as effective and are useful across a wide range of school settings and behaviors. However, many questions still remain unanswered in this ...

  24. In-text citations

    In-text citations are covered in the seventh edition APA Style manuals in the Publication Manual Chapter 8 and the Concise Guide Chapter 8. Date created: September 2019. APA Style provides guidelines to help writers determine the appropriate level of citation and how to avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism. We also provide specific guidance for ...

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    Revised iOS 17.4.1 build. The new build number is 21E237, while the previous one released to the public is 21E236. Most likely Apple has fixed some critical bug with the new build, so you shouldn ...

  26. Backdoor found in widely used Linux utility breaks encrypted SSH

    Getty Images. 152. Researchers have found a malicious backdoor in a compression tool that made its way into widely used Linux distributions, including those from Red Hat and Debian. The ...