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How to Cite a Case Study in APA, MLA, or Chicago

When citing a case study, the format in MLA and APA is similar to that of a report, and in Chicago style, it is similar to that of a book. For all three citation styles, you will need the name of the author(s), the title of the case study, the year it was published, the publishing organization/publisher, and URL (if applicable). The templates and examples below will demonstrate how to cite a case study in MLA, APA, and Chicago styles.

Author Last Name, Author First Name.  Title of Case Study . Edition (if applicable), volume number (if applicable), Publisher, year of publication, URL without http:// or https:// (if applicable).

Hill, Linda A., et al. HCL Technologies (A). Rev. edition, Harvard Business School, 2008, www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.

In-text Citation:

(Author Last Name(s) page #)

(Hill et al. 8)

Author Last Name, Author Initial. (Publication Year). Title of Case Study (Case # if applicable). Publishing Organization. URL

Hill, L., Khanna, T., & Stecker, E. (2008). HCL Technologies (A) (Case 408-004). Harvard Business School. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784

(Author Last Name, Publication Year)

(Hill et al., 2008)

Notes-bibliography style

Author Last Name, First Name.  Title of the Case Study . Publishing City: Publishing Organization, Publication Year. URL.

Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily Stecker. HCL Technologies (A).  Boston: Harvard Business School, 2008. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.

1. Author First Name Last Name, Title of the Case Study (Publishing City: Publishing Organization, Publication Year), URL.

1. Linda A. Hill, Tarun Khanna, and Emily Stecker, HCL Technologies (A) ( Boston: Harvard Business School, 2008), https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.

Author-date style

Author Last Name, First Name. Publication Year. Title of the Case Study . Publishing City: Publishing Organization. URL.

Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily Stecker. 2008. HCL Technologies (A).  Boston: Harvard Business School. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.

In-text citation: 

(Author Last Name Publication Date)

(Holl, Khanna, and Stecker 2008)

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Harvard Style Guide: Case studies

  • Introduction
  • Harvard Tutorial
  • In-text citations
  • Book with one author
  • Book with two or three authors
  • Book with four or more authors
  • Book with a corporate author
  • Book with editor
  • Chapter in an edited book
  • Translated book
  • Translated ancient texts
  • Print journal article, one author
  • Print journal article, two or three authors
  • Print journal article, four or more authors
  • eJournal article
  • Journal article ePublication (ahead of print)
  • Secondary sources
  • Generative AI
  • Images or photographs
  • Lectures/ presentations
  • Film/ television
  • YouTube Film or Talk
  • Music/ audio
  • Encyclopaedia and dictionaries
  • Email communication
  • Conferences
  • Official publications
  • Book reviews

Case studies

  • Group or individual assignments
  • Legal Cases (Law Reports)
  • No date of publication
  • Personal communications
  • Repository item
  • Citing same author, multiple works, same year

Back to Academic Integrity guide

Reference : Author/editor Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Title of case study' [Case Study], Journal Title, Volume (Issue), pp. page numbers. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Month Year].

Ofek, E., Avery, J., Rudolph, S., Martins Gomes, V., Saadat, N., Tsui, A., & Shroff, Y. (2014) 'Case study second thoughts about a strategy shift' [Case Study], Harvard Business Review , 92(12), pp. 125-129. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=99621003&site=ehost-live [Accessed 10 December 2014].

In-Text-Citation :

  • (Author last name, Year)
  • Author last name (Year)...
  • In their case study Ofek et al. (2014) describe how marketing to the young generation...

Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here . 

Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here . 

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how to reference a case study in an essay

All You Wanted to Know About How to Write a Case Study

how to reference a case study in an essay

What do you study in your college? If you are a psychology, sociology, or anthropology student, we bet you might be familiar with what a case study is. This research method is used to study a certain person, group, or situation. In this guide from our dissertation writing service , you will learn how to write a case study professionally, from researching to citing sources properly. Also, we will explore different types of case studies and show you examples — so that you won’t have any other questions left.

What Is a Case Study?

A case study is a subcategory of research design which investigates problems and offers solutions. Case studies can range from academic research studies to corporate promotional tools trying to sell an idea—their scope is quite vast.

What Is the Difference Between a Research Paper and a Case Study?

While research papers turn the reader’s attention to a certain problem, case studies go even further. Case study guidelines require students to pay attention to details, examining issues closely and in-depth using different research methods. For example, case studies may be used to examine court cases if you study Law, or a patient's health history if you study Medicine. Case studies are also used in Marketing, which are thorough, empirically supported analysis of a good or service's performance. Well-designed case studies can be valuable for prospective customers as they can identify and solve the potential customers pain point.

Case studies involve a lot of storytelling – they usually examine particular cases for a person or a group of people. This method of research is very helpful, as it is very practical and can give a lot of hands-on information. Most commonly, the length of the case study is about 500-900 words, which is much less than the length of an average research paper.

The structure of a case study is very similar to storytelling. It has a protagonist or main character, which in your case is actually a problem you are trying to solve. You can use the system of 3 Acts to make it a compelling story. It should have an introduction, rising action, a climax where transformation occurs, falling action, and a solution.

Here is a rough formula for you to use in your case study:

Problem (Act I): > Solution (Act II) > Result (Act III) > Conclusion.

Types of Case Studies

The purpose of a case study is to provide detailed reports on an event, an institution, a place, future customers, or pretty much anything. There are a few common types of case study, but the type depends on the topic. The following are the most common domains where case studies are needed:

Types of Case Studies

  • Historical case studies are great to learn from. Historical events have a multitude of source info offering different perspectives. There are always modern parallels where these perspectives can be applied, compared, and thoroughly analyzed.
  • Problem-oriented case studies are usually used for solving problems. These are often assigned as theoretical situations where you need to immerse yourself in the situation to examine it. Imagine you’re working for a startup and you’ve just noticed a significant flaw in your product’s design. Before taking it to the senior manager, you want to do a comprehensive study on the issue and provide solutions. On a greater scale, problem-oriented case studies are a vital part of relevant socio-economic discussions.
  • Cumulative case studies collect information and offer comparisons. In business, case studies are often used to tell people about the value of a product.
  • Critical case studies explore the causes and effects of a certain case.
  • Illustrative case studies describe certain events, investigating outcomes and lessons learned.

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Case Study Format

The case study format is typically made up of eight parts:

  • Executive Summary. Explain what you will examine in the case study. Write an overview of the field you’re researching. Make a thesis statement and sum up the results of your observation in a maximum of 2 sentences.
  • Background. Provide background information and the most relevant facts. Isolate the issues.
  • Case Evaluation. Isolate the sections of the study you want to focus on. In it, explain why something is working or is not working.
  • Proposed Solutions. Offer realistic ways to solve what isn’t working or how to improve its current condition. Explain why these solutions work by offering testable evidence.
  • Conclusion. Summarize the main points from the case evaluations and proposed solutions. 6. Recommendations. Talk about the strategy that you should choose. Explain why this choice is the most appropriate.
  • Implementation. Explain how to put the specific strategies into action.
  • References. Provide all the citations.

How to Write a Case Study

Let's discover how to write a case study.

How to Write a Case Study

Setting Up the Research

When writing a case study, remember that research should always come first. Reading many different sources and analyzing other points of view will help you come up with more creative solutions. You can also conduct an actual interview to thoroughly investigate the customer story that you'll need for your case study. Including all of the necessary research, writing a case study may take some time. The research process involves doing the following:

  • Define your objective. Explain the reason why you’re presenting your subject. Figure out where you will feature your case study; whether it is written, on video, shown as an infographic, streamed as a podcast, etc.
  • Determine who will be the right candidate for your case study. Get permission, quotes, and other features that will make your case study effective. Get in touch with your candidate to see if they approve of being part of your work. Study that candidate’s situation and note down what caused it.
  • Identify which various consequences could result from the situation. Follow these guidelines on how to start a case study: surf the net to find some general information you might find useful.
  • Make a list of credible sources and examine them. Seek out important facts and highlight problems. Always write down your ideas and make sure to brainstorm.
  • Focus on several key issues – why they exist, and how they impact your research subject. Think of several unique solutions. Draw from class discussions, readings, and personal experience. When writing a case study, focus on the best solution and explore it in depth. After having all your research in place, writing a case study will be easy. You may first want to check the rubric and criteria of your assignment for the correct case study structure.

Read Also: 'CREDIBLE SOURCES: WHAT ARE THEY?'

Although your instructor might be looking at slightly different criteria, every case study rubric essentially has the same standards. Your professor will want you to exhibit 8 different outcomes:

  • Correctly identify the concepts, theories, and practices in the discipline.
  • Identify the relevant theories and principles associated with the particular study.
  • Evaluate legal and ethical principles and apply them to your decision-making.
  • Recognize the global importance and contribution of your case.
  • Construct a coherent summary and explanation of the study.
  • Demonstrate analytical and critical-thinking skills.
  • Explain the interrelationships between the environment and nature.
  • Integrate theory and practice of the discipline within the analysis.

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Case Study Outline

Let's look at the structure of an outline based on the issue of the alcoholic addiction of 30 people.

Introduction

  • Statement of the issue: Alcoholism is a disease rather than a weakness of character.
  • Presentation of the problem: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there.
  • Explanation of the terms: In the past, alcoholism was commonly referred to as alcohol dependence or alcohol addiction. Alcoholism is now the more severe stage of this addiction in the disorder spectrum.
  • Hypotheses: Drinking in excess can lead to the use of other drugs.
  • Importance of your story: How the information you present can help people with their addictions.
  • Background of the story: Include an explanation of why you chose this topic.
  • Presentation of analysis and data: Describe the criteria for choosing 30 candidates, the structure of the interview, and the outcomes.
  • Strong argument 1: ex. X% of candidates dealing with anxiety and depression...
  • Strong argument 2: ex. X amount of people started drinking by their mid-teens.
  • Strong argument 3: ex. X% of respondents’ parents had issues with alcohol.
  • Concluding statement: I have researched if alcoholism is a disease and found out that…
  • Recommendations: Ways and actions for preventing alcohol use.

Writing a Case Study Draft

After you’ve done your case study research and written the outline, it’s time to focus on the draft. In a draft, you have to develop and write your case study by using: the data which you collected throughout the research, interviews, and the analysis processes that were undertaken. Follow these rules for the draft:

How to Write a Case Study

  • Your draft should contain at least 4 sections: an introduction; a body where you should include background information, an explanation of why you decided to do this case study, and a presentation of your main findings; a conclusion where you present data; and references.
  • In the introduction, you should set the pace very clearly. You can even raise a question or quote someone you interviewed in the research phase. It must provide adequate background information on the topic. The background may include analyses of previous studies on your topic. Include the aim of your case here as well. Think of it as a thesis statement. The aim must describe the purpose of your work—presenting the issues that you want to tackle. Include background information, such as photos or videos you used when doing the research.
  • Describe your unique research process, whether it was through interviews, observations, academic journals, etc. The next point includes providing the results of your research. Tell the audience what you found out. Why is this important, and what could be learned from it? Discuss the real implications of the problem and its significance in the world.
  • Include quotes and data (such as findings, percentages, and awards). This will add a personal touch and better credibility to the case you present. Explain what results you find during your interviews in regards to the problem and how it developed. Also, write about solutions which have already been proposed by other people who have already written about this case.
  • At the end of your case study, you should offer possible solutions, but don’t worry about solving them yourself.

Use Data to Illustrate Key Points in Your Case Study

Even though your case study is a story, it should be based on evidence. Use as much data as possible to illustrate your point. Without the right data, your case study may appear weak and the readers may not be able to relate to your issue as much as they should. Let's see the examples from essay writing service :

‍ With data: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there. Without data: A lot of people suffer from alcoholism in the United States.

Try to include as many credible sources as possible. You may have terms or sources that could be hard for other cultures to understand. If this is the case, you should include them in the appendix or Notes for the Instructor or Professor.

Finalizing the Draft: Checklist

After you finish drafting your case study, polish it up by answering these ‘ask yourself’ questions and think about how to end your case study:

  • Check that you follow the correct case study format, also in regards to text formatting.
  • Check that your work is consistent with its referencing and citation style.
  • Micro-editing — check for grammar and spelling issues.
  • Macro-editing — does ‘the big picture’ come across to the reader? Is there enough raw data, such as real-life examples or personal experiences? Have you made your data collection process completely transparent? Does your analysis provide a clear conclusion, allowing for further research and practice?

Problems to avoid:

  • Overgeneralization – Do not go into further research that deviates from the main problem.
  • Failure to Document Limitations – Just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study, you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis.
  • Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications – Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings.

How to Create a Title Page and Cite a Case Study

Let's see how to create an awesome title page.

Your title page depends on the prescribed citation format. The title page should include:

  • A title that attracts some attention and describes your study
  • The title should have the words “case study” in it
  • The title should range between 5-9 words in length
  • Your name and contact information
  • Your finished paper should be only 500 to 1,500 words in length. With this type of assignment, write effectively and avoid fluff.

Here is a template for the APA and MLA format title page:

There are some cases when you need to cite someone else's study in your own one – therefore, you need to master how to cite a case study. A case study is like a research paper when it comes to citations. You can cite it like you cite a book, depending on what style you need.

Citation Example in MLA ‍ Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing, 2008. Print.
Citation Example in APA ‍ Hill, L., Khanna, T., & Stecker, E. A. (2008). HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing.
Citation Example in Chicago Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies.

Case Study Examples

To give you an idea of a professional case study example, we gathered and linked some below.

Eastman Kodak Case Study

Case Study Example: Audi Trains Mexican Autoworkers in Germany

To conclude, a case study is one of the best methods of getting an overview of what happened to a person, a group, or a situation in practice. It allows you to have an in-depth glance at the real-life problems that businesses, healthcare industry, criminal justice, etc. may face. This insight helps us look at such situations in a different light. This is because we see scenarios that we otherwise would not, without necessarily being there. If you need custom essays , try our research paper writing services .

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Crafting a case study is not easy. You might want to write one of high quality, but you don’t have the time or expertise. If you’re having trouble with your case study, help with essay request - we'll help. EssayPro writers have read and written countless case studies and are experts in endless disciplines. Request essay writing, editing, or proofreading assistance from our custom case study writing service , and all of your worries will be gone.

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Harvard Referencing Style: Case Studies & Standards

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Referencing Case Studies

IN-TEXT CITATION

Spar and Burns (2000) ...

.... (Spar & Burns, 2000)

"....." (Spar & Burns, 2000:8)

FORMAT OF A REFERENCE TO A CASE STUDY

Author’s surname, Initials. Year. ‘Title.’ Case number. Place: Publisher or Institution.

Note that the title is not italicised.

EXAMPLE OF A REFERENCE TO A PRINTED CASE STUDY

Spar, D. and Burns, J. 2000. ‘Hitting the wall: Nike and International Labor Practices.’ HBS 700047.  Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.

EXAMPLE OF A REFERENCE TO AN ELECTRONIC CASE STUDY FROM A DATABASE

Mathu, K.M. and Scheepers, C . 2016.  'L eading change towards sustainable green coal mining'. Available from: Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, < https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/ EEMCS-01-2016-0007> [Accessed on: 7 June 2017].

Referencing Standards

South African Bureau of Standards (2013) ...

... (South African Bureau of Standards, 2013).

"....." (South African Bureau of Standards, 2013: 3).

FORMAT OF A REFERENCE  TO A STANDARD

Name of the Authorizing Body. Year.  Number and Title of Standard.  Place of Publication: Publisher.

 EXAMPLE OF A REFERENCE TO A PRINT STANDARD

British Standards Institute.2015.  ​BS ISO 14001:Environmental management systems. Requirements with guidance for use.  ​London: British Standards Institute.

EXAMPLE OF A REFERENCE  TO AN ELECTRONIC STANDARD TAKEN FROM A DATABASE

South African Bureau of Standards. 2013.  SANS 1300​: Quality management — Customer satisfaction — Guidelines for monitoring and measuring ​. [online]. Pretoria: South African Bureau of Standards. Available from:<https://www.sabs.co.za/Standardss/index.asp> [ Accessed on: 17 March 2014].

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How to Cite a Case Study

Last Updated: February 12, 2023 References

This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Jennifer Mueller is a wikiHow Content Creator. She specializes in reviewing, fact-checking, and evaluating wikiHow's content to ensure thoroughness and accuracy. Jennifer holds a JD from Indiana University Maurer School of Law in 2006. This article has been viewed 37,362 times.

Particularly in research for business studies or papers in the social sciences, you may want to cite a case study completed by a university or other organization. While case studies have titles and publication information like other articles, they often have a unique case study number that is typically included in your citation. While Chicago citation style is most frequently used in business schools, you may also use the American Psychological Association (APA) or Modern Language Association (MLA) style.

Sample Citations

how to reference a case study in an essay

  • Example: Lee, Stan.
  • If there is more than one author, list the additional authors' names in first-middle initial-last format. Separate author's names with commas, with the word "and" before the last author's name.

Step 2 Identify the name and number of the case study.

  • Example: Lee, Stan. "DC Comics in 2016." HBS No. 999-111.

Step 3 Add publication information for the case study.

  • Example: Lee, Stan. "DC Comics in 2016." HBS No. 999-111. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2017.

Step 4 Include the URL and date of access for online cases.

  • Example: Lee, Stan. "DC Comics in 2016." HBS No. 999-111. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2017. http://hbsp.harvard.edu, accessed July 2018.

Step 5 Alter the punctuation for footnotes.

  • Print example: Stan Lee, "DC Comics in 2016," HBS No. 999-111 (Boston, Harvard Business School Publishing, 2017), p. 14.
  • Online example: Stan Lee, "DC Comics in 2016," HBS No. 999-111 (Boston, Harvard Business School Publishing, 2017), http://hbsp.harvard.edu, accessed July 2018.

Step 1 Put the name of the author, last name first.

  • Example: Lee, S.
  • Separate the names of multiple authors with commas, placing an ampersand before the last author's name.

Step 2 Include the year of publication in parentheses.

  • Example: Lee, S. (2017).
  • If there is no year of publication listed, use the abbreviation "n.d." in the parentheses.

Step 3 Provide the title of the case study in italics.

  • Example: Lee, S. (2017). DC Comics in 2016 .

Step 4 List the case number of the case study.

  • Example: Lee, S. (2017). DC Comics in 2016 . HBS No. 999-111.

Step 5 Close your citation with publication information.

  • Example: Lee, S. (2017). DC Comics in 2016 . HBS No. 999-111. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.

Step 6 Provide the author and year of publication for in-text citations.

  • Example: (Lee, 2017).

Step 1 Provide the author's name first.

  • If there are 2 authors, place the word "and" between their names. For 3 or more, use commas with the word "and" before the final author. After the first author, list subsequent authors with their first name followed by their last name. For example: Lee, Stan and Clark Kent.

Step 2 Include the title and the phrase

  • Example: Lee, Stan. DC Comics in 2016. Case Study.

Step 3 List publication information for the case study.

  • Example: Lee, Stan. DC Comics in 2016. Case Study. Boston. Harvard Business School Publishing, 2017.
  • Note that unlike many other citation styles, the unique case study number is not necessarily included for MLA citations. Ask your instructor or supervisor if they want this information included in your citation.

Step 4 Identify whether you accessed a print or online version.

  • Print example: Lee, Stan. DC Comics in 2016. Case Study. Boston. Harvard Business School Publishing, 2017. Print.
  • Web example: Lee, Stan. DC Comics in 2016. Case Study. Boston. Harvard Business School Publishing, 2017. Web. 17 July 2018.
  • If you accessed the case study online, you may put the URL of the case study. However, this isn't required by MLA style. Ask your instructor or supervisor for their preference.

Step 5 Use the author's name and page number in parenthetical citations.

  • Example: (Lee 27).

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  • ↑ https://www.library.hbs.edu/content/download/49322/786369/version/1/file/HBS_Citation_Guide
  • ↑ https://guides.library.ualberta.ca/apa-citation-style/case-studies
  • ↑ http://libanswers.snhu.edu/faq/128490
  • ↑ http://libanswers.walsh.edu/faq/147917
  • ↑ http://maag.guides.ysu.edu/businesscitations/mla

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Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)

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how to reference a case study in an essay

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There are different versions of the Harvard referencing style. This guide is a quick introduction to the commonly-used Cite Them Right version. You will find further guidance available through the OU Library on the Cite Them Right Database .

For help and support with referencing and the full Cite Them Right guide, have a look at the Library’s page on referencing and plagiarism . If you need guidance referencing OU module material you can check out which sections of Cite Them Right are recommended when referencing physical and online module material .

This guide does not apply to OU Law undergraduate students . If you are studying a module beginning with W1xx, W2xx or W3xx, you should refer to the Quick guide to Cite Them Right referencing for Law modules .

Table of contents

In-text citations and full references.

  • Secondary referencing
  • Page numbers
  • Citing multiple sources published in the same year by the same author

Full reference examples

Referencing consists of two elements:

  • in-text citations, which are inserted in the body of your text and are included in the word count. An in-text citation gives the author(s) and publication date of a source you are referring to. If the publication date is not given, the phrase 'no date' is used instead of a date. If using direct quotations or you refer to a specific section in the source you also need the page number/s if available, or paragraph number for web pages.
  • full references, which are given in alphabetical order in reference list at the end of your work and are not included in the word count. Full references give full bibliographical information for all the sources you have referred to in the body of your text.

To see a reference list and intext citations check out this example assignment on Cite Them Right .

Difference between reference list and bibliography

a reference list only includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text

a bibliography includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text AND sources that were part of your background reading that you did not use in your assignment

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Examples of in-text citations

You need to include an in-text citation wherever you quote or paraphrase from a source. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author(s), the year of publication, and a page number if relevant. There are a number of ways of incorporating in-text citations into your work - some examples are provided below. Alternatively you can see examples of setting out in-text citations in Cite Them Right .

Note: When referencing a chapter of an edited book, your in-text citation should give the author(s) of the chapter.

Online module materials

(Includes written online module activities, audio-visual material such as online tutorials, recordings or videos).

When referencing material from module websites, the date of publication is the year you started studying the module.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

OR, if there is no named author:

The Open University (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

Rietdorf, K. and Bootman, M. (2022) 'Topic 3: Rare diseases'. S290: Investigating human health and disease . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1967195 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).

The Open University (2022) ‘3.1 The purposes of childhood and youth research’. EK313: Issues in research with children and young people . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1949633&section=1.3 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).

You can also use this template to reference videos and audio that are hosted on your module website:

The Open University (2022) ‘Video 2.7 An example of a Frith-Happé animation’. SK298: Brain, mind and mental health . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=2013014&section=4.9.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).

The Open University (2022) ‘Audio 2 Interview with Richard Sorabji (Part 2)’. A113: Revolutions . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1960941&section=5.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).

Note: if a complete journal article has been uploaded to a module website, or if you have seen an article referred to on the website and then accessed the original version, reference the original journal article, and do not mention the module materials. If only an extract from an article is included in your module materials that you want to reference, you should use secondary referencing, with the module materials as the 'cited in' source, as described above.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of message', Title of discussion board , in Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

Fitzpatrick, M. (2022) ‘A215 - presentation of TMAs', Tutor group discussion & Workbook activities , in A215: Creative writing . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/forumng/discuss.php?d=4209566 (Accessed: 24 January 2022).

Note: When an ebook looks like a printed book, with publication details and pagination, reference as a printed book.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title . Edition if later than first. Place of publication: publisher. Series and volume number if relevant.

For ebooks that do not contain print publication details

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title of book . Available at: DOI or URL (Accessed: date).

Example with one author:

Bell, J. (2014) Doing your research project . Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy . Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks (Accessed: 23 June 2021).

Example with two or three authors:

Goddard, J. and Barrett, S. (2015) The health needs of young people leaving care . Norwich: University of East Anglia, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies.

Example with four or more authors:

Young, H.D. et al. (2015) Sears and Zemansky's university physics . San Francisco, CA: Addison-Wesley.

Note: You can choose one or other method to reference four or more authors (unless your School requires you to name all authors in your reference list) and your approach should be consistent.

Note: Books that have an editor, or editors, where each chapter is written by a different author or authors.

Surname of chapter author, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of chapter or section', in Initial. Surname of book editor (ed.) Title of book . Place of publication: publisher, Page reference.

Franklin, A.W. (2012) 'Management of the problem', in S.M. Smith (ed.) The maltreatment of children . Lancaster: MTP, pp. 83–95.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference.

If accessed online:

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference. Available at: DOI or URL (if required) (Accessed: date).

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326.

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326. Available at: https://libezproxy.open.ac.uk/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/log... (Accessed: 27 January 2023).

Barke, M. and Mowl, G. (2016) 'Málaga – a failed resort of the early twentieth century?', Journal of Tourism History , 2(3), pp. 187–212. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/1755182X.2010.523145

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference if available. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Mansell, W. and Bloom, A. (2012) ‘£10,000 carrot to tempt physics experts’, The Guardian , 20 June, p. 5.

Roberts, D. and Ackerman, S. (2013) 'US draft resolution allows Obama 90 days for military action against Syria', The Guardian , 4 September. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/04/syria-strikes-draft-resolut... (Accessed: 9 September 2015).

Surname, Initial. (Year that the site was published/last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Organisation (Year that the page was last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Robinson, J. (2007) Social variation across the UK . Available at: https://www.bl.uk/british-accents-and-dialects/articles/social-variation... (Accessed: 21 November 2021).

The British Psychological Society (2018) Code of Ethics and Conduct . Available at: https://www.bps.org.uk/news-and-policy/bps-code-ethics-and-conduct (Accessed: 22 March 2019).

Note: Cite Them Right Online offers guidance for referencing webpages that do not include authors' names and dates. However, be extra vigilant about the suitability of such webpages.

Surname, Initial. (Year) Title of photograph . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Kitton, J. (2013) Golden sunset . Available at: https://www.jameskittophotography.co.uk/photo_8692150.html (Accessed: 21 November 2021).

stanitsa_dance (2021) Cossack dance ensemble . Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/COI_slphWJ_/ (Accessed: 13 June 2023).

Note: If no title can be found then replace it with a short description.

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How do I reference a case study… in the Cranfield Author-date style?

how to reference a case study in an essay

If you have read our previous post Looking for case studies? , you’ll have discovered some of the best MIRC resources for finding case studies on a topic or company.

Now that you know the top sources for case studies, you now need to know how to reference and cite one in your work. If your case study is published in a journal, you just need to follow the format for referencing a journal article. For example:

Ojasalo, J. (2008) ‘Management of innovation networks: a case study of different approaches’, European Journal of Innovation Management , 11 (1), pp. 51-86.

Poczter, S. L. and Jankovic, L. M. (2014) ‘The Google Car: Driving Toward A Better Future?’, Journal of Business Case Studies , 10 (1). Available at: http://www.cluteinstitute.com/ojs/index.php/JBCS/article/view/8324 (Accessed: 21 October 2015).

If your case study isn’t published as a journal article, then you need to use the following format. Don’t worry it isn’t as difficult as it sounds!

This is what you need to include in your Author-date reference :

  • Author(s) (surname, initials) or organisation
  • (Year of publication)
  • Number/identifier of case study (if available)
  • Title of case
  • Place of publication: Publisher

If the case study is available online, you can add the following:

  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

Here are some examples of what your bibliographic references might look like in the Author-date style:

Aaker, J. and Chang, V. (2010) Case No. M321 : Obama and the power of social media and technology . Stanford: Stanford Business School.

Max, S. (2014) A Small Brand Tries to Escape the Confusing Shadow of a Big Brand. New York: The New York Times. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/08/business/smallbusiness/a-small-brand-tries-to-escape-the-confusing-shadow-of-a-big-brand.html?ref=topics&_r=0 (Accessed: 21 October 2015).

Polzer, J. T. (2003) Leading Teams . Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.

As always if you have any questions about referencing, pop into MIRC or contact us .

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Other assessments: Case studies

  • Scientific writing style
  • Case studies
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On this page:

“For knowledge you will use in the real world - in business, for example, or in engineering or medicine - the "what" [to think] isn't sufficient. You must know how to apply the knowledge to the real world.” William Ellet, The Case Study Handbook

Case study assignments are common in some disciplines. Their main purpose is to show that you can relate theory to real-life situations. You also need to be able to recommend practical solutions to real-life problems.

This page is dedicated to writing case studies for undergraduate assignments, it does not tackle case studies as a research method/approach.

What is a case study?

A case study is an assignment where you analyse a specific case (organisation, group, person, event, issue) and explain how the elements and complexities of that case relate to theory . You will sometimes have to come up with solutions to problems or recommendations for future action.

You may be asked to write a case study as an essay, as part of a longer assignment or as a report.

Examples of cases

icon of building

An organisation.  For example a company, a business, a school, a sports club, a health body.

icon of group

A group. For example a class of pupils, an individual team within an organisation, a project group, a sports club.

icon of one person

An individual.  For example a patient, a client, a specific student/pupil, a manager/leader.

icon of calendar

An event.  For example a sporting occasion, a cultural event, a news story, an historical event.

icon of exclamation mark in triangle

An issue.  For example a dilemma, problem, critical event, change of practice.

Analysing a case

What are you being asked to do.

It is important be sure about the purpose of analysing the case before you begin. Refer back to your assignment brief and make sure you are clear about this. It could be:

  • To answer a specific question using examples from the case to support your argument
  • To explore what happened and why (no recommendations needed)
  • To make recommendations or identify solutions
  • To write a plan that takes the issues into consideration

Examining the case

In order to be thoroughly familiar with the case you are going to need to read through* the case several times during the analysis process. Start by simply reading it without asking too many questions in your mind. Get a feel for it as a whole. After that, you will need to read through it several times to identify the following:

  • What are the facts? List information you are sure about.
  • What happened/is happening? List definite actions that occurred/are occurring.
  • Who was/is involved? List people by job role and what their involvement was/is.

You will now need to read additional material to help you analyse. In business, for example, you will perhaps want to read the financial statements for the company you are investigating; in nursing, the background of the treatment for the disorder from which “your” patient is suffering.

* Sometimes cases are presented to you as videos to watch. In which case you are going to have to watch it many times!

Theoretical approaches

You may have to ask yourself which theoretical approaches that you have covered in your course are relevant to the particular case you have before you. In some instances this may be obvious but in others it may be less so. A theoretical approach is useful as it can give you  specific questions to answer ; specific things to look for. For example, in business, this may take the form of a SWOT analysis - Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) or you may look at the Porter's Five Forces model. There are similar models in other disciplines which you may have been introduced to already - or the brief may tell you which to use.

No obvious theoretical approach?

If you have not been provided with a theoretical approach don't worry. You can still ask questions. For example: 

icon of full picture

What is this case study about in general? What is the big picture - the main issue that this case study is an example of?

icons of jigsaw pieces

What specific issues are associated with it? What makes this case interesting?

icon of thought

What do I already know about these issues?

icon of link

How do they link with the theories we have studied? (See below.)

icon showing alternative paths

What alternative approaches to dealing with the issues would be appropriate?

icon showing drop and ripplies

If an alternative approach were used, what impact might it have?

Linking to theory

The most crucial element about a case study is your ability to link the real world example to theory. This gives you more insight into both because

  • The real life example will mean you can see how theory works in practice .
  • Theory can help you see why things happened as they did and help you come up with alternative approaches and find solutions/make recommendations.

Real life is complex and messy. Do not expect it to nicely fit into theories which are by their very nature best guesses (albeit well researched) and generalisations. However, you will have been given the case specifically because it does relate to some theories you have learned or need to be aware of.

So you need to:

  • Look back through your lecture notes and reading lists to see if anything seems to fit with the case.
  • Search for research that relates to the issues you identified during your analysis. Note these will not necessarily be labelled as 'theories'. Claims made in research papers can all be described as theories. 

Now consider some or all of the questions below:

  • Do the facts and issues raised in the case support any theories?
  • Do the fact and issues raised in the case invalidate or undermine any theories?
  • Can any of the theories explain why issues arose?
  • Can any of the theories back up the actions taken?
  • Can any of the theories suggest alternative courses of action?
  • Do you think any of these alternatives would work best in your case? Why?

Armed with the answers to many of these questions, you are ready to start writing up your case study.

Writing up your case study

The most common ways to write up a case study are as essays or reports . The main differences between the two will be how you structure your work.

Structuring a case study essay

Case study essays usually have to answer a specific question using examples from your case study. They are written in continuous prose (a series of paragraphs with no subheadings). They should be structured much like any other essay with an introduction, main body and conclusion. 

Introduction

This needs to have three things:

  • An introduction to your case (you don't need to rewrite it, just summarise it giving the important parts for your essay).
  • A position statement (your answer to the overall question).
  • An indication of how the rest of the essay is structured.

These do not have to be in that particular order but they do all need to be included.

Generally you will organise this thematically . Each paragraph needs to make a point and then use information from your case to illustrate and back up that point . You will also bring in theory (other reading) to strengthen your argument. It is acceptable to start with the example from your case and then show how this links to theory and the conclusion this leads you to; however, it is best if you first let your reader know the point you are making, as then they are not having to second guess this until the end of the paragraph. 

Each point in your main body should be leading back to the position statement you made in the introduction.

What are the main lessons you learned from the case study? How well did the theory fit with the real world example? Have you been asked to provide solutions or recommendations? If so, give them here.

Reference list

Include all the sources you have cited in your essay.

Structuring a case study report

These can vary between disciplines so check your assignment guidance. A typical case study would include:

Table of contents

See our MS Word pages  or our MS Office Software SkillsGuide for instructions on how to create these automatically.

Executive summary - optional, check if required

Give an overview of your whole report including main approaches, findings and recommendations. This is a bit like the abstract of a journal article.

  • Context (Background)
  • Purpose - what is the case study trying to achieve? 
  • Approach - are you using any particular theoretical tools or research approaches?

Discussion/Analysis

  • Identification of issues and problems
  • Links to theories that help you explain the case
  • Explanation of causes or implications of the issues identified
  • Possible solutions (if required, check your instructions)

These depends on what you were asked to do but could include:

  • Main lessons learned
  • Best solutions and reasons why
  • Recommendations (may have their own section)
  • Action plan (may have its own section)
  • Include all the sources you have cited in the report.

Appendices if required

Recommended books and ebooks from our collection, related books and ebooks from our collection.

Cover Art

Recommended external resources

  • Writing a case study From Monash University
  • Writing a case study analysis From The University of Arizona
  • Case studies From the University of South Australia - includes useful sample case studies
  • Writing a case study PDF to download from the University of Bedfordshire
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Bringing Stories to Your Essay: Introducing a Case Study the Right Way!

Stefani H.

Table of contents

Ever found yourself immersed in a story, hanging onto every detail, eager to know what happens next? That, my friend, is the magic of a case study when sprinkled into an essay.

Just as a dash of spice can elevate a dish, a well-placed case study can take your essay from 'meh' to 'marvelous'. It's not just about showcasing real-world examples; it's about making your arguments relatable, tangible, and above all, memorable.

But hold on, before you dive headfirst into weaving in that intriguing case study you found, let’s chat about the art of introducing it. You see, dropping it in without context is like telling a joke without a punchline.

In this post, we'll guide you through the craft of smoothly and effectively introducing a case study into your essay, ensuring it's not just a detour but a meaningful journey for your readers. So, are you ready to give your essay that extra oomph?

Why Use Case Studies in Essays

You know those moments when you're explaining a theory or a concept, and you see those blank stares? Yup, we’ve all been there. That’s where real-world examples come into play. By weaving a case study into your essay, you're essentially turning on a light in a dim room. Suddenly, that complex theory has color, depth, and context. It's no longer just words on paper; it's a story, a lesson, a real-world incident that breathes life into your arguments.

And let's talk about the brownie points. When you toss a well-researched case study into the mix, it's like handing your readers proof that you've rolled up your sleeves and delved deep into your subject. It's a signal: you're not just skimming the surface; you're diving into the depths, bringing out treasures of knowledge.

Lastly, an apt case study is like the secret sauce to winning trust. Readers lean in, believing in your words, connecting with your narrative. It’s not just about flashing your research chops; it’s about creating a bond, engaging them, making them think, "Hey, this writer really knows their stuff!"

In a nutshell? Case studies? They're your essay's best friend.

Choosing the Right Case Study

Before you jump onto the Internet's vast ocean and fish out the first case study that sorta-kinda fits, let’s have a quick heart-to-heart. Not all case studies are created equal. And while it might be tempting to pick that dramatic, headline-grabbing one, it's essential to remember a few golden rules.

Firstly, it's all about alignment. Think of your essay as a puzzle. Every piece, every argument, every citation should fit just right. Your chosen case study? It's that central piece, setting the tone, connecting dots. So, make sure it's directly related to your topic. No square pegs in round holes, okay?

Next, reputation is everything. Dive into journals, accredited institutions, and renowned publications. Trustworthy sources not only boost your essay's credibility but save you from those cringe-worthy moments when someone points out a glaring error or bias in your chosen study.

Quick tip from the pros : Some case studies are like that popular song on the radio - overplayed and heard by everyone. Unless you’re bringing a fresh, unheard angle or a unique perspective to the table, steer clear of the overly popular ones. It's always more impressive to introduce your readers to a gem they haven't encountered before.

Introducing a Case Study: The Art of the Hook

Picture this : You're at a party, and someone starts a story with, "You won't believe what happened to me yesterday!" Chances are, you're all ears. That's the power of a good essay hook . Now, let's bring that energy to your essay!

Starting with a compelling fact or statement is your ticket to gripping your readers. Imagine leading with, "In a village where electricity was once a dream, solar panels changed everything." Instantly, your readers are curious. They want to know more about this village, the change, the story behind it all.

Once you've got their attention, lay down the problem. Paint a picture of the challenges, the obstacles, the scenario before the solution came into play. This sets the stage for your case study. By presenting the problem, you're essentially saying, "Hey, here's a situation. Stick around to see how it unraveled."

Quick Checklist: Crafting That Perfect Hook

  • Relevance : Ensure it ties back to your main essay topic.
  • Emotion : Strike a chord, whether it's curiosity, empathy, or even surprise.
  • Simplicity : Keep it straightforward. No need for jargon or over-the-top language.
  • Authenticity : Stay true to the essence of your case study. No embellishing facts!

Remember, the aim is to draw readers in, making them eager to delve into the heart of your case study. With a killer hook, you're not just starting an essay; you're beginning a journey they'll want to join.

MLA Citation: Giving Credit Where It's Due

Alright, let's chat about something we often overlook in our writing excitement: citation. I get it; it may not be the most thrilling part of essay writing, but think of it as the unsung hero, quietly ensuring your work stands tall with authenticity and respect.

First off, why the fuss about proper citation ? Well, citing your sources isn't just about avoiding the scary plagiarism monster. It's about acknowledging the hard work of others. It's a nod to fellow researchers, saying, "Hey, I see your efforts, and they've helped shape mine."

How to cite a case study in MLA format

Author's Last Name, First Name . "Title of the Case Study." Title of the Journal or Publication , vol. number, no. issue number, Year of Publication, page range.

For example: Smith, John. "Solar Power in Remote Villages." Energy Research Journal , vol. 5, no. 2, 2020, pp. 45-59.

If found online: Add the website name, the URL, and the access date at the end.

Smith, John. "Solar Power in Remote Villages." Energy Research Journal , vol. 5, no. 2, 2020, pp. 45-59. ERJ Online, www.erjonline123.com , Accessed 5 June 2022.

Avoid these mistakes

  • Forgetting the access date: Especially for online sources, this one's crucial!
  • Overlooking the punctuation: Note the periods, commas, and italics. They're all essential in MLA.

Quick Tip : If this feels a tad overwhelming, online citation tools are here to rescue! Platforms like EasyBib or Citation Machine can churn out MLA citations in a snap. Just feed in your source details, and voila!

In the end, think of citations as your essay's backstage crew, working behind the scenes to ensure your masterpiece gets a standing ovation.

Weaving the Case Study into Your Essay Narrative

Alright, so you've got this shiny case study and you’re all set to embed it into your essay. But here's the catch – it's not about just dropping it in; it's about stitching it seamlessly into your narrative fabric.

Make It Relevant : Think of your essay and case study as dance partners. They need to move in harmony. Ensure that your case study doesn't just stand alone; it should back up your arguments, add depth to them, or even offer a contrasting perspective. It’s about making the dance memorable.

Build a Logical Flow : Your readers are on a journey with you. Introduce your case study at a point where it feels natural, leading them from one idea to the next. It’s like following breadcrumbs; one leading to another, ensuring they never get lost in the woods.

Pacing is Key : Imagine watching a movie where the climax is revealed in the first ten minutes. Boring, right? Similarly, don’t spill all the beans about your case study right away. Tease a little, build intrigue, let it unfold gradually, keeping your readers hooked.

In essence, introducing a case study is an art. It’s not about making it fit, but about ensuring it belongs, enriching your essay's narrative and making it truly unforgettable.

Concluding Your Case Study Introduction

As you wrap up the intro to your case study, think of it as putting a bow on a gift. First, make a promise to your readers: assure them that venturing deeper into this case study will shed light, offer insights, or challenge perspectives. Maybe it's a promise of a lesson learned or an innovative solution unveiled. Then, seamlessly pave the way for what's next: your main arguments. Like a skilled guide, hint at the journey ahead, ensuring your readers are not only invested but also eager to embark on the exploration with you.

Final Thoughts & Wrap-up

Introducing a case study in an essay is much like mastering a dance step; at first, it might feel a tad awkward, maybe even a little forced. But with practice? Ah, that’s when the magic happens. Just as dancers become one with the music, with time, you'll find that blending case studies into your essays becomes second nature. The beauty lies in the richness they add, turning plain text into tapestries of real-life stories, insights, and revelations.

But what if you're pressed for time or feeling a tad overwhelmed? Here's a lifesaver: Writers Per Hour offers impeccable custom case study writing services tailored to your needs. They're the backstage crew ensuring your essay shines under the spotlight.

Now, with or without help, here's a challenge for you, dear readers: In your next essay, venture out, find that perfect case study, and weave it in. Experience the transformation it brings. And when you do, remember that every story you tell, every example you cite, adds depth and dimension to your narrative. Ready to give it a whirl?

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How to Reference in an Essay (9 Strategies of Top Students)

Are you feeling overwhelmed by referencing?

When you’re first asked to do referencing in an essay it can be hard to get your head around it. If it’s been a while since you were first taught how to reference, it can be intimidating to ask again how to do it!

I have so many students who consistently lose marks just because they didn’t get referencing right! They’re either embarrassed to ask for extra help or too lazy to learn how to solve the issues.

So, here’s a post that will help you solve the issues on your own.

Already think you’re good at referencing? No worries. This post goes through some surprising and advanced strategies for anyone to improve no matter what level you are at!

In this post I’m going to show you exactly how to reference in an essay. I’ll explain why we do it and I’ll show you 9 actionable tips on getting referencing right that I’m sure you will not have heard anywhere else!

The post is split into three parts:

  • What is a Reference and What is a Citation?
  • Why Reference? (4 Things you Should Know)
  • How to Reference (9 Strategies of Top Students)

If you think you’ve already got a good understanding of the basics, you can jump to our 9 Advanced Strategies section.

Part 1: What is a Reference and What is a Citation?

What is a citation.

An in-text mention of your source. A citation is a short mention of the source you got the information from, usually in the middle or end of a sentence in the body of your paragraph. It is usually abbreviated so as not to distract the reader too much from your own writing. Here’s two examples of citations. The first is in APA format. The second is in MLA format:

  • APA: Archaeological records trace the original human being to equatorial Africa about 250,000–350,000 years ago (Schlebusch & Jakobsson, 2018) .
  • MLA: Archaeological records trace the original human being to equatorial Africa about 250,000–350,000 years ago (Schlebusch and Jakobsson 1) .

In APA format, you’ve got the authors and year of publication listed. In MLA format, you’ve got the authors and page number listed. If you keep reading, I’ll give some more tips on formatting further down in this article.

And a Reference is:

What is a Reference?

A reference is the full details of a source that you list at the end of the article. For every citation (see above) there needs to be a corresponding reference at the end of the essay showing more details about that source. The idea is that the reader can see the source in-text (i.e. they can look at the citation) and if they want more information they can jump to the end of the page and find out exactly how to go about finding the source.

Here’s how you would go about referencing the Schlebusch and Jakobsson source in a list at the end of the essay. Again, I will show you how to do it in APA and MLA formats:

  • APA: Schlebusch, C. & Jakobsson, M. (2018). Tales of Human Migration, Admixture, and Selection in Africa. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics , 11 (33), 1–24.
  • MLA: Schlebusch, Carina and Mattias Jakobsson. “Tales of Human Migration, Admixture, and Selection in Africa.” Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics , vol. 11, no. 33, 2018, pp. 1–24.

In strategy 1 below I’ll show you the easiest and fool proof way to write these references perfectly every time.

One last quick note: sometimes we say ‘reference’ when we mean ‘citation’. That’s pretty normal. Just roll with the punches. It’s usually pretty easy to pick up on what our teacher means regardless of whether they use the word ‘reference’ or ‘citation’.

Part 2: Why Reference in an Essay? (4 Things you Should Know)

Referencing in an essay is important. By the time you start doing 200-level courses, you probably won’t pass the course unless you reference appropriately. So, the biggest answer to ‘why reference?’ is simple: Because you Have To!

Okay let’s be serious though … here’s the four top ‘real’ reasons to reference:

1. Referencing shows you Got an Expert’s Opinion

You can’t just write an essay on what you think you know. This is a huge mistake of beginning students. Instead this is what you need to do:

Top Tip: Essays at university are supposed to show off that you’ve learned new information by reading the opinions of experts.

Every time you place a citation in your paragraph, you’re showing that the information you’re presenting in that paragraph was provided to you by an expert. In other words, it means you consulted an expert’s opinion to build your knowledge.

If you have citations throughout the essay with links to a variety of different expert opinions, you’ll show your marker that you did actually genuinely look at what the experts said with an open mind and considered their ideas.

This will help you to grow your grades.

2. Referencing shows you read your Assigned Readings

Your teacher will most likely give you scholarly journal articles or book chapters to read for homework between classes. You might have even talked about those assigned readings in your seminars and tutorials.

Great! The assigned readings are very important to you.

You should definitely cite the assigned readings relevant to your essay topic in your evaluative essay (unless your teacher tells you not to). Why? I’ll explain below.

  • Firstly, the assigned readings were selected by your teacher because your teacher (you know, the person who’s going to mark your essay) believes they’re the best quality articles on the topic. Translation: your teacher gave you the best source you’re going to find. Make sure you use it!
  • Secondly, by citing the assigned readings you are showing your teacher that you have been paying attention throughout the course. You are showing your teacher that you have done your homework, read those assigned readings and paid attention to them. When my students submit an essay that has references to websites, blogs, wikis and magazines I get very frustrated. Why would you cite low quality non-expert sources like websites when I gave you the expert’s article!? Really, it frustrates me so, so much.

So, cite the assigned readings to show your teacher you read the scholarly articles your teacher gave to you. It’ll help you grow your marks.

3. Referencing deepens your Knowledge

Okay, so you understand that you need to use referencing to show you got experts’ opinions on the topic.

But there’s more to it than that. There’s actually a real benefit for your learning.

If you force yourself to cite two expert sources per paragraph, you’re actually forcing yourself to get two separate pieces of expert knowledge. This will deepen your knowledge!

So, don’t treat referencing like a vanity exercise to help you gain more marks. Actually view it as an opportunity to develop deeper understandings of the topic!

When you read expert sources, aim to pick up on some new gems of knowledge that you can discuss in your essays. Some things you should look out for when finding sources to reference:

  • Examples that link ideas to real life. Do the experts provide real-life examples that you can mention in your essay?
  • Facts and figures. Usually experts have conducted research on a topic and provide you with facts and figures from their research. Use those facts and figures to deepen your essay!
  • Short Quotes. Did your source say something in a really interesting, concise or surprising way? Great! You can quote that source in your essay .
  • New Perspectives. Your source might give you another perspective, angle or piece of information that you can add to your paragraph so that it’s a deep, detailed and interesting paragraph.

So, the reason we ask you to reference is at the end of the day because it’s good for you: it helps you learn!

4. Referencing backs up your Claims

You might think you already know a ton of information about the topic and be ready to share your mountains of knowledge with your teacher. Great!

So, should you still reference?

Yes. Definitely.

You need to show that you’re not the only person with your opinion. You need to ‘stand on the shoulders of giants.’ Show what other sources have said about your points to prove that experts agree with you.

You should be saying: this is my opinion and it’s based on facts, expert opinions and deep, close scrutiny of all the arguments that exist out there .

If you make a claim that no one else has made, your teacher is going to be like “Have you even been reading the evidence on this topic?” The answer, if there are no citations is likely: No. You haven’t.

Even if you totally disagree with the experts, you still need to say what their opinions are! You’ll need to say: “This is the experts’ opinions. And this is why I disagree.”

So, yes, you need to reference to back up every claim. Try to reference twice in every paragraph to achieve this.

Part 3: Strategies for How to Reference in an Essay (9 Strategies of Top Students)

Let’s get going with our top strategies for how to reference in an essay! These are strategies that you probably haven’t heard elsewhere. They work for everyone – from beginner to advanced! Let’s get started:

1. Print out your Reference Style Cheat Sheet

Referencing is hard and very specific. You need to know where to place your italics, where the commas go and whether to use an initial for full name for an author.

There are so many details to get right.

And here’s the bad news: The automated referencing apps and websites nearly always get it wrong! They tell you they can generate the citation for you. The fact of the matter is: they can’t!

Here’s the best way to get referencing right: Download a referencing cheat sheet and have it by your side while writing your essay.

Your assignment outline should tell you what type of referencing you should use. Different styles include: APA Style, MLA Style, Chicago Style, Harvard Style, Vancouver Style … and many more!

You need to find out which style you need to use and download your cheat sheet. You can jump onto google to find a cheat sheet by typing in the google bar:

how to reference in an essay

Download a pdf version of the referencing style cheat sheet, print it out, and place it on your pinboard or by your side when writing your essay.

2. Only cite Experts

There are good and bad sources to cite in an essay.

You should only cite sources written, critiqued and edited by experts. This shows that you have got the skill of finding information that is authoritative. You haven’t just used information that any old person popped up on their blog. You haven’t just gotten information from your local newspaper. Instead, you got information from the person who is an absolute expert on the topic.

Here’s an infographic listing sources that you should and shouldn’t cite. Feel free to share this infographic on social media, with your teachers and your friends:

good and bad sources infographic

3. Always use Google Scholar

Always. Use. Google. Scholar.

Ten years ago students only had their online university search database to find articles. Those university databases suck. They rarely find the best quality sources and there’s always a big mix of completely irrelevant sources mixed in there.

Google Scholar is better at finding the sources you want. That’s because it looks through the whole article abstract and analyses it to see if it’s relevant to your search keywords. By contrast, most university search databases rely only on the titles of articles.

Use the power of the best quality search engine in the world to find scholarly sources .

Note: Google and Google Scholar are different search engines.

To use Google Scholar, go to: https://scholar.google.com

Then, search on google scholar using keywords. I’m going to search keywords for an essay on the topic: “What are the traits of a good nurse?”

how to reference in an essay

If you really like the idea of that first source, I recommend copying the title and trying your University online search database. Your university may give you free access.

4. Cite at least 50% sources you found on your Own Research

Okay, so I’ve told you that you should cite both assigned readings and readings you find from Google Scholar.

Here’s the ideal mix of assigned sources and sources that you found yourself: 50/50.

Your teacher will want to see that you can use both assigned readings and do your own additional research to write a top essay . This shows you’ve got great research skills but also pay attention to what is provided in class.

I recommend that you start with the assigned readings and try to get as much information out of them, then find your own additional sources beyond that using Google Scholar.

So, if your essay has 10 citations, a good mix is 5 assigned readings and 5 readings you found by yourself.

5. Cite Newer Sources

As a general rule, the newer the source the better .

The best rule of thumb that most teachers follow is that you should aim to mostly cite sources from the past 10 years . I usually accept sources from the past 15 years when marking essays.

However, sometimes you have a really great source that’s 20, 30 or 40 years old. You should only cite these sources if they’re what we call ‘seminal texts’. A seminal text is one that was written by an absolute giant in your field and revolutionized the subject.

Here’s some examples of seminal authors whose old articles you would be able to cite despite the fact that they’re old:

  • Education: Vygotsky, Friere, Piaget
  • Sociology: Weber, Marx, C. Wright Mills
  • Psychology: Freud, Rogers, Jung

Even if I cite seminal authors, I always aim for at least 80% of my sources to have been written in the past 10 years.

6. Reference twice per Paragraph

How much should you reference?

Here’s a good strategy: Provide two citations in every paragraph in the body of the essay.

It’s not compulsory to reference in the introduction and conclusion . However, in all the other paragraphs, aim for two citations.

Let’s go over the key strategies for achieving this:

  • These two citations should be to different sources, not the same sources twice;
  • Two citations per paragraph shows your points are backed up by not one, but two expert sources;
  • Place one citation in the first half of the paragraph and one in the second half. This will indicate to your marker that all the points in the whole paragraph are backed up by your citations.

This is a good rule of thumb for you when you’re not sure when and how often to reference. When you get more confident with your referencing, you can mix this up a little.

7. The sum total of your sources should be minimum 1 per 150 words

You can, of course, cite one source more than once throughout the essay. You might cite the same source in the second, fourth and fifth paragraphs. That’s okay.

Essay Writing Tip: Provide one unique citation in the reference list for every 150 words in the essay.

But, you don’t want your whole essay to be based on a narrow range of sources. You want your marker to see that you have consulted multiple sources to get a wide range of information on the topic. Your marker wants to know that you’ve seen a range of different opinions when coming to your conclusions.

When you get to the end of your essay, check to see how many sources are listed in the end-text reference list. A good rule of thumb is 1 source listed in the reference list per 150 words. Here’s how that breaks down by essay size:

  • 1500 word essay: 10 sources (or more) listed in the reference list
  • 2000 word essay: 13 sources (or more) listed in the reference list
  • 3000 word essay: 20 sources (or more) listed in the reference list
  • 5000 word essay: 33 sources (or more) listed in the reference list

8. Instantly improve your Reference List with these Three Tips

Here’s two things you can do to instantly improve your reference list. It takes less than 20 seconds and gives your reference list a strong professional finish:

a) Ensure the font size and style are the same

You will usually find that your whole reference list ends up being in different font sizes and styles. This is because you tend to copy and paste the titles and names in the citations from other sources. If you submit the reference list with font sizes and styles that are not the same as the rest of the essay, the piece looks really unprofessional.

So, quickly highlight the whole reference list and change its font to the same font size and style as the rest of your essay. The screencast at the end of Step 8 walks you through this if you need a hand!

b) List your sources in alphabetical order.

Nearly every referencing style insists that references be listed in alphabetical order. It’s a simple thing to do before submitting and makes the piece look far more professional.

If you’re using Microsoft Word, simply highlight your whole reference list and click the A>Z button in the toolbar. If you can’t see it, you need to be under the ‘home’ tab (circled below):

how to reference in an essay

You’ve probably never heard of a hanging indent. It’s a style where the second line of the reference list is indented further from the left-hand side of the page than the first line. It’s a strategy that’s usually used in reference lists provided in professional publications.

If you use the hanging indent, your reference list will look far more professional.

Here’s a quick video of me doing it for you:

9. Do one special edit especially for Referencing Style

The top students edit their essays three to five times spaced out over a week or more before submitting. One of those edits should be specifically for ensuring your reference list adheres to the referencing style that your teacher requires.

To do this, I recommend you get that cheat sheet printout that I mentioned in Step 1 and have it by your side while you read through the piece. Pay special attention to the use of commas, capital letters, brackets and page numbers for all citations. Also pay attention to the reference list: correct formatting of the reference list can be the difference between getting the top mark in the class and the fifth mark in the class. At the higher end of the marking range, things get competitive and formatting of the reference list counts.

A Quick Summary of the 9 Top Strategies…

How to reference in an essay

Follow the rules of your referencing style guide (and that cheat sheet I recommended!) and use the top 9 tips above to improve your referencing and get top marks. Not only will your referencing look more professional, you’ll probably increase the quality of the content of your piece as well when you follow these tips!

Here’s a final summary of the 9 top tips:

Strategies for How to Reference in an Essay (9 Strategies of Top Students)

  • Print out your Reference Style Cheat Sheet
  • Only cite Experts
  • Always use Google Scholar
  • Cite at least 50% sources you found on your Own Research
  • Cite Newer Sources
  • Reference twice per Paragraph
  • The sum total of your sources should be minimum 1 per 150 words
  • Instantly improve your Reference List with these Three Tips
  • Do one special edit especially for Referencing Style

Chris

Chris Drew (PhD)

Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]

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Generate accurate APA citations for free

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  • How to cite a court case in APA Style

How to Cite Court Cases in APA Style | Format & Examples

Published on February 4, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on December 27, 2023.

Legal citations (e.g. court cases, laws ) in APA Style look somewhat different from other APA citations. They generally don’t list authors, and abbreviations are used to make them more concise.

Citations for court cases refer to reporters , the publications in which cases are documented. To cite a court case or decision, list the name of the case, the volume and abbreviated name of the reporter, the page number, the name of the court, the year, and optionally the URL.

The case name is italicized in the in-text citation, but not in the reference list. In the reference, specify only a single page number—the page where the coverage of that case begins—instead of a full page range.

You can easily create citations for court cases using our free  APA Citation Generator .

Table of contents

Abbreviations in apa legal citations, citing federal court cases, citing state court cases, frequently asked questions about apa style citations.

Most words are abbreviated in legal citations. This means that a very large number of standard abbreviations exist. Consult resources like this page to familiarize yourself with common abbreviations.

Pages where case information is found online also tend to show the correct form of citation for the case in question. You can check these to make sure you use the right abbreviations.

Note that “v.” (for “versus”) is used between the names of the parties in a case title, though APA recommends “vs.” outside the context of legal citations.

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The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:

  • Missing commas and periods
  • Incorrect usage of “et al.”
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how to reference a case study in an essay

Federal court cases are those that take place at the national level in the U.S.—in the U.S. Supreme Court, a circuit court, or a district court.

U.S. Supreme Court

The Supreme Court is the highest federal court, and its decisions are reported in the United States Reports (abbreviated to “U.S.” in the reference). You don’t need to specify the court in parentheses in this case, since the name of the reporter already makes this clear.

Circuit court

Decisions from the U.S. circuit courts are reported in the Federal Reporter . This reporter has appeared in three series; the first is abbreviated as “F.”, the second as “F.2d”, and the third and current series as “F.3d”.

There are 13 circuit courts, so specify which one you’re citing in the parentheses, e.g. “9th Cir.”

District court

Decisions from the U.S. district courts are reported in the Federal Supplements.  Like the Federal Reporter , it has appeared in three series, abbreviated as “F. Supp.”, “F. Supp. 2d”, and “F. Supp. 3d”.

There are many different district courts, so specify which one is being cited in the parentheses, e.g. “N.D. Ohio.”

State courts are those that operate in specific states rather than federally. The two kinds of state court that are commonly cited are supreme courts and appellate courts. They are both cited in a similar format.

In APA Style , when you’re citing a recent court case that has not yet been reported in print and thus doesn’t have a specific page number, include a series of three underscores (___) where the page number would usually appear:

With APA legal citations, it’s recommended to cite all the reporters (publications reporting cases) in which a court case appears. To cite multiple reporters, just separate them with commas in your reference entry . This is called parallel citation .

Don’t repeat the name of the case, court, or year; just list the volume, reporter, and page number for each citation. For example:

No, including a URL is optional in APA Style reference entries for legal sources (e.g. court cases , laws ). It can be useful to do so to aid the reader in retrieving the source, but it’s not required, since the other information included should be enough to locate it.

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Caulfield, J. (2023, December 27). How to Cite Court Cases in APA Style | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 15, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-examples/court-case/

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Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Assignments

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Analyzing a Scholarly Journal Article
  • Group Presentations
  • Dealing with Nervousness
  • Using Visual Aids
  • Grading Someone Else's Paper
  • Types of Structured Group Activities
  • Group Project Survival Skills
  • Leading a Class Discussion
  • Multiple Book Review Essay
  • Reviewing Collected Works
  • Writing a Case Analysis Paper
  • Writing a Case Study
  • About Informed Consent
  • Writing Field Notes
  • Writing a Policy Memo
  • Writing a Reflective Paper
  • Writing a Research Proposal
  • Generative AI and Writing
  • Acknowledgments

A case study research paper examines a person, place, event, condition, phenomenon, or other type of subject of analysis in order to extrapolate  key themes and results that help predict future trends, illuminate previously hidden issues that can be applied to practice, and/or provide a means for understanding an important research problem with greater clarity. A case study research paper usually examines a single subject of analysis, but case study papers can also be designed as a comparative investigation that shows relationships between two or more subjects. The methods used to study a case can rest within a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method investigative paradigm.

Case Studies. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010 ; “What is a Case Study?” In Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London: SAGE, 2010.

How to Approach Writing a Case Study Research Paper

General information about how to choose a topic to investigate can be found under the " Choosing a Research Problem " tab in the Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper writing guide. Review this page because it may help you identify a subject of analysis that can be investigated using a case study design.

However, identifying a case to investigate involves more than choosing the research problem . A case study encompasses a problem contextualized around the application of in-depth analysis, interpretation, and discussion, often resulting in specific recommendations for action or for improving existing conditions. As Seawright and Gerring note, practical considerations such as time and access to information can influence case selection, but these issues should not be the sole factors used in describing the methodological justification for identifying a particular case to study. Given this, selecting a case includes considering the following:

  • The case represents an unusual or atypical example of a research problem that requires more in-depth analysis? Cases often represent a topic that rests on the fringes of prior investigations because the case may provide new ways of understanding the research problem. For example, if the research problem is to identify strategies to improve policies that support girl's access to secondary education in predominantly Muslim nations, you could consider using Azerbaijan as a case study rather than selecting a more obvious nation in the Middle East. Doing so may reveal important new insights into recommending how governments in other predominantly Muslim nations can formulate policies that support improved access to education for girls.
  • The case provides important insight or illuminate a previously hidden problem? In-depth analysis of a case can be based on the hypothesis that the case study will reveal trends or issues that have not been exposed in prior research or will reveal new and important implications for practice. For example, anecdotal evidence may suggest drug use among homeless veterans is related to their patterns of travel throughout the day. Assuming prior studies have not looked at individual travel choices as a way to study access to illicit drug use, a case study that observes a homeless veteran could reveal how issues of personal mobility choices facilitate regular access to illicit drugs. Note that it is important to conduct a thorough literature review to ensure that your assumption about the need to reveal new insights or previously hidden problems is valid and evidence-based.
  • The case challenges and offers a counter-point to prevailing assumptions? Over time, research on any given topic can fall into a trap of developing assumptions based on outdated studies that are still applied to new or changing conditions or the idea that something should simply be accepted as "common sense," even though the issue has not been thoroughly tested in current practice. A case study analysis may offer an opportunity to gather evidence that challenges prevailing assumptions about a research problem and provide a new set of recommendations applied to practice that have not been tested previously. For example, perhaps there has been a long practice among scholars to apply a particular theory in explaining the relationship between two subjects of analysis. Your case could challenge this assumption by applying an innovative theoretical framework [perhaps borrowed from another discipline] to explore whether this approach offers new ways of understanding the research problem. Taking a contrarian stance is one of the most important ways that new knowledge and understanding develops from existing literature.
  • The case provides an opportunity to pursue action leading to the resolution of a problem? Another way to think about choosing a case to study is to consider how the results from investigating a particular case may result in findings that reveal ways in which to resolve an existing or emerging problem. For example, studying the case of an unforeseen incident, such as a fatal accident at a railroad crossing, can reveal hidden issues that could be applied to preventative measures that contribute to reducing the chance of accidents in the future. In this example, a case study investigating the accident could lead to a better understanding of where to strategically locate additional signals at other railroad crossings so as to better warn drivers of an approaching train, particularly when visibility is hindered by heavy rain, fog, or at night.
  • The case offers a new direction in future research? A case study can be used as a tool for an exploratory investigation that highlights the need for further research about the problem. A case can be used when there are few studies that help predict an outcome or that establish a clear understanding about how best to proceed in addressing a problem. For example, after conducting a thorough literature review [very important!], you discover that little research exists showing the ways in which women contribute to promoting water conservation in rural communities of east central Africa. A case study of how women contribute to saving water in a rural village of Uganda can lay the foundation for understanding the need for more thorough research that documents how women in their roles as cooks and family caregivers think about water as a valuable resource within their community. This example of a case study could also point to the need for scholars to build new theoretical frameworks around the topic [e.g., applying feminist theories of work and family to the issue of water conservation].

Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. “Building Theories from Case Study Research.” Academy of Management Review 14 (October 1989): 532-550; Emmel, Nick. Sampling and Choosing Cases in Qualitative Research: A Realist Approach . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2013; Gerring, John. “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?” American Political Science Review 98 (May 2004): 341-354; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Seawright, Jason and John Gerring. "Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research." Political Research Quarterly 61 (June 2008): 294-308.

Structure and Writing Style

The purpose of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case study is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so doing, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies. In applied social sciences disciplines [e.g., education, social work, public administration, etc.], case studies may also be used to reveal best practices, highlight key programs, or investigate interesting aspects of professional work.

In general, the structure of a case study research paper is not all that different from a standard college-level research paper. However, there are subtle differences you should be aware of. Here are the key elements to organizing and writing a case study research paper.

I.  Introduction

As with any research paper, your introduction should serve as a roadmap for your readers to ascertain the scope and purpose of your study . The introduction to a case study research paper, however, should not only describe the research problem and its significance, but you should also succinctly describe why the case is being used and how it relates to addressing the problem. The two elements should be linked. With this in mind, a good introduction answers these four questions:

  • What is being studied? Describe the research problem and describe the subject of analysis [the case] you have chosen to address the problem. Explain how they are linked and what elements of the case will help to expand knowledge and understanding about the problem.
  • Why is this topic important to investigate? Describe the significance of the research problem and state why a case study design and the subject of analysis that the paper is designed around is appropriate in addressing the problem.
  • What did we know about this topic before I did this study? Provide background that helps lead the reader into the more in-depth literature review to follow. If applicable, summarize prior case study research applied to the research problem and why it fails to adequately address the problem. Describe why your case will be useful. If no prior case studies have been used to address the research problem, explain why you have selected this subject of analysis.
  • How will this study advance new knowledge or new ways of understanding? Explain why your case study will be suitable in helping to expand knowledge and understanding about the research problem.

Each of these questions should be addressed in no more than a few paragraphs. Exceptions to this can be when you are addressing a complex research problem or subject of analysis that requires more in-depth background information.

II.  Literature Review

The literature review for a case study research paper is generally structured the same as it is for any college-level research paper. The difference, however, is that the literature review is focused on providing background information and  enabling historical interpretation of the subject of analysis in relation to the research problem the case is intended to address . This includes synthesizing studies that help to:

  • Place relevant works in the context of their contribution to understanding the case study being investigated . This would involve summarizing studies that have used a similar subject of analysis to investigate the research problem. If there is literature using the same or a very similar case to study, you need to explain why duplicating past research is important [e.g., conditions have changed; prior studies were conducted long ago, etc.].
  • Describe the relationship each work has to the others under consideration that informs the reader why this case is applicable . Your literature review should include a description of any works that support using the case to investigate the research problem and the underlying research questions.
  • Identify new ways to interpret prior research using the case study . If applicable, review any research that has examined the research problem using a different research design. Explain how your use of a case study design may reveal new knowledge or a new perspective or that can redirect research in an important new direction.
  • Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies . This refers to synthesizing any literature that points to unresolved issues of concern about the research problem and describing how the subject of analysis that forms the case study can help resolve these existing contradictions.
  • Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research . Your review should examine any literature that lays a foundation for understanding why your case study design and the subject of analysis around which you have designed your study may reveal a new way of approaching the research problem or offer a perspective that points to the need for additional research.
  • Expose any gaps that exist in the literature that the case study could help to fill . Summarize any literature that not only shows how your subject of analysis contributes to understanding the research problem, but how your case contributes to a new way of understanding the problem that prior research has failed to do.
  • Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important!] . Collectively, your literature review should always place your case study within the larger domain of prior research about the problem. The overarching purpose of reviewing pertinent literature in a case study paper is to demonstrate that you have thoroughly identified and synthesized prior studies in relation to explaining the relevance of the case in addressing the research problem.

III.  Method

In this section, you explain why you selected a particular case [i.e., subject of analysis] and the strategy you used to identify and ultimately decide that your case was appropriate in addressing the research problem. The way you describe the methods used varies depending on the type of subject of analysis that constitutes your case study.

If your subject of analysis is an incident or event . In the social and behavioral sciences, the event or incident that represents the case to be studied is usually bounded by time and place, with a clear beginning and end and with an identifiable location or position relative to its surroundings. The subject of analysis can be a rare or critical event or it can focus on a typical or regular event. The purpose of studying a rare event is to illuminate new ways of thinking about the broader research problem or to test a hypothesis. Critical incident case studies must describe the method by which you identified the event and explain the process by which you determined the validity of this case to inform broader perspectives about the research problem or to reveal new findings. However, the event does not have to be a rare or uniquely significant to support new thinking about the research problem or to challenge an existing hypothesis. For example, Walo, Bull, and Breen conducted a case study to identify and evaluate the direct and indirect economic benefits and costs of a local sports event in the City of Lismore, New South Wales, Australia. The purpose of their study was to provide new insights from measuring the impact of a typical local sports event that prior studies could not measure well because they focused on large "mega-events." Whether the event is rare or not, the methods section should include an explanation of the following characteristics of the event: a) when did it take place; b) what were the underlying circumstances leading to the event; and, c) what were the consequences of the event in relation to the research problem.

If your subject of analysis is a person. Explain why you selected this particular individual to be studied and describe what experiences they have had that provide an opportunity to advance new understandings about the research problem. Mention any background about this person which might help the reader understand the significance of their experiences that make them worthy of study. This includes describing the relationships this person has had with other people, institutions, and/or events that support using them as the subject for a case study research paper. It is particularly important to differentiate the person as the subject of analysis from others and to succinctly explain how the person relates to examining the research problem [e.g., why is one politician in a particular local election used to show an increase in voter turnout from any other candidate running in the election]. Note that these issues apply to a specific group of people used as a case study unit of analysis [e.g., a classroom of students].

If your subject of analysis is a place. In general, a case study that investigates a place suggests a subject of analysis that is unique or special in some way and that this uniqueness can be used to build new understanding or knowledge about the research problem. A case study of a place must not only describe its various attributes relevant to the research problem [e.g., physical, social, historical, cultural, economic, political], but you must state the method by which you determined that this place will illuminate new understandings about the research problem. It is also important to articulate why a particular place as the case for study is being used if similar places also exist [i.e., if you are studying patterns of homeless encampments of veterans in open spaces, explain why you are studying Echo Park in Los Angeles rather than Griffith Park?]. If applicable, describe what type of human activity involving this place makes it a good choice to study [e.g., prior research suggests Echo Park has more homeless veterans].

If your subject of analysis is a phenomenon. A phenomenon refers to a fact, occurrence, or circumstance that can be studied or observed but with the cause or explanation to be in question. In this sense, a phenomenon that forms your subject of analysis can encompass anything that can be observed or presumed to exist but is not fully understood. In the social and behavioral sciences, the case usually focuses on human interaction within a complex physical, social, economic, cultural, or political system. For example, the phenomenon could be the observation that many vehicles used by ISIS fighters are small trucks with English language advertisements on them. The research problem could be that ISIS fighters are difficult to combat because they are highly mobile. The research questions could be how and by what means are these vehicles used by ISIS being supplied to the militants and how might supply lines to these vehicles be cut off? How might knowing the suppliers of these trucks reveal larger networks of collaborators and financial support? A case study of a phenomenon most often encompasses an in-depth analysis of a cause and effect that is grounded in an interactive relationship between people and their environment in some way.

NOTE:   The choice of the case or set of cases to study cannot appear random. Evidence that supports the method by which you identified and chose your subject of analysis should clearly support investigation of the research problem and linked to key findings from your literature review. Be sure to cite any studies that helped you determine that the case you chose was appropriate for examining the problem.

IV.  Discussion

The main elements of your discussion section are generally the same as any research paper, but centered around interpreting and drawing conclusions about the key findings from your analysis of the case study. Note that a general social sciences research paper may contain a separate section to report findings. However, in a paper designed around a case study, it is common to combine a description of the results with the discussion about their implications. The objectives of your discussion section should include the following:

Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings Briefly reiterate the research problem you are investigating and explain why the subject of analysis around which you designed the case study were used. You should then describe the findings revealed from your study of the case using direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. Highlight any findings that were unexpected or especially profound.

Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important Systematically explain the meaning of your case study findings and why you believe they are important. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important or surprising finding first, then systematically review each finding. Be sure to thoroughly extrapolate what your analysis of the case can tell the reader about situations or conditions beyond the actual case that was studied while, at the same time, being careful not to misconstrue or conflate a finding that undermines the external validity of your conclusions.

Relate the Findings to Similar Studies No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. The discussion section should relate your case study results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for choosing your subject of analysis. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your case study design and the subject of analysis differs from prior research about the topic.

Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings Remember that the purpose of social science research is to discover and not to prove. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations revealed by the case study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Be alert to what the in-depth analysis of the case may reveal about the research problem, including offering a contrarian perspective to what scholars have stated in prior research if that is how the findings can be interpreted from your case.

Acknowledge the Study's Limitations You can state the study's limitations in the conclusion section of your paper but describing the limitations of your subject of analysis in the discussion section provides an opportunity to identify the limitations and explain why they are not significant. This part of the discussion section should also note any unanswered questions or issues your case study could not address. More detailed information about how to document any limitations to your research can be found here .

Suggest Areas for Further Research Although your case study may offer important insights about the research problem, there are likely additional questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or findings that unexpectedly revealed themselves as a result of your in-depth analysis of the case. Be sure that the recommendations for further research are linked to the research problem and that you explain why your recommendations are valid in other contexts and based on the original assumptions of your study.

V.  Conclusion

As with any research paper, you should summarize your conclusion in clear, simple language; emphasize how the findings from your case study differs from or supports prior research and why. Do not simply reiterate the discussion section. Provide a synthesis of key findings presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem. If you haven't already done so in the discussion section, be sure to document the limitations of your case study and any need for further research.

The function of your paper's conclusion is to: 1) reiterate the main argument supported by the findings from your case study; 2) state clearly the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem using a case study design in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found from reviewing the literature; and, 3) provide a place to persuasively and succinctly restate the significance of your research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with in-depth information about the topic.

Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is appropriate:

  • If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize these points for your reader.
  • If prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the conclusion of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance.
  • Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration of the case study's findings that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction or within a new context that emerges from your case study findings.

Note that, depending on the discipline you are writing in or the preferences of your professor, the concluding paragraph may contain your final reflections on the evidence presented as it applies to practice or on the essay's central research problem. However, the nature of being introspective about the subject of analysis you have investigated will depend on whether you are explicitly asked to express your observations in this way.

Problems to Avoid

Overgeneralization One of the goals of a case study is to lay a foundation for understanding broader trends and issues applied to similar circumstances. However, be careful when drawing conclusions from your case study. They must be evidence-based and grounded in the results of the study; otherwise, it is merely speculation. Looking at a prior example, it would be incorrect to state that a factor in improving girls access to education in Azerbaijan and the policy implications this may have for improving access in other Muslim nations is due to girls access to social media if there is no documentary evidence from your case study to indicate this. There may be anecdotal evidence that retention rates were better for girls who were engaged with social media, but this observation would only point to the need for further research and would not be a definitive finding if this was not a part of your original research agenda.

Failure to Document Limitations No case is going to reveal all that needs to be understood about a research problem. Therefore, just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study , you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis. For example, the case of studying how women conceptualize the need for water conservation in a village in Uganda could have limited application in other cultural contexts or in areas where fresh water from rivers or lakes is plentiful and, therefore, conservation is understood more in terms of managing access rather than preserving access to a scarce resource.

Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings. If you do not, your reader may question the validity of your analysis, particularly if you failed to document an obvious outcome from your case study research. For example, in the case of studying the accident at the railroad crossing to evaluate where and what types of warning signals should be located, you failed to take into consideration speed limit signage as well as warning signals. When designing your case study, be sure you have thoroughly addressed all aspects of the problem and do not leave gaps in your analysis that leave the reader questioning the results.

Case Studies. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Gerring, John. Case Study Research: Principles and Practices . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007; Merriam, Sharan B. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education . Rev. ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1998; Miller, Lisa L. “The Use of Case Studies in Law and Social Science Research.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 14 (2018): TBD; Mills, Albert J., Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Putney, LeAnn Grogan. "Case Study." In Encyclopedia of Research Design , Neil J. Salkind, editor. (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010), pp. 116-120; Simons, Helen. Case Study Research in Practice . London: SAGE Publications, 2009;  Kratochwill,  Thomas R. and Joel R. Levin, editors. Single-Case Research Design and Analysis: New Development for Psychology and Education .  Hilldsale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992; Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London : SAGE, 2010; Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods . 6th edition. Los Angeles, CA, SAGE Publications, 2014; Walo, Maree, Adrian Bull, and Helen Breen. “Achieving Economic Benefits at Local Events: A Case Study of a Local Sports Event.” Festival Management and Event Tourism 4 (1996): 95-106.

Writing Tip

At Least Five Misconceptions about Case Study Research

Social science case studies are often perceived as limited in their ability to create new knowledge because they are not randomly selected and findings cannot be generalized to larger populations. Flyvbjerg examines five misunderstandings about case study research and systematically "corrects" each one. To quote, these are:

Misunderstanding 1 :  General, theoretical [context-independent] knowledge is more valuable than concrete, practical [context-dependent] knowledge. Misunderstanding 2 :  One cannot generalize on the basis of an individual case; therefore, the case study cannot contribute to scientific development. Misunderstanding 3 :  The case study is most useful for generating hypotheses; that is, in the first stage of a total research process, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building. Misunderstanding 4 :  The case study contains a bias toward verification, that is, a tendency to confirm the researcher’s preconceived notions. Misunderstanding 5 :  It is often difficult to summarize and develop general propositions and theories on the basis of specific case studies [p. 221].

While writing your paper, think introspectively about how you addressed these misconceptions because to do so can help you strengthen the validity and reliability of your research by clarifying issues of case selection, the testing and challenging of existing assumptions, the interpretation of key findings, and the summation of case outcomes. Think of a case study research paper as a complete, in-depth narrative about the specific properties and key characteristics of your subject of analysis applied to the research problem.

Flyvbjerg, Bent. “Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research.” Qualitative Inquiry 12 (April 2006): 219-245.

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How to Cite a Case Study: Different Styles

November 20, 2023

Properly citing case studies plays a crucial role in academic writing for several reasons. Firstly, citing case studies demonstrates the credibility and reliability of your arguments and research. By referencing the original sources, you show that you have conducted thorough research and have used reputable and authoritative information to support your claims.

Secondly, citing case studies allows readers to further explore the topic and verify the information provided. It enables them to locate and read the full case study if they wish to delve deeper into the details and findings. This promotes transparency and fosters a more comprehensive understanding of the subject matter.

Finally, citing case studies acknowledges the contributions of the original authors and researchers. By giving proper credit, you adhere to ethical standards of academic integrity and avoid plagiarism. It also ensures that the individuals responsible for the case study receive recognition for their work.

In summary, citing case studies is essential in academic writing to enhance credibility, facilitate further exploration, and acknowledge the original authors’ contributions.

Basic Guidelines for Citing a Case Study

When citing a case study in your essay, it is important to follow some basic guidelines to ensure accuracy and consistency. Here are the key guidelines to keep in mind:

  • Identify the case study: Start by providing the full title of the case study, along with the names of the authors or researchers involved. Include any relevant publication information, such as the name of the journal or book in which the case study is published.
  • Format the citation style: Depending on the citation style required by your academic institution or professor, format your case study citation accordingly. Common citation styles include APA, MLA, Chicago, and Harvard. Each style has specific rules for formatting and referencing case studies, so familiarize yourself with the requirements of the chosen style.
  • Include the case study publication date: In addition to the authors’ names and title, mention the date on which the case study was published. This provides important chronological context for your readers and allows them to assess the relevance and currency of the information presented.
  • Provide a direct link or source: Whenever possible, include a direct link or source to the case study. This could be a URL to an online version of the case study, a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), or the volume and page numbers if it is published in a journal or book. This helps readers locate the case study easily and access it for further reading.

By adhering to these basic guidelines, you can ensure that your case study citations are accurate, consistent, and accessible for your readers. Remember to consult the specific guidelines of your chosen citation style to ensure complete adherence.

Citing a Case Study in APA Format

When citing a case study in APA format, follow these guidelines to accurately reference the source:

  • Author(s) of the case study: Include the last name(s) and initials of the author(s) of the case study. If there are multiple authors, separate their names with commas and use an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name.
  • Year of publication: Provide the year the case study was published in parentheses.
  • Title of the case study: Use sentence case capitalization for the title. Only capitalize the first word and proper nouns.
  • Source information: Depending on the source type, include additional details following the title. For example:
  • If it is a journal article, include the journal name in italics, volume number(issue number), and page range.
  • If it is a book chapter, include the book title in italics and the editors’ names.
  • If it is an online source, provide the URL and the date of access.

Example APA citation for a case study:

  • Single author: Author, A. (Year). Title of case study. Source information.
  • Multiple authors: Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title of case study. Source information.

Make sure to properly format the citation, including hanging indents, use of italics, and punctuation. Additionally, list all the case studies you cited in a separate references page at the end of your essay, following APA formatting guidelines.

Citing a Case Study in MLA Format

When citing a case study in MLA format, follow these guidelines to reference the source accurately:

  • Authors of the case study: Include the author’s name(s) in the order they appear in the source, but inverted (last name, first name).
  • Title of the case study: Use sentence case capitalization. Capitalize the first word, proper nouns, and any other words that would normally be capitalized. Italicize the title.
  • Title of the source: Use italics to indicate the title of the source. This could be the name of the journal, book, or website.
  • Publication information: Depending on the source type, include additional details following the source title. For example:
  • If it is a journal article, include the name of the journal in italics, volume number (issue number), and page range.
  • If it is a book chapter, include the book title in italics, the editors’ names, publisher, year of publication, and page range.
  • If it is an online source, provide the name of the website in italics, the date of publication, the name of the publisher, the URL, and the date of access.

Example MLA citation for a case study:

  • Single author: Author last name, First name. “Title of case study.” Title of source, Publication information.
  • Multiple authors: Last name, First name and First name Last name. “Title of case study.” Title of source, Publication information.

Remember to properly format the citation, including hanging indents, use of italics, and punctuation. Additionally, list all the case studies you cited in a separate works cited page at the end of your essay, following MLA formatting guidelines.

Citing a Case Study in Chicago Style

When citing a case study in Chicago style, follow these guidelines to reference the source accurately:

  • Title of the case study: Use sentence case capitalization. Capitalize the first word, proper nouns, and any other words that would normally be capitalized. Enclose the title in double quotation marks.

Example Chicago citation for a case study:

  • Single author: Author last name, first name. “Title of case study.” In Title of source, publication information.
  • Multiple authors: Last name, first name, and first name last name. “Title of case study.” In Title of source, publication information.

Remember to properly format the citation, including hanging indents and punctuation. Additionally, list all the case studies you cited in a separate bibliography page at the end of your essay, following Chicago formatting guidelines.

Citing a Case Study in Harvard Style

When citing a case study in Harvard style, follow these guidelines to accurately reference the source:

  • Authors of the case study: Include the last name(s) and initials of the author(s) of the case study. Separate multiple authors’ names with commas and use an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name.
  • Title of the case study: Use sentence case capitalization for the title. Capitalize the first word, proper nouns, and any other words that would normally be capitalized. Italicize the title.

Example Harvard citation for a case study:

Ensure the citation is properly formatted, including punctuation, use of italics, and indentation. Also, list all the case studies cited in a separate references list at the end of the essay, following Harvard formatting guidelines.

Online Databases for Finding Case Studies

Finding case studies for your essay is made easier with the availability of online databases. These databases compile various case studies from different disciplines, allowing you to access a wide range of relevant examples. Here are some online databases you can use to find case studies:

  • Google Scholar : This widely-used search engine provides access to scholarly articles, including case studies. Use specific keywords to narrow down your search and include the phrase “cite a case study” to find articles that specifically discuss how to cite case studies.
  • EBSCOhost : EBSCOhost is a popular online research platform that offers access to multiple databases such as Academic Search Complete, Business Source Complete, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. These databases contain numerous case studies across various fields.
  • JSTOR : JSTOR is a digital library that provides access to academic journals, books, and primary sources. It covers diverse disciplines and includes a vast collection of case studies that can be useful for your research.
  • ProQuest : ProQuest is another comprehensive research tool that offers access to a wide range of databases, including scholarly journals, newspapers, and dissertations. It houses a substantial collection of case studies covering multiple subject areas.

When searching in these databases, use keywords specific to your topic, such as the name of the industry or concept you are focusing on. Additionally, if you find a relevant case study, make sure to cite it correctly using the appropriate citation style.

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Thank you. payment completed., you will receive an email from us to confirm your registration, please click the link in the email to activate your account., there was error during payment, orcid profile found in public registry, download history, how to refer to other studies or literature in the different sections of a research paper.

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  • 07 October, 2021

There are many articles which discuss how you can include and discuss existing studies and research in the literature review section of a paper. However, in addition to the literature review , there are many other opportunities to discuss or engage with prior studies in your research. This article offers guidance on how to include other studies or literature in different sections in a research paper.

Engaging with literature in the Introduction

Prior studies are often mentioned in the Introduction , generally as high-level summaries without much detail. Although some people may choose not to use existing literature or research to motivate a study, this is not an uncommon practice. Researchers sometimes rely on prior studies to emphasise the importance of the current study – for example, in challenging a standing argument or addressing an outstanding gap . Prior studies are also often discussed to build the foundation of the arguments of the research paper in question. 

Working with previous studies in the Methodology

It is also common practice to refer to prior literature in the Methodology. You may refer to prior studies as you design the study, collect and/or select data and perform the analysis. If this is the case, it is important to explain clearly why you are using and drawing from previous studies and how these are relevant to your own research paper. 

It is also possible to refer to prior studies to highlight the different methodological choices you have taken in your research. For example, there may be a comparison of the data sources, the sample or subject selections. Or, you might offer a comparison in the decisions made for different parameters, constructs, factors, model selection preferences and so on. Highlighting these differences can help you to clearly present new perspectives and why your study provides value to the field.

If you are offering a comparison between your current and previous studies, try to avoid solely comparing and contrasting, or simply stating what you have performed. What is more important is to explain why you have made these different decisions so that readers can understand the rationale behind your methodological decisions and your project design .

Referring to the literature in the Discussion and Conclusion

It is always a good idea to refer to prior studies and existing literature in the Discussion or Conclusion sections. This is a good time to reiterate the arguments, research questions/hypotheses and objectives that you introduced in the earlier sections of the paper and to discuss your results and findings .

Integrating other relevant literature into your Discussion serves two key purposes . First, it outlines what has already been achieved in prior studies. Second, you can explain how your study builds on this existing work to advance the knowledge in the field . 

Sometimes, through this discussion, you can also demonstrate why or how your findings are the same as or different from prior studies. 

Three common mistakes to avoid

When forging connections between prior studies and your own research paper, it is important to be aware of three common mistakes that authors make.

  • Some researchers sometimes focus too much on the existing literature , so that their research paper does not, ultimately, seem to provide many new insights. 
  • Because of the way authors might present and discuss prior studies in the Introduction, readers may become distracted or be led to raise more questions that are not relevant to the present research paper. [ Tip : In this and the above instances, it is advisable that you ensure your discussion of the literature is relevant at all times to the specific issues that you are discussing in each section and does not overshadow the main idea(s) in the research paper.]
  • Although you can critique prior studies to highlight the unique approach or key message of your study, it is a good practice to avoid subjective assessments, so as not to introduce any personal biases into your discussion of either the literature or your own research. 

In conclusion

Remember that engagement with the literature serves primarily to set the scene and contextualise your own research . It should provide enough information for your reader to understand the relevance and significance of your study, but not take over the main focus of the paper.

Read next (fifth/final) in series: Difference between a literature review and a critical review

Read previous (third) in series: Deciding what to include and exclude as you begin to write your literature review

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  • A Quick Guide to OSCOLA Referencing | Rules & Examples

A Quick Guide to OSCOLA Referencing | Rules & Examples

Published on 28 February 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 5 May 2022.

The Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) is a referencing style used by students and academics in law.

OSCOLA referencing places citations in footnotes, which are marked in the text with footnote numbers:

The judge referred to the precedent established by Caulfield v Baldwin . 1

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Table of contents

Citing sources with oscola footnotes, oscola referencing examples, oscola tables and bibliography.

A citation footnote appears whenever you quote from, paraphrase or otherwise refer to the content of a source in your text.

A footnote is marked in the text with a footnote number, which appears at the end of the relevant sentence or clause. The number is displayed in superscript (i.e. 1) and appears after any punctuation like a comma or full stop:

These footnotes contain full information on the source cited. The format in which you present this information varies according to the type of source; examples are presented in the following section. A footnote always ends with a full stop:

Standard abbreviations

To save space in OSCOLA citations, abbreviations are used for the names of various publications and legal bodies.

For example, ‘UKSC’ is the United Kingdom Supreme Court, and ‘Cr App R’ refers to the Criminal Appeal Reports.

A full, searchable index of these abbreviations can be found here .

Pinpointing

In OSCOLA referencing, referring to a specific page number within a source is called pinpointing. To pinpoint, simply include a page number at the end of your reference, in addition to any page numbers already included.

For example, in the following citation, the first number refers to the page on which the report begins , while the second number pinpoints the passage you’re referring to :

Where available, paragraph numbers should be used instead of page numbers. Only do this if paragraph numbers are explicitly used in the text. Paragraph numbers appear in square brackets and can be used for pinpointing in the same way as page numbers:

Note that if you’re pinpointing a judge’s comments within a case report, you include the name of the judge, and some special terms and abbreviations are used in the citation and in the text.

If the judge is a peer, refer to them as ‘Lord’, e.g. Lord Williams. If they are a Lord/Lady Justice, use ‘LJ’, e.g. Williams LJ. If neither of these is the case, use ‘J’ for judge, e.g. Williams J:

Cross-referencing repeated citations of the same source

OSCOLA uses a system of cross-referencing to save space when you repeatedly cite the same source. This means that for subsequent references of a source, you don’t have to repeat the full citation.

When you refer to the same source you have just referred to (i.e. when the previous footnote was also about that source), you can simply use ‘ibid’ (Latin for ‘in the same place’):

In this example, the second footnote also refers to Davis v Dignam, but to page 522 instead of page 519.

When the previous reference to the source was in an earlier footnote (i.e. when other citations appear in between), use the author’s last name or the title (shortened if it’s a longer title), followed by the number of the previous citation (in brackets and preceded by ‘n’), then the page number you’re pinpointing (if different than the first citation):

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OSCOLA provides formats for a variety of source types. The most common ones are covered below.

Case reports

When citing a case, you’ll usually begin with a neutral citation – a way of referring to the case that does not relate to a particular report – and then give the details of the report afterwards. If no neutral citation exists, as with cases before 2002, you can just begin with the report.

Additionally, note that the year (for the report) is displayed differently depending on whether it is essential to the citation. For reports where each year is also identified with a volume number, the year appears in normal brackets. For those where multiple volumes appear in one year, the year appears in square brackets.

  • Case report with neutral citation
  • Case report with no neutral citation

Acts of Parliament

Use a short version of the title if the full title is longer than three words. If necessary, refer to specific parts of an Act of Parliament using section, subsection and paragraph numbers.

Statutory instruments

Statutory instruments (SIs) are numbered consecutively throughout the year; it’s this number that appears at the end of the citation – the example below is the 149th SI of 2020.

House of Commons bills are cited slightly differently from House of Lords bills. You write ‘HC Bill’ or ‘HL Bill’ depending upon which house it is, and bill numbers for Commons bills appear in square brackets.

  • House of Commons bill
  • House of Lords bill

Hansard is the official transcript of parliamentary debates in the UK. As with bills, write ‘HC’ for the House of Commons and ‘HL’ for the House of Lords. ‘Deb’ is short for ‘debate’, ‘vol’ for volume, and ‘col’ for column.

Use the full name of the author(s) as written in the source. List the edition (abbreviated to ‘edn’) when it is stated on the title page. Note that OSCOLA recommends abbreviating ‘Oxford University Press’ to ‘OUP’; this is not the case with other publishers.

Certain older books are listed by OSCOLA as ‘works of authority’ and given special abbreviated citations. For example, the following is a citation of volume 3, page 75 of Blackstone’s Commentaries on the Laws of England :

OSCOLA provides a list of these abbreviations in their full guide , section 4.2.3.

Journal articles

As with case reports, square brackets are used for years in a journal citation if the year also identifies the volume; normal brackets are used when there are multiple volumes in a year.

Note that standard abbreviations are also used for journal names; here ‘MLR’ refers to Modern Law Review.

In a longer work, such as a thesis or dissertation , OSCOLA requires you to include tables listing any cases and legislation you cited, as well as a bibliography listing any secondary sources . For shorter essays, this is usually not necessary, but do check your institution’s guidelines.

The tables and bibliography appear at the end of your text. The table of cases comes first, followed by the table of legislation, and then the bibliography.

Sources are listed in alphabetical order within each table and in the bibliography.

Table of cases

Cases are written in a similar format here and in the main text; the only difference is the names of the parties involved are not italicised in the table of cases:

Table of legislation

The table of legislation includes all legal sources used other than cases – for example, bills, Acts of Parliament and SIs. Items in the table of legislation are listed in identical form to how they are cited in the text.

Bibliography

A bibliography lists all your secondary sources – that is, everything other than cases and legislation. For example, here you would list Hansard , any books and journal articles cited, and other sources such as blogs, social media and newspapers.

Bibliography entries differ from citations in terms of their presentation of the author’s name. Author names in the bibliography are inverted, and initials are used in place of the first name:

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If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, May 05). A Quick Guide to OSCOLA Referencing | Rules & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 15 February 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/oscola/

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Citing and referencing legal resources using Harvard

An explanation about uk case law.

  • What is a neutral citation?
  • Cases with neutral citations

UK cases without a neutral citation

  • UK legislation
  • European Union resources
  • Other legal resources

The United Kingdom courts formulate law in the form of court decisions, i.e. case law. The most important cases are written up by a court reporter: these are called 'law reports'.

Cite them right gives advice on how to cite and reference law reports (cases) . There is a distinction made between:

  • Citing and referencing cases from 2001 onwards, where a neutral citation is available for the case.
  • Pre-2001 cases or any other case where there is no neutral citation .

What is a neutral citation and how do you know a case has got one?

From approximately 2001 onwards, the courts started to allocate 'neutral citations' to cases. Neutral citations enable people to find cases online more easily. Each neutral citation is made up of:

  • an abbreviation for the relevant court (e.g. UKSC for the Supreme Court; EWCA Crim for the Court of Appeal Criminal Division)
  • a number (i.e. the number 4 would mean the fourth case heard in that particular court that year)

As a general rule, if you are looking at a case on the British and Irish Legal Information Institute (BAILII) webpage , the neutral citation (if there is one) will be listed at the top right hand side of the page. See for example the 2001 Court of Appeal case of Mills v Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food . You will see at the top right of the BAILII webpage that this case has a neutral citation of [2001] EWCA Civ 1346.

This neutral citation will be useful for you when you are constructing your reference (see section below entitled 'UK cases with neutral citations').

UK cases with neutral citations

If a case has a neutral citation, Cite them right says that you should include in your reference list: 'Name of the case' (year) court, case number. Database or website [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

In-text citation: A recent case ( ' R (on the application of Newby Foods Ltd) v. Food Standards Agency', 2017) states that...

Reference list: 'R (on the application of Newby Foods Ltd) v. Food Standards Agency' (2017) Court of Appeal, Civil Division, case 431. Westlaw  [Online]. Available at: https://legalresearch.westlaw.co.uk (Accessed: 24 August 2018).

Cases without a neutral citation tend to be cases which pre-date the year 2001, i.e. older cases.

In your reference, you need to include 'Name of case' (year) title of law report , volume number, page numbers.

In-text citation: It was decided in the case of 'Bibby Cheshire v. Golden Wonder Ltd' (1972) that...

Reference list:   'Bibby Cheshire v. Golden Wonder Ltd' (1972) Weekly Law Reports , 1, pp. 1487-1492.

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EU AI Act: first regulation on artificial intelligence

The use of artificial intelligence in the EU will be regulated by the AI Act, the world’s first comprehensive AI law. Find out how it will protect you.

A man faces a computer generated figure with programming language in the background

As part of its digital strategy , the EU wants to regulate artificial intelligence (AI) to ensure better conditions for the development and use of this innovative technology. AI can create many benefits , such as better healthcare; safer and cleaner transport; more efficient manufacturing; and cheaper and more sustainable energy.

In April 2021, the European Commission proposed the first EU regulatory framework for AI. It says that AI systems that can be used in different applications are analysed and classified according to the risk they pose to users. The different risk levels will mean more or less regulation. Once approved, these will be the world’s first rules on AI.

Learn more about what artificial intelligence is and how it is used

What Parliament wants in AI legislation

Parliament’s priority is to make sure that AI systems used in the EU are safe, transparent, traceable, non-discriminatory and environmentally friendly. AI systems should be overseen by people, rather than by automation, to prevent harmful outcomes.

Parliament also wants to establish a technology-neutral, uniform definition for AI that could be applied to future AI systems.

Learn more about Parliament’s work on AI and its vision for AI’s future

AI Act: different rules for different risk levels

The new rules establish obligations for providers and users depending on the level of risk from artificial intelligence. While many AI systems pose minimal risk, they need to be assessed.

Unacceptable risk

Unacceptable risk AI systems are systems considered a threat to people and will be banned. They include:

  • Cognitive behavioural manipulation of people or specific vulnerable groups: for example voice-activated toys that encourage dangerous behaviour in children
  • Social scoring: classifying people based on behaviour, socio-economic status or personal characteristics
  • Biometric identification and categorisation of people
  • Real-time and remote biometric identification systems, such as facial recognition

Some exceptions may be allowed for law enforcement purposes. “Real-time” remote biometric identification systems will be allowed in a limited number of serious cases, while “post” remote biometric identification systems, where identification occurs after a significant delay, will be allowed to prosecute serious crimes and only after court approval.

AI systems that negatively affect safety or fundamental rights will be considered high risk and will be divided into two categories:

1) AI systems that are used in products falling under the EU’s product safety legislation . This includes toys, aviation, cars, medical devices and lifts.

2) AI systems falling into specific areas that will have to be registered in an EU database:

  • Management and operation of critical infrastructure
  • Education and vocational training
  • Employment, worker management and access to self-employment
  • Access to and enjoyment of essential private services and public services and benefits
  • Law enforcement
  • Migration, asylum and border control management
  • Assistance in legal interpretation and application of the law.

All high-risk AI systems will be assessed before being put on the market and also throughout their lifecycle.

General purpose and generative AI

Generative AI, like ChatGPT, would have to comply with transparency requirements:

  • Disclosing that the content was generated by AI
  • Designing the model to prevent it from generating illegal content
  • Publishing summaries of copyrighted data used for training

High-impact general-purpose AI models that might pose systemic risk, such as the more advanced AI model GPT-4, would have to undergo thorough evaluations and any serious incidents would have to be reported to the European Commission.

Limited risk

Limited risk AI systems should comply with minimal transparency requirements that would allow users to make informed decisions. After interacting with the applications, the user can then decide whether they want to continue using it. Users should be made aware when they are interacting with AI. This includes AI systems that generate or manipulate image, audio or video content, for example deepfakes.

On December 9 2023, Parliament reached a provisional agreement with the Council on the AI act . The agreed text will now have to be formally adopted by both Parliament and Council to become EU law. Before all MEPs have their say on the agreement, Parliament’s internal market and civil liberties committees will vote on it.

More on the EU’s digital measures

  • Cryptocurrency dangers and the benefits of EU legislation
  • Fighting cybercrime: new EU cybersecurity laws explained
  • Boosting data sharing in the EU: what are the benefits?
  • EU Digital Markets Act and Digital Services Act
  • Five ways the European Parliament wants to protect online gamers
  • Artificial Intelligence Act

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Reproductive rights in America

Research at the heart of a federal case against the abortion pill has been retracted.

Selena Simmons-Duffin

Selena Simmons-Duffin

how to reference a case study in an essay

The Supreme Court will hear the case against the abortion pill mifepristone on March 26. It's part of a two-drug regimen with misoprostol for abortions in the first 10 weeks of pregnancy. Anna Moneymaker/Getty Images hide caption

The Supreme Court will hear the case against the abortion pill mifepristone on March 26. It's part of a two-drug regimen with misoprostol for abortions in the first 10 weeks of pregnancy.

A scientific paper that raised concerns about the safety of the abortion pill mifepristone was retracted by its publisher this week. The study was cited three times by a federal judge who ruled against mifepristone last spring. That case, which could limit access to mifepristone throughout the country, will soon be heard in the Supreme Court.

The now retracted study used Medicaid claims data to track E.R. visits by patients in the month after having an abortion. The study found a much higher rate of complications than similar studies that have examined abortion safety.

Sage, the publisher of the journal, retracted the study on Monday along with two other papers, explaining in a statement that "expert reviewers found that the studies demonstrate a lack of scientific rigor that invalidates or renders unreliable the authors' conclusions."

It also noted that most of the authors on the paper worked for the Charlotte Lozier Institute, the research arm of anti-abortion lobbying group Susan B. Anthony Pro-Life America, and that one of the original peer reviewers had also worked for the Lozier Institute.

The Sage journal, Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology , published all three research articles, which are still available online along with the retraction notice. In an email to NPR, a spokesperson for Sage wrote that the process leading to the retractions "was thorough, fair, and careful."

The lead author on the paper, James Studnicki, fiercely defends his work. "Sage is targeting us because we have been successful for a long period of time," he says on a video posted online this week . He asserts that the retraction has "nothing to do with real science and has everything to do with a political assassination of science."

He says that because the study's findings have been cited in legal cases like the one challenging the abortion pill, "we have become visible – people are quoting us. And for that reason, we are dangerous, and for that reason, they want to cancel our work," Studnicki says in the video.

In an email to NPR, a spokesperson for the Charlotte Lozier Institute said that they "will be taking appropriate legal action."

Role in abortion pill legal case

Anti-abortion rights groups, including a group of doctors, sued the federal Food and Drug Administration in 2022 over the approval of mifepristone, which is part of a two-drug regimen used in most medication abortions. The pill has been on the market for over 20 years, and is used in more than half abortions nationally. The FDA stands by its research that finds adverse events from mifepristone are extremely rare.

Judge Matthew Kacsmaryk, the district court judge who initially ruled on the case, pointed to the now-retracted study to support the idea that the anti-abortion rights physicians suing the FDA had the right to do so. "The associations' members have standing because they allege adverse events from chemical abortion drugs can overwhelm the medical system and place 'enormous pressure and stress' on doctors during emergencies and complications," he wrote in his decision, citing Studnicki. He ruled that mifepristone should be pulled from the market nationwide, although his decision never took effect.

how to reference a case study in an essay

Matthew Kacsmaryk at his confirmation hearing for the federal bench in 2017. AP hide caption

Matthew Kacsmaryk at his confirmation hearing for the federal bench in 2017.

Kacsmaryk is a Trump appointee who was a vocal abortion opponent before becoming a federal judge.

"I don't think he would view the retraction as delegitimizing the research," says Mary Ziegler , a law professor and expert on the legal history of abortion at U.C. Davis. "There's been so much polarization about what the reality of abortion is on the right that I'm not sure how much a retraction would affect his reasoning."

Ziegler also doubts the retractions will alter much in the Supreme Court case, given its conservative majority. "We've already seen, when it comes to abortion, that the court has a propensity to look at the views of experts that support the results it wants," she says. The decision that overturned Roe v. Wade is an example, she says. "The majority [opinion] relied pretty much exclusively on scholars with some ties to pro-life activism and didn't really cite anybody else even or really even acknowledge that there was a majority scholarly position or even that there was meaningful disagreement on the subject."

In the mifepristone case, "there's a lot of supposition and speculation" in the argument about who has standing to sue, she explains. "There's a probability that people will take mifepristone and then there's a probability that they'll get complications and then there's a probability that they'll get treatment in the E.R. and then there's a probability that they'll encounter physicians with certain objections to mifepristone. So the question is, if this [retraction] knocks out one leg of the stool, does that somehow affect how the court is going to view standing? I imagine not."

It's impossible to know who will win the Supreme Court case, but Ziegler thinks that this retraction probably won't sway the outcome either way. "If the court is skeptical of standing because of all these aforementioned weaknesses, this is just more fuel to that fire," she says. "It's not as if this were an airtight case for standing and this was a potentially game-changing development."

Oral arguments for the case, Alliance for Hippocratic Medicine v. FDA , are scheduled for March 26 at the Supreme Court. A decision is expected by summer. Mifepristone remains available while the legal process continues.

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A laminated yellow sign with black writing and a headline saying "Plague Warning!!!", with red circles crossing out both an icon of a person walking and an icon of a dog.

A case of bubonic plague was reported in Oregon. Here’s what to know

US cases of plague are exceedingly rare, and modern therapies are effective when patients are treated in time

  • Oregon resident caught bubonic plague from cat, officials say

A case of bubonic plague – the disease that killed tens of millions of people in medieval Europe – was reported in rural Oregon last week . The afflicted individual was promptly treated, and health officials believe that there is “little risk to the community” that the disease will spread.

Though the disease, which officials believe was likely passed on to the individual from a sick pet cat, is exceedingly rare in the modern day, a few cases are reported each year. But in 2024, doctors know much better how to treat the disease and prevent its spread.

Here what to know about how an illness once known as the “black death” became treatable:

What is the plague?

The bubonic plague is an infectious disease that can affect mammals , caused by the Yersinia pestis bacteria. It is often transmitted via fleas infected with the bacteria. It can also be caught by inhaling respiratory droplets after close contact with animals or humans sick with pneumonic plague, the most severe form of the disease. Another way it can be caught is “from direct contact with infected tissues or fluids while handling an animal that is sick with or that has died from plague”, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Plague symptoms can manifest in a few ways. Bubonic plague – the kind contracted by the Oregon resident – happens when the plague bacteria get into the lymph nodes. It can cause fever, headache, weakness and painful, swollen lymph nodes. It usually happens from the bite of an infected flea, according to the CDC.

Septicemic plague symptoms happen if the bacteria get into the bloodstream. It can occur initially or after bubonic plague goes untreated. This form of plague causes the same fever, chills and weakness, as well as abdominal pain, shock and sometimes other symptoms like bleeding into the skin and blackened fingers, toes or nose. The CDC says this form comes from flea bites or from handling an infected animal.

Pneumonic plague is the most serious form of the disease, and it occurs when the bacteria get into the lungs. Pneumonic plague adds rapidly developing pneumonia to the list of plague symptoms. It is the only form of plague that can be spread from person to person by the inhalation of infectious droplets.

All forms of plague are treatable with common antibiotics, and people who seek treatment early have a better chance of a full recovery, according to the CDC.

Who is at risk?

In the US, an average of seven cases of human plague are reported each year, according to the CDC, and about 80% of them are the bubonic form of the disease. Most of those cases are reported in the rural western and south-western US.

A welder in central Oregon contracted bubonic plague in 2012 when he pulled a rodent out of his choking cat’s mouth – he survived but lost his fingertips and toes to the disease. A Colorado teen contracted a fatal case while hunting in 2015, and Colorado officials confirmed at least two cases last year – one of them fatal.

Worldwide, most human cases of plague in recent decades have occurred in people living in rural towns and villages in Africa, particularly in Madagascar and the Congo, according to the Cleveland Clinic.

People can reduce the risk of plague by making their homes and outdoor living areas less inviting for rodents, by clearing brush and junk piles, and by keeping pet food inaccessible. Ground squirrels, chipmunks and wood rats can carry plague, as can other rodents, and so people with bird and squirrel feeders may want to consider the risks if they live in an area with a plague outbreak.

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The CDC says repellent with Deet can also help protect people from rodent fleas when camping or working outdoors.

Flea-control products can help keep fleas from infecting household pets. If a pet gets sick, it should be taken to a vet as soon as possible, according to the CDC.

Isn’t plague from the middle ages?

The black death in the 14th century was perhaps the most infamous plague epidemic, killing up to half the population as it spread through Europe, the Middle East and northern Africa. It began devastating communities in the Middle East and Europe between 1347 and 1351 , and significant outbreaks continued for roughly the next 400 years.

An earlier major plague pandemic, dubbed the Justinian plague, started in Rome around 541 and continued to erupt for the next couple of hundred years.

The third major plague pandemic started in the Yunnan region of China in the mid-1800s and spread along trade routes, arriving in Hong Kong and Bombay about 40 years later. It eventually reached every continent except Antarctica, according to the Cleveland Clinic, and is estimated to have killed roughly 12 million people in China and India alone.

In the late 1800s, an effective treatment with an antiserum was developed. That treatment was later replaced by even more effective antibiotics a few decades later.

Though plague remains a serious illness, antibiotic and supportive therapies are effective for even the most dangerous pneumonic form when patients are treated in time, according to the World Health Organization.

  • Bubonic plague
  • Infectious diseases
  • Antibiotics
  • US healthcare

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  1. How to Cite a Case Study in APA, MLA or Chicago

    For all three citation styles, you will need the name of the author (s), the title of the case study, the year it was published, the publishing organization/publisher, and URL (if applicable). The templates and examples below will demonstrate how to cite a case study in MLA, APA, and Chicago styles. MLA 9 Structure:

  2. Case studies

    Case studies Reference: Author/editor Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Title of case study' [Case Study], Journal Title, Volume (Issue), pp. page numbers. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Month Year]. Example:

  3. How to Write a Case Study: from Outline to Examples

    Most commonly, the length of the case study is about 500-900 words, which is much less than the length of an average research paper. The structure of a case study is very similar to storytelling. It has a protagonist or main character, which in your case is actually a problem you are trying to solve.

  4. Case Studies & Standards

    Referencing Case Studies IN-TEXT CITATION Spar and Burns (2000) ... .... (Spar & Burns, 2000) "....." (Spar & Burns, 2000:8) FORMAT OF A REFERENCE TO A CASE STUDY Author's surname, Initials. Year. 'Title.' Case number. Place: Publisher or Institution. Note that the title is not italicised. EXAMPLE OF A REFERENCE TO A PRINTED CASE STUDY

  5. 4 Ways to Cite a Case Study

    1 Begin your bibliographic citation with the author's name. List the author's last name first, then a comma, then their first name and middle initial (if available). End this portion of your citation with a period (typically, it will be the period following the middle initial). Example: Lee, Stan.

  6. Subject Guides: APA Citation Style (7th Edition): Case Studies

    General Format General format for citing case studies: Author (s). (Year). Title of case study. Number of case study. URL. Examples: Harvard Business School Case Study Smith, S. (2003). Leadership. HBS No. 7-806-122. https://hbsp.harvard.edu/cases/ Ivey Business School Case Study Heisz, M., & Leech, L. (2005).

  7. How To Cite A Case Study With Examples: APA, MLA and Others

    September 6, 2021 Table of Contents Citing a Case Study With Our Help How to Reference a Case Study in Different Formats How to cite a case study in APA How to cite a case study MLA How to cite a case study in a Book How to cite a case study in ACS How to cite a case study in AMA How to cite a case study in ASA How to cite a case study in IEEE

  8. How to Cite a Case Study

    To create a reference or citation for a case study, you will need to know basic information including the name of the author, title of the case study, journal or book title, and publication year. The templates and examples below will show you how to cite a case study in MLA style, APA style, Chicago style, and Harvard referencing style.

  9. Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)

    There are different versions of the Harvard referencing style. This guide is a quick introduction to the commonly-used Cite Them Right version. You will find further guidance available through the OU Library on the Cite Them Right Database. For help and support with referencing and the full Cite Them Right guide, have a look at the Library's ...

  10. A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing

    When you cite a source with up to three authors, cite all authors' names. For four or more authors, list only the first name, followed by ' et al. ': Number of authors. In-text citation example. 1 author. (Davis, 2019) 2 authors. (Davis and Barrett, 2019) 3 authors.

  11. How do I reference a case study… in the Cranfield Author-date style?

    This is what you need to include in your Author-date reference: Author (s) (surname, initials) or organisation (Year of publication) Number/identifier of case study (if available) Title of case Place of publication: Publisher If the case study is available online, you can add the following: Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

  12. Case studies

    A case study is an assignment where you analyse a specific case (organisation, group, person, event, issue) and explain how the elements and complexities of that case relate to theory. You will sometimes have to come up with solutions to problems or recommendations for future action.

  13. What Is a Case Study?

    Step 1: Select a case Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions, you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to: Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject Challenge or complicate existing assumptions and theories

  14. Introducing Case Studies in Essays [Examples]

    Firstly, it's all about alignment. Think of your essay as a puzzle. Every piece, every argument, every citation should fit just right. Your chosen case study? It's that central piece, setting the tone, connecting dots. So, make sure it's directly related to your topic.

  15. How to Cite Sources

    The information included in reference entries is broadly similar, whatever citation style you're using. For each source, you'll typically include the: Author name; Title; Publication date; Container (e.g., the book an essay was published in, the journal an article appeared in) Publisher; Location (e.g., a URL or DOI, or sometimes a physical ...

  16. How to Reference in an Essay (9 Strategies of Top Students)

    No worries. This post goes through some surprising and advanced strategies for anyone to improve no matter what level you are at! In this post I'm going to show you exactly how to reference in an essay. I'll explain why we do it and I'll show you 9 actionable tips on getting referencing right that I'm sure you will not have heard anywhere else!

  17. How to Cite Court Cases in APA Style

    To cite a court case or decision, list the name of the case, the volume and abbreviated name of the reporter, the page number, the name of the court, the year, and optionally the URL. The case name is italicized in the in-text citation, but not in the reference list. In the reference, specify only a single page number—the page where the ...

  18. Writing a Case Study

    A case study research paper examines a person, place, event, condition, phenomenon, or other type of subject of analysis in order to extrapolate key themes and results that help predict future trends, illuminate previously hidden issues that can be applied to practice, and/or provide a means for understanding an important research problem with g...

  19. How to Cite a Case Study

    When citing a case study in APA format, follow these guidelines to accurately reference the source: Author (s) of the case study: Include the last name (s) and initials of the author (s) of the case study. If there are multiple authors, separate their names with commas and use an ampersand (&) before the last author's name.

  20. How to include and discuss other studies in your research paper

    Prior studies are also often discussed to build the foundation of the arguments of the research paper in question. Working with previous studies in the Methodology. It is also common practice to refer to prior literature in the Methodology. You may refer to prior studies as you design the study, collect and/or select data and perform the analysis.

  21. Cite A Court case in Harvard style

    Use the following template or our Harvard Referencing Generator to cite a court case. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator. Reference list

  22. A Quick Guide to OSCOLA Referencing

    Revised on 5 May 2022. The Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) is a referencing style used by students and academics in law. OSCOLA referencing places citations in footnotes, which are marked in the text with footnote numbers: The judge referred to the precedent established by Caulfield v Baldwin. 1.

  23. UK case law

    UK cases without a neutral citation. Cases without a neutral citation tend to be cases which pre-date the year 2001, i.e. older cases.. In your reference, you need to include 'Name of case' (year) title of law report, volume number, page numbers.. In-text citation: It was decided in the case of 'Bibby Cheshire v. Golden Wonder Ltd' (1972) that... Reference list: 'Bibby Cheshire v.

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    As part of its digital strategy, the EU wants to regulate artificial intelligence (AI) to ensure better conditions for the development and use of this innovative technology. AI can create many benefits, such as better healthcare; safer and cleaner transport; more efficient manufacturing; and cheaper and more sustainable energy.. In April 2021, the European Commission proposed the first EU ...

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    The study looks at 6,000 patients who got abortion pills after an online appointment. It found that 99.7% of those abortions were not followed by any serious adverse events.

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    The study was cited three times by a federal judge who ruled against mifepristone last spring. That case, which could limit access to mifepristone throughout the country, will soon be heard in the ...

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    A case of bubonic plague - the disease that killed tens of millions of people in medieval Europe - was reported in rural Oregon last week.The afflicted individual was promptly treated, and ...