What’s an MLA citation?
- 3 or more authors
Using the EasyBib MLA Citation Generator
- Edited book
- Chapter in an edited book
- E-book from the Internet
- Online journal article
- Print journal article
- Online magazine
- Print magazine
- Online newspaper
- Print newspaper
- Online image
- Print image
- Images viewed in real life
- Online video
- Streamed show
- Streamed music
- Sheet music
- Social media examples
Any time a piece of information from another source is added into your MLA style paper, you must create two citations, or references, to show the reader where the information originated. One reference is placed in the written text of the paper, and the other is placed at the end of the project.
The reference that is placed in the written text of the paper, called an in-text citation , comes immediately next to any borrowed information. It provides a glimpse for the reader to see who the original author is and where the information was found. When creating in-text citations, it’s also important to know how to format page numbers in MLA .
Here’s an MLA example:
Lark knows how to handle life on the river: “I try to count the seconds before I hear the thunder, so I know how far the storm is, but I’m too rattled” (Wingate 12).
Check out the full EasyBib MLA in-text & parenthetical citations guide to learn more about styling these types of references.
The other type of reference, which we’ll call a full reference , is placed at the end of the project. It includes enough information about the source so the reader can locate the source themselves, if they choose to do so, whether online or at their library.
Here’s the full reference, which corresponds to the in-text citation above:
Wingate, Lisa. Before We Were Yours . Random House, 2017.
Notice that the beginning of the reference in the text, Wingate, corresponds with the first word in the full reference. This is very important! It allows for the reader to find the full reference on the MLA works cited page.
Wondering if you can create MLA footnotes instead? You sure can! However, in this style, it’s more common to use references in the text of your paper.
If it’s help with an APA in-text citation or APA parenthetical citation you’re after, you’re in luck! Our comprehensive guides are here for you!
Various types of styles
There are many different ways to style references, and following MLA’s guidelines are just one way to do so. Two other well-known and popular styles to structure references include APA and Chicago.
Your teacher probably told you which style to create your references in. If you were told to use a different style, such as APA or Chicago, here are some links to help you get started.
The EasyBib APA citations guide has everything you need to learn how to create references in this style. Or, if you’re looking for help with structuring the paper itself (spacing, font, margins, etc.), check out the EasyBib APA format page. If you need help with more styles , EasyBib always has your back, with thousands of styles available!
A Standard Formula
The great thing about MLA citations is that full references follow one standard formula. So, it doesn’t matter if you’re attempting to reference a book, newspaper article, or Facebook post, as almost every source type is structured the same way, following an MLA template.
Here’s a step-by-step guide that gives you the key to the secret sauce:
1. Who created the source?
Is your source written or created by an individual? If yes, place their name in reverse order, with a period at the end, like this:
If there are multiple individuals responsible for the work, place them in the order they’re shown on the source
Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name.
Owens, Michael, and Scott Abrahams.
Three or More Authors
According to page 112 of the Handbook , only include the first listed author’s name, in reverse order, followed by a comma, and omit all other names. Replace the additional names with the Latin phrase, et al.
Last Name, First Name, et al.
Preston, Rebekah, et al.
If an organization is responsible for the work, you may include the organization’s name. However, in many cases, an organization is listed as BOTH the author and publisher. When this is the case, you can leave the author out, start the citation with the source’s title, and include the organization name only as the publisher.
Dinosaur Facts . American Museum of Natural History, www.amnh.org/dinosaurs/dinosaur-facts.
2. What’s the title?
Sometimes there are two titles related to your source, and sometimes there’s only one.
If the source you’re referencing has two title parts, place the smaller part in quotation marks, followed by a period, and the larger part in italics, followed by a comma.
Think about the song, “Beat It,” by Michael Jackson. “Beat It” is the title of the song, but there’s another title too. The title of the album! The title of the album is Thriller.
Here’s how the two titles would be structured:
“Beat It.” Thriller ,
The album, Thriller , serves as the “container” for the song itself.
The term “ container ” is used extensively throughout the official guide. In addition to songs and albums, other types of titles and their containers can include:
- “Web Page Articles.” Websites ,
- “Book Chapters.” Titles of Books ,
- “Journal Articles.” Titles of Journals ,
…plus many more!
To make things even more interesting, there are times when there’s more than one container! Think about an episode of a television show. The television series is the first container, but if you watched it on a streaming site, the streaming site would be the second container.
If there are two containers , the second one is added at the end of the reference.
“The Miseducation of Lisa Simpson.” Performances by John Legend, Chrissy Teigen, and Zach Woods. The Simpsons , season 31, episode 12, Fox Broadcasting, 16 Feb. 2020. Hulu , www.hulu.com/simpsons/miseducation.
Let’s break that down:
- Container 2 : Hulu
There are times when two titles aren’t included in a reference. If, instead of referencing the song “Beat It,” you’re referencing the entire album, exclude the quotation marks. Only include the one title and place it in italics, without quotation marks.
Here’s how you would reference the entire album, rather than one song on the album:
Jackson, Michael. Thriller . Produced by Quincy Jones, Westlake Recording Studios, 1982.
For more on titles and containers, head to pages 134-145 of the official Handbook .
If you decide to use EasyBibs citation generator MLA creator, we’ll help you structure the titles and containers in just a few clicks!
3. Any other contributors?
If there are any other people, besides the author, who had a significant role, and you feel it would be helpful to include their name in the reference, this information is added after the title. Include their role and name in standard order, followed by a comma.
Produced by Quincy Jones,
For other types of sources, there may be other roles and individuals to highlight. Here are a few examples:
- Performance by Sid Caesar,
- Translated by Sarah Martin,
- Narrated by Rita Williams-Garcia,
4. Are you referencing a specific version?
Perhaps there is a specific edition of a book, song version, or movie cut. Include this information next, followed by a comma.
Google Play Exclusive Edition,
Other examples could include:
- Director’s cut,
- Unedited ed.,
- Instrumental version,
5. Got numbers?
Any numbers associated with the source, such as a volume and issue number, or episode number, are added next, followed by a comma.
For example, many journal articles have volume and issue numbers. Use vol. before the volume number and no. before the issue number.
vol. 2, no. 3,
Wondering what to exclude from your citations MLA paper? ISBN numbers! They’re never added into references.
6. Who published the source?
This information is added next in the reference, followed by a comma. Since the publisher listed is usually the formal name of a company or organization, use title case.
7. When was it published?
The date the source was published comes next, followed by a comma.
In the official Handbook , the references are displayed as Day Month Year. If the month is longer than 4 letters, abbreviate it.
4 Nov. 2019,
28 July 2015,
If you can’t find the source date, simply leave it out. Note: Some teachers want students to make a source with “no date” as “n.d.” If you’re unsure what your teacher wants, check in with them.
8. Where can you find the source?
The final component of the formula is the location.
- If the source was found online, this should be a website address. Make sure to omit https:// from the front of the string.
- It can be an actual location too, if the source is something you saw in a museum or elsewhere in real life.
- Or, it can also be a page number or page range.
- Always close out the reference with a period.
Now, let’s put all of the pieces together. Here’s what we come up with for our MLA citation example:
Jackson, Michael. “Beat It.” Thriller , produced by Quincy Jones, Google Play Exclusive Edition, Epic, 1982, play.google.com/store/music/album/Thriller?id=Bzs3hkvcyvinz5tkilucmmoqjhi&hl=en_US.
Some things to keep in mind:
1. It’s not necessary to include every piece to the puzzle. Only include the information that the reader would need in order to successfully locate the source themselves.
For example, in the Thriller example above, you’ll see there aren’t any specific numbers (besides the publication date) in the reference. Why? There aren’t any numbers associated with the source.
2. If you’re looking for help, the EasyBib MLA citation creator helps you develop your references. Give it a whirl! It’s free and easy to use! Nervous to try it out? Here’s a quick rundown on how to use it.
Reserve the precious time you have for researching and writing, rather than wrapping your head around MLA guidelines, rules, and structures. The EasyBib citing tool is here to help you easily create citations for all your papers and turn you into a citing, MLA machine!
Follow these steps:
- Find your source. We have over 50 types of sources to choose from.
- Our automatic generator (shown below) creates references using source data already available on the Internet. Simply type in a few key pieces of information about the source and click “Search.”
- Our manual form creates your references based on the information you enter. Fill out the form and click “Complete Citation.”
- The easy-to-follow directions guide you through the remainder of the process. Follow the steps on the screen and watch the magic happen in a few clicks and keystrokes!
- Copy and paste your completed reference into your project or export it to your document.
The EasyBib MLA format generator isn’t all that’s available. There are also tons of other nifty features, all available on our homepage, including an MLA title page maker and an innovative plagiarism checker ! That’s not all, there are many other thorough guides to help you with your referencing needs. Check out the EasyBib APA reference page , plus many more!
MLA citing is easier when you have visuals and examples to take a peek at. That’s why we’ve put together a list of the most common source types that students and scholars reference. If you’re trying to reference a book, newspaper article, website, or tweet, you’ll find the structures you need to get on the right track.
Pro tip: Don’t leave your references for the last minute! In your MLA outline or notes, keep track of the sources you use. This will help make the entire process easier for you! Some instructors may even have you complete an MLA annotated bibliography before writing your paper so that you can cite, organize, and become familiar with your sources in advance.
Below are examples for these sources:
If, instead, you need help with referencing an APA book citation , the linked guide walks you through the process!
This information is located on page 112-113 of the official Handbook .
CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK
E-book from the internet.
If you’re attempting to reference an e-book from an e-reader, such as a Nook or Kindle, use the EasyBib MLA citation generator. We’ll help you structure your e-book references in no time!
If you need more information on how to cite websites in MLA , check out the full-length EasyBib guide! Or, take the guesswork out of forming your references and try the EasyBib automatic MLA citation machine!
Need an APA citation website or help with another popular referencing style? EasyBib Plus may be exactly what you need.
ONLINE JOURNAL ARTICLE
To see an online journal example in action, check out the EasyBib MLA sample paper, which is discussed at the bottom of this guide. Also, don’t forget about the easy-to-use, EasyBib automatic generator. Stop typing into Google “citation maker MLA” and go to EasyBib.com instead!
PRINT JOURNAL ARTICLE
If it’s referencing an APA journal you’re after, click on the link for the informative EasyBib guide on the topic.
If you’re looking for an MLA citation maker to help you build your bibliography, try out the EasyBib MLA generator. Type in a few key pieces of information about your source and watch the magic happen!
*In the above example, Natarajan’s article only sits on one page, so it’s unnecessary to include the page number in the reference in the text.
Print magazines are always fun to read, but know what else is a party? Brushing up on your grammar skills! Check out the thorough EasyBib grammar guides on adverb , determiner , and preposition pages!
*You do not need to include the city name in your citation if the city name is in the name of the newspaper or if it is a national or international newspaper.
**Since the above article is only on one page, it’s not necessary to include the page number in the text reference of your MLA style citation.
Need help? Use the EasyBib MLA citation machine, which guides you through the process of making newspaper references! Quit searching on Google for “how to MLA citation” and visit EasyBib.com today!
If your periodical article falls on nonconsecutive page numbers, add a plus sign after the first page number and omit the additional pages from any full references. Example: pp. B1+ (This information is located on page 193 in the official Handbook ). Don’t forget, the EasyBib citation machine MLA creator can help you structure all your citation information!
If you’re still confused about referencing online images, give the EasyBib MLA format generator a whirl. In just a few clicks, you’ll have well-structured MLA citations!
If you’re looking to reference an image seen in a print book, use the structure below. Or, use the “Cartoon,” “Photo,” “Painting,” or “Map” forms found on the EasyBib MLA generator for citations.
In need of a citation machine MLA maker to help save some of your precious time? Try EasyBib’s generator. Head to the EasyBib homepage and start developing your references today!
IMAGE VIEWED IN REAL LIFE
If you viewed an image in real life, whether at a museum, on display in a building, or even on a billboard, this EasyBib MLA citation guide example includes the most common way to reference it.
For the majority of online video references, the reference should start with the title of the video. The information about the account that uploaded the video should be included in the “Other Contributors” space.
For more on learning how to cite MLA timestamps, turn to page 250 in the official Handbook .
It’s common to see online videos featured in an annotated bibliography . Have a look at the useful guide to learn how to create one from scratch!
Streamed shows (sometimes called online or streamed “television shows”) are watched using a service such as Netflix, Hulu, Disney+, or another subscription streaming site.
If you accessed a streamed show through an app, the name of the app can be displayed at the end of the citation as “[ Name of Service ] app” instead of including the URL.
After you’re through binging on your favorite shows, give yourself some brain fuel by taking a glance at the EasyBib grammar guides. Take your writing up a notch with the guides on interjection , conjunction , and verb pages!
*If you accessed a streamed song through an app, the name of the app can be displayed at the end of the citation as “[ Name of Service ] app” instead of including the URL.
Streamed music can be tricky to reference, especially with the wide variety of streaming services available on the web and through apps. Don’t worry, the EasyBib MLA citation maker can come in and save the day for you. Try it out now! To make it even easier, bookmark the EasyBib citation machine MLA maker for quick access!
*You can include the original composition date as supplemental information between the title and publisher. It may be helpful to include this information if the piece was composed much earlier than the sheet music you are citing or if the arrangement has significantly changed from the original.
SOCIAL MEDIA EXAMPLES
Notable individuals consistently share pictures, videos, and ideas on social media, which is why social media is often referenced in today’s research papers . If you’re looking to add a reference for Twitter, Facebook, Reddit, or Instagram in your MLA paper, check out the structures and examples below.
*When the account name and username are similar, the username can be excluded from the citation. For example, if the account’s username was @FirstNameLastName or @OrganizationName.
If the tweet is composed of just an image or video, create a description for it and do not place it in quotation marks. For example:
DJ Snake. Video of studio controls with music playing. Twitter , 11 Feb. 2020, twitter.com/djsnake/status/1227267455095123968.
Odds are, you could spend hours scrolling through Twitter to catch up on the latest news and gossip. Why not spend some time scrolling through the EasyBib grammar guides instead? Check out these informative noun and adjective guides to help keep your writing in check!
Looking for other types of sources, such as government and archival documents? Here’s more info .
Now that you’ve figured out how to style your references, the next step is structuring your written work according to this style’s guidelines. The thorough EasyBib MLA format guide provides you with the information you need to structure the font, MLA title page (or MLA cover page), paper margins, spacing, plus more! There’s even a sample MLA paper, too!
MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.
Published April 9, 2020. Updated July 25, 2021.
Written by Michele Kirschenbaum. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and is the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com.
MLA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Page Numbers
- Sample Paper
- Works Cited
- MLA 8 Updates
- MLA 9 Updates
- View MLA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all MLA Examples
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It’s 100% free to create MLA citations. The EasyBib Citation Generator also supports 7,000+ other citation styles. These other styles—including APA, Chicago, and Harvard—are accessible for anyone with an EasyBib Plus subscription.
No matter what citation style you’re using (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) the EasyBib Citation Generator can help you create the right bibliography quickly.
Yes, there’s an option to download source citations as a Word Doc or a Google Doc. You may also copy citations from the EasyBib Citation Generator and paste them into your paper.
Creating an account is not a requirement for generating MLA citations. However, registering for an EasyBib account is free and an account is how you can save all the citation you create. This can help make it easier to manage your citations and bibliographies.
Yes! Whether you’d like to learn how to construct citations on your own, our Autocite tool isn’t able to gather the metadata you need, or anything in between, manual citations are always an option. Click here for directions on using creating manual citations.
If any important information is missing (e.g., author’s name, title, publishing date, URL, etc.), first see if you can find it in the source yourself. If you cannot, leave the information blank and continue creating your citation.
It supports MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard, and over 7,000 total citation styles.
An in-text citation is a short citation that is placed next to the text being cited. The basic element needed for an in-text citation is the author’s name . The publication year is not required in in-text citations. Sometimes, page numbers or line numbers are also included, especially when text is quoted from the source being cited. In-text citations are mentioned in the text in two ways: as a citation in prose or a parenthetical citation.
Citation in prose
Citations in prose are incorporated into the text and act as a part of the sentence. Usually, citations in prose use the author’s full name when cited the first time in the text. Thereafter, only the surname is used. Avoid including the middle initial even if it is present in the works-cited-list entry. An example of the first citation in prose for one author is given below:
Carol Fitzerald explains the picture of the area.
Parenthetical citations add only the author’s surname at the end of the sentence in parentheses. An example of a parenthetical citation is given below:
The picture of the area is explained (Fitzgerald).
When are other components included?
When you quote a specific line from the source, you can include a page number or a line number in in-text citations. Examples of both a citation in prose and a parenthetical citation are given below. Do not add “p.” or “pp.” before the page number(s).
Swan says, “Postglacial viability and colonization in North America is to be studied” (47).
Though some researchers claim that “Postglacial viability and colonization in North America is to be studied” (Swan 47).
In-text citations should be concise. Do not repeat author names in parentheses if the name is mentioned in the text (the citation in prose).
To cite a periodical such as a journal, magazine, or newspaper, in the text, the basic element needed is the author’s name . The publication year is not required for in-text citations. Sometimes, page numbers or line numbers are also included, especially when text is quoted from the source being cited. In-text citations are mentioned in the text in two ways: as a citation in prose or a parenthetical citation. The example below shows how to cite a periodical in the text.
Citations in prose use the author’s full name when citing for the first time. Thereafter, only use the surname. Avoid including the middle initial even if it is present in the works-cited-list entry. An example of a citation in prose for a periodical with one author is below:
First time: Kathy Goldstein explains the picture of the area.
Subsequent occurrences: Goldstein explains the picture of the area.
Parenthetical citations add only the author’s surname at the end of the sentence in parentheses. An example of a parenthetical citation is below:
The picture of the area is explained (Goldstein).
An MLA citation generator is a tool that can help you easily create MLA formatted citations and works cited entries. You can try the EasyBib MLA citation generator at https://www.easybib.com/mla/source .
For some source types, only a single piece of information is needed in order to generate a citation. For example, the ISBN of a book, the DOI of a journal article, or the URL of a website. For other source types, a form will indicate what information is needed for the citation, and then automatically formats the citation.
Other Citation Styles
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Citation Styles: A Brief Guide to APA, MLA and Turabian
Sample bibliography: mla.
- Journal Articles
- Magazine Articles
- Newspaper Articles
- Government Publications
- Other Materials
- In Text Citations
- Sample Bibliography: APA
- Sample Bibliography: Turabian
- Creating an Annotated Bibliography This link opens in a new window
The basic format for a book citation requires listing the author's name, the title of the book, the publisher's name, and the date of publication. Edited books, when cited in full, will list the editor's name instead of an author’s name.
Black Hearts Bleed Red . Directed by Jeri Cain Rossi. Mary Magdalene Films, 1992.
Desmond, John. "Flannery O'Connor's Misfit and the Mystery of Evil." Renascence: Essays on Values in Literature, vol. 56, no. 2, 2004, pp. 129-37. Literature Online.
Dowell, B. "The Moment of Grace in the Fiction of Flannery O'Connor." College English, vol. 27, 1965, pp. 235-9.
Evans, Robert C. "Poe, O'Connor, and the Mystery of the Misfit." Flannery O'Connor Bulletin, vol. 25, 1997, pp. 1-12.
Fike, Matthew. "The Timothy Allusion in 'A Good Man is Hard to Find'." Renascence: Essays on Values in Literature , vol. 52, no. 4, 2000, pp. 311-9. Literature Online.
Gentry, Marshall Bruce. "He Would Have Been a Good Man: Compassion and Meanness in Truman Capote and Flannery O'Connor." Flannery O'Connor's Radical Reality . Eds. Jan Nordby Gretlund and Karl-Heinz Westarp. U of South Carolina P, 2006, pp. 42-55.
A Good Man is Hard to Find and Other Stories . Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic, 2008.
Hewitt, Avis. "'Someone to Shoot Her Every Minute of Her Life': Maternity and Violent Death in Helena María Viramontes and Flannery O'Connor." Flannery O'Connor Review, vol. 4, 2006, pp. 12-26.
Keetley, Dawn. "'I Forgot What I Done': Repressed Anger and Violent Fantasy in 'A Good Man is Hard to Find'." 'On the Subject of the Feminist Business': Re-Reading Flannery O'Connor, edited by Teresa Caruso. Peter Lang, 2004, pp. 74-93.
Link, Alex. "Means, Meaning, and Mediated Space in 'A Good Man is Hard to Find'." Southern Quarterly: A Journal of the Arts in the South , vol. 44, no. 4, 2007, pp. 125-38.
Shinn, T. J. "Flannery O'Connor and the Violence of Grace." Contemporary Literature, 1968, pp. 58-73.
Sloan, Gary. "Mystery, Magic, and Malice: O'Connor and the Misfit." Journal of the Short Story in English , vol. 30, 1998, pp. 73-83.
Tsai, Hsiu-chih. "Violence as the Road to Transformation: O'Connor's 'A Good Man is Hard to Find'." NTU Studies in Language and Literature, vol. 13, 2004, pp. 59-98.
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- Last Updated: Feb 22, 2024 9:44 AM
- URL: https://libguides.unf.edu/citationguide
How to Write an Annotated Bibliography - MLA Style
What is an annotation, how is an annotation different from an abstract, what is an annotated bibliography, types of annotated bibliographies, descriptive or informative, analytical or critical, to get started.
An annotation is more than just a brief summary of an article, book, website, or other type of publication. An annotation should give enough information to make a reader decide whether to read the complete work. In other words, if the reader were exploring the same topic as you, is this material useful and if so, why?
While an abstract also summarizes an article, book, website, or other type of publication, it is purely descriptive. Although annotations can be descriptive, they also include distinctive features about an item. Annotations can be evaluative and critical and the two major types of annotations included here demonstrate the difference.
An annotated bibliography is an organized list of sources (like a reference list). It differs from a straightforward bibliography in that each reference is followed by a paragraph length annotation, usually 100–200 words in length.
Depending on the assignment, an annotated bibliography might have different purposes:
- Provide a literature review on a particular subject
- Help to formulate a thesis on a subject
- Demonstrate the research you have performed on a particular subject
- Provide examples of major sources of information available on a topic
- Describe items that other researchers may find of interest on a topic
There are two major types of annotated bibliographies:
A descriptive or informative annotated bibliography describes or summarizes a source as does an abstract; it describes why the source is useful for researching a particular topic or question and its distinctive features. In addition, it describes the author's main arguments and conclusions without evaluating what the author says or concludes.
Gabbin, Joanne V. "Maya Angelou--The Peoples' Poet Laureate: An Introduction." Langston Hughes Review , vol. 19, Spring 2005, pp. 3-6. LION: Literature Online , gateway.proquest.com/openurl?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&xri:pqil:res_ver=0.2&res_id=xri:lion&rft_id=xri:lion:ft:criticism:R04012678:0&rft.accountid=14580. This scholarly article is a critical introduction to the works of Maya Angelou, and the criteria surrounding her success as a poet laureate. The author points out Angelou's literary influences, which include William Shakespeare, Edgar Allan Poe, Douglas Johnson, Langston Hughes, among others. This article also points out that her poetry lacks cultural boundaries, yet her trademark lies in the secular chants, songs, and games of the black vernacular tradition. The author discusses dialect and vernacular rhythms in several of Angelou's poems, and compares several of her works to the racy dialect of Sterling Brown and Langston Hughes. Also discussed is her political cultural voice and her deep understanding of emotion. This article is distinctive in its discussion of the need for a poet laureate to add to an audience's collective memory.
Please pay attention to the last sentence. While it points out distinctive features about the item it does not analyze the author's conclusions.
An analytical or critical annotation not only summarizes the material, it analyzes what is being said. It examines the strengths and weaknesses of what is presented as well as describing the applicability of the author's conclusions to the research being conducted.
Analytical or critical annotations will most likely be required when writing for a college-level course.
Gabbin, Joanne V. "Maya Angelou--The Peoples' Poet Laureate: An Introduction." Langston Hughes Review , vol. 19, Spring 2005, pp. 3-6. LION: Literature Online , gateway.proquest.com/openurl?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&xri:pqil:res_ver=0.2&res_id=xri:lion&rft_id=xri:lion:ft:criticism:R04012678:0&rft.accountid=14580. This scholarly article is a critical introduction to the works of Maya Angelou, and the criteria surrounding her success as a poet laureate. The author points out Angelou's literary influences, that include William Shakespeare, Edgar Allan Poe, Douglas Johnson, Langston Hughes, among others. This article also points out that her poetry lacks cultural boundaries, yet her trademark lies in the secular chants, songs, and games of the black vernacular tradition. The author discusses dialect and vernacular rhythms in several of Angelou's poems, and compares several of her works to the racy dialect of Sterling Brown and Langston Hughes. Also discussed is her political cultural voice and her deep understanding of emotion. This article is a good resource for those wanting to explore criteria related to the achievement of the award of poet laureate and how Angelou meets the criteria. This article begins to explore the poet's works and suggests her ability to add to an audience's collective memory. The author is a professor of English at James Madison University and has authored a book on Sterling Brown and numerous critical essays.
Please pay attention to the last three sentences. They give information about the author and critique the author's research.
To write an annotated bibliography here are the steps:
- Choose your sources - Before writing your annotated bibliography, you must choose your sources. This involves doing research much like for any other project. Locate records to materials that may apply to your topic.
- Review the items - Then review the actual items and choose those that provide a wide variety of perspectives on your topic. Article abstracts are helpful in this process.
- The purpose of the work
- A summary of its content
- Information about the author(s)
- For what type of audience the work is written
- Its relevance to the topic
- Any special or unique features about the material
- Research methodology
- The strengths, weaknesses or biases in the material
Annotated bibliographies are arranged alphabetically by the first author's last name.
Please see the MLA Examples Page for more information on citing in MLA style.
- Last Updated: Aug 8, 2023 1:53 PM
- URL: https://libguides.umgc.edu/annotated-bibliography-mla
- About Citing and Citation Styles
MLA Style Online Resources
Mla style books.
- Other Citation Styles
- Citing Artificial Intelligence Tools
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MLA (Modern Language Association) Style is most commonly used for papers in the liberal arts and humanities.
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Fresno State library MLA Citation Guide (4-page pdf) *MLA 8th Edition - update pending*
F resno State Library’s MLA Quick Guide is based on the 8th edition. *Only use it if your instructor has specified MLA 8th edition.* The handout is being updated, and you can get the updated information in the print handbook or on the Purdue OWL web site. TUTORIALS:
MLA Style Essay Format (walks you through the basics of setting up your paper in Word)
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- Interviews / speeches
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- Live performances
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The MLA 9th style uses author-date in-text citations, used when quoting or paraphrasing people’s work.
Two types of in-text citations
1. author prominent format .
Use this format if you want to emphasise the author. Their name becomes part of your sentence.
"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times," wrote Charles Dickens of the eighteenth century (5).
2. Information prominent format
Use this format if you want to emphasise the information. It cites the author’s name, typically at the end of a sentence.
as demonstrated in the opening line, "it was the best of times, it was the worst of times" (Dickens 5).
Examples of in-text citations
Less than three lines of text.
If a prose quotation is no more than four lines and does not require special emphasis, put it in quotation marks and incorporate it into the text. Include the page number(s) in brackets.
"It was the best of times it was the worst of times" wrote Charles Dickens of the eighteenth century (5).
- See Plays and Poetry sections below for how to cite these in-text.
More than three lines of text
If a quotation is longer than three lines, set it off from your text by beginning a new line, indenting half an inch from the left margin. Quotation marks around the text are not required. Introduce the quotation with a colon. Place the parenthetical reference after the last line. For example, the above discusses John Corner in his book, The Art of Record: A Critical Introduction to Documentary , which refers to Brian Winston's revaluation of the documentary tradition in the writings of John Grierson.
Winston's reassessment of Grierson finds the play-off between creativity and realness unconvincing: Grierson's taxonomic triumph was to make his particular species of non-fiction film, the non-fiction genre while at the same time allowing the films to use the significant fictionalising technique of dramatisation. (Winston 103)
This is a usefully provocative point, though agreement with it will largely rest on certain, contestable ideas about 'fictionalisation' and 'dramatisation'. The issue is dealt with directly in Chapter Two, as part of considering the debate around drama-documentary forms, and it occurs in relation to specific works throughout this book.
In prose, the first time the two authors are mentioned, use both first and second names. In a parenthetical citation use 'and', not '&' to connect the two surnames.
Others, like Cheryl Brown and Laura Czerniewicz argue that the idea of a generation of ‘digital natives’ is flawed (359). The Brown and Czerniewicz article focuses on…
(Brown and Czerniewicz 359)
Three or more authors
When citing a source with three or more authors in prose you only refer to the first coauthor and can follow the additional authors by “and others“ or “and colleagues.” A parenthetical citation requires the first author's surname, followed by et al.
Laura Czerniewicz and colleagues argue…
(Czerniewicz et al. 53)
Different authors, same surname
If you use works from more than one author with the same last name, eliminate any ambiguity by including the author's first initial as well (or if the initial is also the same, the full first name).
(N. Palmer 45)
(N. Palmer 45; M. Palmer 102)
Citing more than one author
If you are citing more than one source at the same point, place them in the same parentheses, separated by a semi-colon.
(Jackson 41; Smith 150)
Same author, two or more works
If you cite multiple works by the same author, include a shortened title in each in-text citation to establish which work you are referring to. To avoid overly lengthy in-text citations, shorten the title to a simple noun phrase, or a few words.
The first example references Said's book, so the title is italicised. The second example references Said's journal article, so it is in quotation marks.
For more tips on how to abbreviate titles of sources, see 6.10 of the MLA Handbook .
..."the Orient was a scholar's word, signifying what modern Europe had recently made of the still peculiar East" (Said, Orientalism 92).
..."there is something basically unworkable or at least drastically changed about the traditional frameworks in which we study literature" (Said, "Globalizing Literary Study" 64).
Anonymous or no author
For works that are anonymously authored, or have no author, include a shortened version of the title in the in-text citation (do not list the author as "anonymous", nor as "anon.").
It has been argued that the hat symbolised freedom (Wandering Merchant 157).
Abbreviate terms that are commonly abbreviated (e.g. Department becomes Dept.), so as to not disrupt the flow of your text with overly long in-text citations.
If the corporate author is identified in the works-cited list by the names of administrative units separated by commas, give all the names in the parenthetical citation.
The Australian Research Council found that there are limited policies and procedures in place to manage foreign interference (4).
(Monash University 176)
Citing an author within another source
An indirect source is a source that is cited in another source. To quote this second-hand source, use “qtd. in” (quoted in), and then include the information of the source you actually consulted. Similarly, for the reference list use the source that you actually consulted (i.e. the indirect source). Keep in mind that it is good academic practice to seek out and use the original source, rather than the second-hand one, however this is not always possible.
For the below example, the student is using Petrarch's quote which is found in Hui. The page number refers to the source actually consulted (Hui), and the reference list would only list Hui, as shown below:
Hui, Andrew. The Poetics of Ruins in Renaissance Literature. Fordham UP, 2016.
For more information, see section 6.77 of the MLA Handbook .
Petrarch laments that Cicero’s manuscripts are “in such fragmentary and mutilated condition that it would perhaps have been better for them to have perished” (qtd. in Hui 4).
Author in a translation
If you think your audience would require a translation for your quoted material, then provide one. Give the source of the translation, as well as the source of the quote.
If you did the translation yourself, then insert my trans. where you would usually put the translation source, as shown in the example above.
If you're quoting in a language that does not use the Latin alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, etc.), then consistently use the original writing system for your quotes or romanisation. Note that proper nouns are usually romanised.
For more information, see 6.75 Translations of Quotations in the MLA Style Guide .
Mme d'Aulnoy's heroine is "la chatte blanche" ("the white cat"; my trans.; 56)
Poetry - Short quotations
Quotations from poetry from part of a line up to three lines in length, which do not need particular emphasis, may be added, placed in quotation marks, within your text as part of a sentence. Use a slash with a space on either side ( / ) to indicate a new line of poetry.
If the poem you are referencing has line numbers, then omit page numbers all-together and cite by line number instead. Do not use the abbreviation l. or ll. , but instead in your first citation, use the word line, or lines as shown in the example below. After the first citation, it can be assumed that the numbers refer to lines, so you can include the numbers alone.
More's distress that she had not written about the problems of the slave trade earlier are expressed in the poem: "Whene'er to Afric's shores I turn my eyes, / Horrors of deepest, deadliest guilt arise" (line 5).
Poetry - Block quotations
When quoting a block of poetry, introduce it in the same manner as a prose block quotation, i.e. begin the quote on a new line and indent each line as below. There is no need to add quotation marks. A reference to the page or line number should be included in parenthesis at the end of the last line. If the original text is creatively spaced or indented, then try to replicate the original as best you can.
Judith Wright 's poetry explores the Australian environment:
And have we eaten in the heart of the yellow wheat the sullen unforgetting seed of fire? And now, set free by the climate of man's hate, that seed sets time ablaze (14)
If you quote the lines of more than one actor or if the piece you are quoting is long, the quotation should not be integrated into your text. The rules in MLA for presenting this text are:
- Leave a line between your text and the quotation
- Begin each part of the dialogue with the character's name, indented half an inch from the margin, in upper case and with a full-stop, e.g. BODYGUARDS.
- Start dialogue after full-stop or match spacing shown in original source
- Indent all dialogue an additional amount, as shown below
- End each piece of dialogue with a full-stop
- End the last line of the quotation with a full-stop and then add the section and line numbers in parentheses.
For more information, see section 6.40 of the MLA 9th Handbook .
TARTUFFE. Yes, my brother, I am a sinner, a guilty man. An unhappy sinner full of iniquity. (III. vi.)
In-text citation general checklist
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Formatting Annotated Bibliographies
- Title your annotated bibliography either "Annotated Bibliography" or "Annotated List of Works Cited." Center the title on the page. Confirm title requirements with your instsructor.
- Format your sources according to the guidelines for a typical MLA Works Cited page
- On the line beneath each entry, write your annotation. Indent the annotation an inch from the start of the entry.
- Generally, annotations should be a paragraph long. If they are longer, make sure to indent each of the following paragraphs. Do not add a space between the paragraphs. Confirm length requirements with your instructor.
- Always check with your instructor to confirm whether they would like your annotation to be summative (describing a source's content), evaluative (evaluating the usefulness or relevance of the source to your work), or for it to include both description and evaluation .
- According to Chapter 5.132 in the MLA Handbook , annotated bibliographies "should not rehash minor details, cite evidence, quote the author, or recount steps in an argument."
- Always check with your instructor to confirm the required length of annotations, and whether you should use phrases or complete sentences.
Sample Annotated Bibliography Entry
Demir, Kadir, and Gür E. Güraksin. "Determining Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Concept of Artificial Intelligence: A Metaphor Analysis." Participatory Educational Research , vol. 9, no. 2, 2022, pp. 297-312, https://doi.org/10.17275/per.18.104.22.168 .
In this article, Demir and Güraksin report on a study completed in 2019-2020 in Turkey. The researchers collected data on 339 middle school students' perceptions of AI. While this study was completed before the rise of popular generative AI chatbots such as ChatGPT, it can still give me important context and background on middle school students' perspectives on AI and could serve as a point of comparison to current attitudes.
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How do I cite one person’s testimony in a congressional hearing?
Your source for congressional testimony may be a transcript, audio recording, or video recording of all or part of a hearing. Style each source using the MLA format template . Note that, depending on your source, the person whose testimony you are citing may or may not be listed in the Author element of your entry.
Hearing Transcript Miriam Nisbet, director of the Office of Government Information Services, testified to a “strong interest in updating regulations” to use “plainer” language (United States, Senate 11). Work Cited United States, Senate, Committee on the Judiciary. We the People: Fulfilling the Promise of Open Government Five Years after the Open Government Act . U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013, www.judiciary.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/CHRG-113shrg90863.pdf. 113th Congress, 1st session, 90-863 PDF.
Transcript of One Person’s Testimony The general counsel for the Associated Press testified in favor of the proposed portal for FOIA requests (Kaiser 7). Work Cited Kaiser, Karen. Testimony of Karen Kaiser, General Counsel, the Associated Press, on behalf of the Sunshine in Government Initiative before the Committee on the Judiciary United States Senate on “Ensuring an Informed Citizenry: Examining the Administration’s Efforts to Improve Open Government.” 6 May 2015, www.judiciary.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/05-06-15%20Kaiser%20Testimony.pdf.
Video Excerpt Jeanne H. Schmedlen’s testimony about federal partnerships with state humanities councils highlighted the activities of Pennsylvania’s Commonwealth Speakers Bureau (“NEA Hearing” 02:30–03:45). Work Cited “NEA Hearing: Jeanne H. Schmedlen.” YouTube , uploaded by Committee on Education and the Workforce Democrats, 9 May 2008, www.youtube.com/watch?v=kBV_NuQMfgM.
For further guidance on citing government sources, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook .
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LAI203: How to Create In-Text Citations in MLA
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MLA 9th In Text Citations
An in-text citation helps the reader of your work locate where you got the information from. Formatting an MLA 9th in-text citation can be tricky, but when you locate all the necessary information, it is quite easy.
Please use the information below to assist you in making an accurate in-text citation to ensure you are not plagiarizing borrowed information.
If a page number is provided, follow the formats below:
In-Text Citation, Two Authors
List the two author's last names.
(Jones and Miller 378).
In-Text Citation, Three or More Authors
You will put et al. to indicate after the first author's last name to indicate and others .
(Jones et al. 378).
When no page number is provided, please follow the formats below:
In-Text Citation, No Page Number Provided
In-Text Citation, Two Authors, No Page Number Provided
List the two author's last names.
(Jones and Miller).
In-Text Citation, Three or More Authors, No Page Number Provided
You will put et al. to indicate after the first author's last name to indicate and others .
(Jones et al.).
If no author is provided, please follow the format below:
In-Text Citation, No Author. ("Use Title Instead").
If the source is titled "Clay Pot Snowman Tutorial", your in-text citation will be (“Clay Pot Snowman Tutorial”).
A Real Example
Flores-Cornejo, Fiorela, et al. “Association between Body Image Dissatisfaction and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents.” Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , vol. 39, no. 4, Oct. 2017, pp. 316–322. Academic Search Complete, doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2016-1947.
If I were to quote a line from page 320 of the above article, it would look like this:
"Those who had ever used alcohol were 40% more likely to report depressive symptoms, while those who had ever used tobacco were 50% more likely to endorse such symptoms, after adjusting for all variables in the equation" (Flores-Cornejo et al. 320).
**REMEMBER: The In-text Citation should match the first item listed for that citation in the Works Cited*
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How do I cite Google?
When citing Google as a source, it’s important to follow the appropriate format based on the citation style you are using. Here are the general guidelines for citing Google in MLA and APA:
Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Web Page.” Website Name, Day Mo. Year, URL.
Google. “About Google.” Google, 1 Oct. 2021, https://www.google.com/about/.
Author or authors. (Year). Title (in italics). Retrieved from URL
Google. (2021). About Google. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/about/
How do you cite Google in APA?
To cite Google in APA format, follow these guidelines:
Author or authors. (Year). Title. Retrieved from URL.
How do you cite information from Google?
To cite information from Google, follow these steps:
1. Use Google Scholar to find the article or information you want to cite.
2. Copy the formatted citation provided by Google Scholar or use one of the citation links to import it into your bibliography management tool.
3. If there is no citation available, you can create a citation manually using the appropriate format for your citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.).
How do you cite Google software?
When citing Google software, follow the basic format below:
- Author or authors. Surname followed by first initials.
- Title (in italics).
- Format [in square brackets].
- Publisher. This may be the App Store or Google Play Store.
- The first line of each citation is left adjusted.
How do you cite a website in MLA?
To cite a website in MLA, use the following format:
Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Web Page.” Title of Site, Sponsor or Publisher [include only if different from website title or author], Day Month Year, URL.
How do you cite a website?
To cite a website, include the following information in the following order:
- Author (the person or organization responsible for the site).
- Year (date created or revised).
- Site name (in italics).
- Name of sponsor of site (if available).
- Accessed day month year (the date you viewed the site).
- URL or Internet address (between pointed brackets).
How do you cite a website in MLA if there is no author?
If there is no author listed for a website, you can use a shortened version of the title as the in-text citation. In the Works Cited page, list the title of the website as the author.
“Title of Web Page.” Website Name, Day Mo. Year, URL.
How do you cite a website like Google?
To cite a website like Google, follow the APA format for website citations. Include the author (if available), the publication date, the title or article, the website name, and the URL. If there is no author, start the citation with the title of the article. If the page is likely to change over time, add a retrieval date.
Google. (2021). “About Google.” Google. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/about/
How do you cite a Google Earth website?
To cite a Google Earth website, use the following citation format:
- Google Earth version (if applicable).
- Year data released (in round brackets).
- Image details – location, coordinates, elevation. (In italics).
- Data set (if applicable).
- Available through: URL.
- [Accessed date].
How do I copy a Google citation?
To copy a Google citation, follow these steps:
1. Select the “Cite” option under the title of the item on the Google results page.
2. Highlight the citation style required for your assignment.
3. Use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + C (or Command + C on a Mac) to copy the citation.
Can I cite Internet sources?
Yes, you can cite internet sources. When citing internet sources, follow the same guidelines for citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) as you would for other sources. Include the necessary information such as author, title, year, URL, and date accessed.
How does Google citations work?
Google Scholar Citations allows authors to set up a profile page that lists their publications and citation metrics. The citation metrics are updated automatically, and authors can choose to have their list of publications updated automatically or update them manually. It is a useful tool for researchers to track the impact and reach of their work.
Can Google be a source of information?
Google can be a source of information, but it is important to evaluate the reliability and credibility of the information found on Google. While Google provides access to a wide range of information, it is always recommended to verify the information from reputable sources and critically evaluate the information found on the internet.
Can you cite Google as a reference?
No, you cannot cite Google as a reference. Instead, you should cite the specific information or resource that you found on Google. For example, if you found an article on a website through a Google search, you would cite the article and the website as your sources, not Google itself.
Do you have to reference Google Forms?
If you use data derived from surveys conducted through Google Forms in your research or work, it is important to provide a proper citation. Include the name “Google Surveys” as the source, along with the dates the survey was conducted.
How do you in-text cite a website?
To cite a website in-text, include the name of the website in the text of your paper and provide the URL in parentheses. For example: According to the information on the Google website (https://www.google.com),…
Can you cite Google Maps as a source?
If you are using specific information or data from Google Maps, you should cite the original source of the information, such as the website or organization that provided the data. Google Maps itself should not be cited as the source, but rather the underlying source of the information you are referencing.
Should I cite Google Maps?
When using information or data from Google Maps in your work, it is important to provide a proper citation for the original source of the information. This may include the website or organization that provided the data. Google Maps itself should not be cited as the source, but rather the source that provided the data.
How do you cite a website with no author or page number?
If a website has no author or page number, use the title or a shortened version of the title as the in-text citation. In the Works Cited or Reference list entry, use the title as the author and include the full URL.
How do I cite a source?
To cite a source, follow the appropriate citation style guidelines. Generally, include the author’s name, the title of the work, the publication date, and any other relevant information (such as publisher or URL). Use in-text citations to indicate the source of specific information within your paper, and include a corresponding reference entry in your bibliography or works cited list.
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- How to cite a website in MLA
How to Cite a Website in MLA | Format & Examples
Published on July 17, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on January 17, 2024.
An MLA website citation includes the author’s name , the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the website (in italics), the publication date , and the URL (without “https://”).
If the author is unknown, start with the title of the page instead. If the publication date is unknown, or if the content is likely to change over time, add an access date at the end instead.
Websites don’t usually have page numbers, so the in-text citation is just the author name in parentheses. If you already named the author in your sentence, you don’t need to add a parenthetical citation.
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The format differs for other types of online content, such as YouTube videos , TED Talks , and podcasts .
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Table of contents
Citing online articles, citing web pages with no author or date, citing an entire website, publishers in mla website citations, frequently asked questions about mla style.
The format for citing an article from an online newspaper , magazine, or blog is the same as a general web page citation. If the article is a PDF of a print article, the format differs slightly .
Write the article title in title case (all major words capitalized). Use the most recent publication date on the page, including the day, month, and year if available.
Note, however, that a different format is used when citing online articles from academic journals.
Learn how to cite journal articles in MLA
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If no author is credited, leave out this element, and start with the title of the page or article instead.
Use a shortened version of the title in your in-text citation. The shortened title must match the first words of your Works Cited entry.
If no publication date is available, leave out this element, and include the date on which you accessed the page at the end.
Note that a specific format exists for citing online dictionary entries .
If you cite a whole website, there is usually no named author, so the Works Cited entry begins with the name of the website in italics.
If the website has a publication or copyright date (usually found in the footer), include this; if not, add the date when you accessed the website at the end of the citation.
When should you cite a whole website?
Most of the time, you should cite the specific page or article where you found the information. However, you might have to cite the entire website if you are giving a general overview of its content, referring only to the homepage, or quoting text that appears on many different pages across the site (such as a company’s slogan).
If you cite multiple pages or articles from the same website, you should include a separate Works Cited entry for each one.
If the publisher is the same as the name of the website, you leave it out of the citation to avoid repetition.
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If a source has no author, start the MLA Works Cited entry with the source title . Use a shortened version of the title in your MLA in-text citation .
If a source has no page numbers, you can use an alternative locator (e.g. a chapter number, or a timestamp for a video or audio source) to identify the relevant passage in your in-text citation. If the source has no numbered divisions, cite only the author’s name (or the title).
If you already named the author or title in your sentence, and there is no locator available, you don’t need a parenthetical citation:
- Rajaram argues that representations of migration are shaped by “cultural, political, and ideological interests.”
- The homepage of The Correspondent describes it as “a movement for radically different news.”
If a source has two authors, name both authors in your MLA in-text citation and Works Cited entry. If there are three or more authors, name only the first author, followed by et al.
Yes. MLA style uses title case, which means that all principal words (nouns, pronouns , verbs, adjectives , adverbs , and some conjunctions ) are capitalized.
This applies to titles of sources as well as the title of, and subheadings in, your paper. Use MLA capitalization style even when the original source title uses different capitalization .
The title of an article is not italicized in MLA style , but placed in quotation marks. This applies to articles from journals , newspapers , websites , or any other publication. Use italics for the title of the source where the article was published. For example:
Use the same formatting in the Works Cited entry and when referring to the article in the text itself.
The fastest and most accurate way to create MLA citations is by using Scribbr’s MLA Citation Generator .
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If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
McCombes, S. (2024, January 17). How to Cite a Website in MLA | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 23, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/mla/website-citation/
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MLA Formatting Quotations
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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
When you directly quote the works of others in your paper, you will format quotations differently depending on their length. Below are some basic guidelines for incorporating quotations into your paper. Please note that all pages in MLA should be double-spaced .
To indicate short quotations (four typed lines or fewer of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page number (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the in-text citation, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation.
Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage, but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
For example, when quoting short passages of prose, use the following examples:
When using short (fewer than three lines of verse) quotations from poetry, mark breaks in verse with a slash, ( / ), at the end of each line of verse (a space should precede and follow the slash). If a stanza break occurs during the quotation, use a double slash ( // ).
For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented 1/2 inch from the left margin while maintaining double-spacing. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark . When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)
For example, when citing more than four lines of prose, use the following examples :
Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)
When citing long sections of poetry (four lines of verse or more), keep formatting as close to the original as possible.
In his poem "My Papa's Waltz," Theodore Roethke explores his childhood with his father:
The whiskey on your breath Could make a small boy dizzy; But I hung on like death: Such waltzing was not easy. We Romped until the pans Slid from the kitchen shelf; My mother's countenance Could not unfrown itself. (qtd. in Shrodes, Finestone, Shugrue 202)
When citing two or more paragraphs, use block quotation format, even if the passage from the paragraphs is less than four lines. If you cite more than one paragraph, the first line of the second paragraph should be indented an extra 1/4 inch to denote a new paragraph:
In "American Origins of the Writing-across-the-Curriculum Movement," David Russell argues,
Writing has been an issue in American secondary and higher education since papers and examinations came into wide use in the 1870s, eventually driving out formal recitation and oral examination. . . .
From its birth in the late nineteenth century, progressive education has wrestled with the conflict within industrial society between pressure to increase specialization of knowledge and of professional work (upholding disciplinary standards) and pressure to integrate more fully an ever-widening number of citizens into intellectually meaningful activity within mass society (promoting social equity). . . . (3)
Adding or omitting words in quotations
If you add a word or words in a quotation, you should put brackets around the words to indicate that they are not part of the original text:
If you omit a word or words from a quotation, you should indicate the deleted word or words by using ellipses, which are three periods ( . . . ) preceded and followed by a space. For example:
Please note that brackets are not needed around ellipses unless they would add clarity.
When omitting words from poetry quotations, use a standard three-period ellipses; however, when omitting one or more full lines of poetry, space several periods to about the length of a complete line in the poem: