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Educational Leadership and Policy Studies Research Guide

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Literature Review: an Overview for Graduate Students

Organize your notes on a Synthesis Matrix

As you read, you'll encounter various ideas, disagreements, methods, and perspectives which can be hard to organize in a meaningful way.

A synthesis matrix helps you record the main points of each source and document how sources relate to each other.

  • Writing a Literature Review & Using a Synthesis Matrix (from NCSU Writing Center)

Sample literature review

  • Sample literature review An example of a literature review in APA format from the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Excelsior College. Includes annotations throughout the paper.
  • Guide to Writing a Literature Review Noel Studio handout on writing a literature review.

Schedule a consultation

Need help with sources for your literature review?  I can meet with you in person, in an online chat, or on Zoom to discuss your research needs.

Email me at [email protected] to schedule an appointment. 

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Educational Leadership: Literature Review Strategies

  • Literature Review Strategies
  • Search Tips

What's a Literature Review?

A Literature Review...

  • Provides comprehensive discussion of the scholarly research that has already been done on a topic.
  • Includes some summary of important articles on a topic.
  • Includes comparison: between how different authors discuss the same topic and how the topic has been handled over time.
  • Synthesizes previous ideas on a topic, but also looks for gaps in the literature: what needs to be investigated further?

What Should a Literature Review Do?

A Literature Review should...

  • Relate directly and clearly to your thesis or research question.
  • Synthesize and contextualize results, not just report them.
  • Identify areas of controversy in the literature.
  • Formulate questions that need further research.

Adapted from “The Literature Review: A Few Tips on Conducting It”, by Dena Taylor and Margaret Procter, University of Toronto: www.writing.utoronto.ca (file linked below)

  • The Literature Review: A Few Tips on Conducting It This two-page PDF handout created by Dena Taylor and Margaret Procter at the University of Toronto has excellent guidance on conducting a literature review.

Literature Review Search Strategies

Strategies for a literature review search...

  • Comb through bibliographies of relevant journal articles and books. You'll probably start to see patterns: authors, journals, and themes that show up over and over.
  • Find Full Text through the Library : If you find an article in a bibliography that you’d like to access, look for the journal name (not the article name), and follow the steps outlined under the Finding Full-text Material tab in our How to find Full Text Guide .
  • Can't get the article you need in full text through PSU? Don't Despair: Try Interlibrary Loan !
  • Find out who cited an article , and how many times it was cited, through Google Scholar . This will show you how influential an article was and gives you more articles and authors to investigate.
  • Learn How to Gut a Book -- in other words, how to get the most out of a book in the most efficient manner (i.e. it may not be necessary to read an entire book, word for word, taking diligent notes in order to get the gist of the book for use in a literature review).

Journal Ranking, Publication Outlets, Scholarly Communication

What are the top journals in your field? Which journals are the best for your topic?

The following resources can help you answer the following questions, which can be helpful to consider when performing a literature review:

  • SCImago Journal & Country Rank Journals and country scientific indicators based on data in the Scopus® database.
  • Eigenfactor Free website ranking and mapping academic journals.

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  • Academic Publishing Information on authors' rights, copyright, open access, and more.

Cited Reference Search

How many times has one of the articles you're using in your literature review been cited?

The answer to that question can tell you not only how influential an article has been, but can lead you to more articles on your topic. Use the following to find out how many times the article you're using has been cited:

View a tutorial for this resource

Getting Started With Research: Tutorials

Need more help getting started with research? Check out the Library's video tutorials and playlists  .

Please also feel free to contact a librarian .

Literature Reviews: An Overview for Graduate Students

This excellent overview of the literature review explains what a literature review and outlines processes and best practices for doing one. It includes input from an NCSU professor on what a literature review is and what it should do. (Shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 US license, attributed to North Carolina State University Libraries).

Writing the Literature Review: Part 1

Here's another excellent tutorial on what a literature review is and how to write it, in two parts, from David Taylor at the University of Maryland University College's Writing Program.  https://youtu.be/2IUZWZX4OGI

Writing the Literature Review: Part 2

Here's part two of David Taylor's "Writing the Literature Review" tutorial, from the University of Maryland University College's Writing Program. https://youtu.be/UoYpyY9n9YQ

Google Scholar

Google Scholar has been customized by the PSU library to find some full-text articles at PSU!


Google Scholar can be extremely helpful in finding out how many times an article has been cited and who cited an article . This can help you determine how important an article is and which other authors you may want to investigate.

Make sure you're checking your discipline's databases as well, for fuller, more complete scholarly coverage of the journal articles on your topic. 

PDX Scholar

It can be helpful to look at the work of your peers to get a sense of how certain kinds of writing and research is done, including the literature review.

You can look at the full text of past dissertations, research, and other scholarly work from PSU students and faculty in the library's digital repository, PDXScholar.

  • PDXScholar Portland State University's Digital Repository, PDXScholar, preserves the University's research, unique resources, and other scholarly output with the goal of providing persistent, access to that work.
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Educational Leadership Research Guide

  • Conduct a Literature Review
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Literature Review Overview

A literature review involves both the literature searching and the writing. The purpose of the literature search is to:

  • reveal existing knowledge
  • identify areas of consensus and debate
  • identify gaps in knowledge
  • identify approaches to research design and methodology
  • identify other researchers with similar interests
  • clarify your future directions for research

List above from Conducting A Literature Search , Information Research Methods and Systems, Penn State University Libraries

A literature review provides an evaluative review and documentation of what has been published by scholars and researchers on a given topic. In reviewing the published literature, the aim is to explain what ideas and knowledge have been gained and shared to date (i.e., hypotheses tested, scientific methods used, results and conclusions), the weakness and strengths of these previous works, and to identify remaining research questions: A literature review provides the context for your research, making clear why your topic deserves further investigation.

Before You Search

  • Select and understand your research topic and question.
  • Identify the major concepts in your topic and question.
  • Brainstorm potential keywords/terms that correspond to those concepts.
  • Identify alternative keywords/terms (narrower, broader, or related) to use if your first set of keywords do not work.
  • Determine (Boolean*) relationships between terms.
  • Begin your search.
  • Review your search results.
  • Revise & refine your search based on the initial findings.

*Boolean logic provides three ways search terms/phrases can be combined, using the following three operators: AND, OR, and NOT.

Search Process

The type of information you want to find and the practices of your discipline(s) drive the types of sources you seek and where you search.

For most research you will use multiple source types such as: annotated bibliographies; articles from journals, magazines, and newspapers; books; blogs; conference papers; data sets; dissertations; organization, company, or government reports; reference materials; systematic reviews; archival materials; curriculum materials; and more. It can be helpful to develop a comprehensive approach to review different sources and where you will search for each. Below is an example approach.

Utilize Current Awareness Services  Identify and browse current issues of the most relevant journals for your topic; Setup email or RSS Alerts, e.g., Journal Table of Contents, Saved Searches

Consult Experts   Identify and search for the publications of or contact educators, scholars, librarians, employees etc. at schools, organizations, and agencies

  • Annual Reviews and Bibliographies   e.g., Annual Review of Psychology
  • Internet   e.g., Discussion Groups, Listservs, Blogs, social networking sites
  • Grant Databases   e.g., Foundation Directory Online, Grants.gov
  • Conference Proceedings   e.g., American Educational Research Association Online Paper Repository
  • Newspaper Indexes   e.g., Access World News, Ethnic NewsWatch, New York Times Historical
  • Journal Indexes/Databases and EJournal Packages   e.g., Educator's Reference Complete, SAGE
  • Citation Indexes   e.g., ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Educational Administration Abstracts, PsycINFO
  • Specialized Data   e.g., GEMS ( Growth and Enhancement of Montana Students) , IPEDS ( Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System)
  • Book Catalogs – e.g., local library catalog or discovery search, WorldCat
  • Library Web Scale Discovery Service  e.g., OneSearch
  • Web Search Engines   e.g., Google, Yahoo
  • Digital Collections   e.g., Archives & Special Collections Digital Collections, Digital Public Library of America
  • Associations/Community groups/Institutions/Organizations   e.g., Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Montana Office of Public Instruction, National Education Association

Remember there is no one portal for all information!

Database Searching Videos, Guides, and Examples

ProQuest (platform for ERIC, PsycINFO, and Dissertations & Theses Global databases, among other databases) search videos:

  • Basic Search
  • Advanced Search
  • Search Results

ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)

  • Comprehensive guide to the database, including Sample Searches
  • Searchable Fields
  • Comprehensive guide to the database
  • Education topic guide
  • Child Development topic guide
  • Performing Basic Searches
  • Performing Advanced Searches
  • Search Tips

If you are new to research , check out the Searching for Information tutorials and videos for foundational information.

Finding Empirical Studies

In ERIC : Check the box next to “143: Reports - Research” under "Document type" from the Advanced Search page

In PsycINFO : Check the box next to “Empirical Study” under "Methodology" from the Advanced Search page

In OneSearch : There is not a specific way to limit to empirical studies in OneSearch, you can limit your search results to peer-reviewed journals and or dissertations, and then identify studies by reading the source abstract to determine if you’ve found an empirical study or not.

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A systematic literature review of ICT integration in secondary education: what works, what does not, and what next?

  • Open access
  • Published: 16 November 2023
  • volume  2 , Article number:  44 ( 2023 )

You have full access to this open access article

  • Mgambi Msambwa Msafiri 1 ,
  • Daniel Kangwa 1 &
  • Lianyu Cai 1  

185 Accesses

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Cite this article

This study is rigorous of peer-reviewed literature on the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) tools in secondary schools. It analyzed the impact of ICT integration on the teaching and learning process based on 51 sampled studies. The findings are thematically presented under the benefits of improving teaching and learning processes regarding curriculum coverage, equitable access, shared learning resources, and personalized learning. Furthermore, challenges were found in professional development, pedagogical and technological knowledge, and resource maintenance. Among the best practices and strategies to resolve these challenges were regular supply and systems maintenance, curricula realignment, ICT policy formulation, and engaging all stakeholders in ICT integration. Recommendations: practitioners should adopt, adapt, and innovate pedagogical approaches, strategies, and methods to facilitate the use of ICT in teaching and learning and should align and integrate ICT tools with curriculum objectives, content, or standards by exploring and using diverse and dynamic ICT tools and methods in secondary schools.

Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.

1 Introduction

Information and communication technology (ICT) is a powerful tool capable of transforming education and enhancing learning outcomes. As a result of this technology, students can access information, collaborate with peers and teachers, develop critical thinking skills and problem-solving abilities, and express their creativity and innovation. Additionally, it can assist teachers in designing and delivering more effective and personalized instruction, assessing and monitoring student progress, and engaging in continuous professional development [ 1 , 2 ]. Despite this, integrating ICT into education is not without challenges; each context and subject area has specific needs, challenges, and opportunities that must be considered during the planning, implementation, evaluation, and improvement process. This analysis, therefore, aims at identifying gaps and limitations in the literature and argues that it is essential to thoroughly review the current literature to synthesize the knowledge about what works, what does not, and the next steps to take to yield the best results out of the integration process.

Furthermore, education has become more integrated with ICT in the twenty-first century, thriving on advancements in computer technology; teaching and learning in secondary schools can be improved in various ways. There is a possibility to support, enhance, or alter the processes and outcomes of teaching and learning in secondary schools through the efficient and successful implementation of ICT [ 3 ]. As a result of the use of ICT in the classroom, particularly in secondary schools, students' learning outcomes, motivation, engagement, and skill development are improved, as well as teachers' attitudes, practices, and beliefs about teaching and learning [ 4 , 5 ]. It is, therefore, imperative that stakeholders work together to overcome the obstacles and problems that prevent secondary schools from fully integrating ICT by addressing challenges such as a lack of resources, training, time, support, curriculum alignment, and pedagogical change [ 6 , 7 ] that interfere with successful integration.

Hence, providing a comprehensive analysis of empirical studies relevant to ICT in secondary schools and learning, the purpose of this systematic literature review is to provide a comprehensive review of the empirical studies. This is because secondary education is integral in preparing young people for life, work, and higher education in the twenty-first century, making integrating ICT into various subjects to be indispensable for improved teaching and learning.

1.1 Research question

The systematic review will analyze the included studies to attain its objective by addressing the following questions:

RQ1: Which benefits of ICT integration exist in secondary schools for teaching and learning?

RQ2: What challenges and barriers hinder ICT’s practical and meaningful integration in teaching and learning?

RQ3: Which best practices and strategies have been implemented for effective ICT integration in secondary schools?

The study contributes to the existing knowledge base on ICT integration in secondary schools by providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art and highlighting the gaps and areas for further research. The study also offers practical implications and recommendations for policymakers, educators, researchers, and stakeholders interested in ICT integration in secondary schools. The study is particularly relevant for developing countries, where ICT integration in secondary school education is still in its early stages of implementation and faces many challenges [ 8 ]. Developing countries are home to many young people who need quality education to achieve their potential and contribute to their nation’s social and economic development. Hence, this exploration is timely and essential.

Therefore, to achieve this objective, a systematic literature review was conducted using a six-step process, including team selection, protocol creation, extensive search, screening and selection of studies, data extraction and analysis, and reporting and dissemination of findings. The recommendations from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews served as the foundation for the procedure [ 9 ]. Both narrative and quantitative approaches were employed for the data synthesis. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) framework was used to prepare this study [ 10 ].

The structure of this article includes Sect.  1 , which is the background information on ICT integration in secondary education, and an overview of the systematic review methodology is provided in Sect.  2 , encompassing a search strategy, inclusion and exclusion criteria, quality assessment, extraction, and synthesis of data. The results are presented in Sect.  3 as descriptive statistics, thematic analysis, and synthesis. Section  4 discusses the main findings, the implications of this rigorous analysis, and its limitations and directions for possible future research. Finally, Sect.  5 presents the synthesized results and discussion.

This study applies a rigorous and transparent methodology based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews [ 11 ] and the PRISMA guidelines [ 10 ]. The study procedure progressed through six steps: selecting the team, developing the protocol, conducting a comprehensive literature search, screening and selecting studies, extracting and analyzing data, and reporting the results. The main objective was to investigate information and communication technology (ICT) use in secondary school education. Furthermore, the research aimed to understand better the impact and challenges of integrating ICT tools in secondary education. To sufficiently address the research problem and the stated objective, we selected a qualitative methodology based on a systematic literature review (SLR) guided by the PRISMA framework protocol [ 10 ] on integrating ICT in secondary school. The research questions were formulated to address the integration of ICT, the impact, and challenges faced in the process of integrating ICT in secondary schools, as shown in Table 1 .

2.1 Eligibility criteria

The sampled articles were considered eligible based on the document characteristics of being published:

in peer-reviewed journals,

in the English language,

between 2008 and July 11, 2023.

Additionally, content criteria and empirical studies with quantitative and qualitative methods were included, discarding theoretical studies dealing with ICT in settings other than secondary school.

2.2 Data sources and search strategy

The included studies were identified and retrieved from Scopus and Eric electronic databases. For the search and selection of articles, we used the search terms and their combinations as “integration”, “technology”, “secondary”, “school”, “ICT” “ICT in secondary education”, “ICT in secondary schools”, “implication of ICT in education”, “implication of ICT in secondary schools”, “benefits of ICT in secondary school”, “challenges in the implementation of ICT”, “challenges in the implementation of ICT in secondary school”, “impact of ICT in secondary school”, and “best practices in ICT implementation in secondary schools”.

2.3 Quality appraisal

The sample was selected using the JBI Checklist for Systematic Reviews and Research Syntheses. The checklist contains 11 questions, and the inclusion criteria were scored as "yes", "no", "unclear", or "not applicable" [ 12 ]. The automated inclusion and exclusion criteria were conducted by the three researchers who examined the search results by evaluating the abstracts to determine whether the study was suitable for the analysis of the benefits, challenges, and strategies employed to enhance ICT integration in secondary schools. In addition, studies were excluded if they did not meet the criteria after an objective comparison of the decisions of the independent researchers. The researchers' independent decisions had an interrater reliability of 94%, which was increased to 100% after the discussion among the three researchers to resolve and determine the suitability of the disputed studies.

2.4 Data analysis

The identified articles were 1363 from Scopus and Eric electronic databases, which were later cleaned up for duplicate records before screening. After the automated inclusion and exclusion process, 553 records were selected for further screening and eligibility assessment, which resulted in 51 sampled studies for this systematic analysis, as presented in Fig.  1 .

figure 1

Flowchart for inclusion and exclusion process

The results section is a descriptive and thematic analysis and presentation of the 51 included studies.

3.1 Description of the articles under analysis

The systematic review included studies from 2008 to 2023 to establish the trends and gaps in the integration and impact of ICT in secondary schools. According to the article distribution in Fig.  3 , most of our sampled studies were published in 2020 and 2022, followed by 2023. However, 2023 will likely receive more publications since the literature search was conducted in June 2023. The findings indicate that most of the included studies were published in 2022 and were distributed as in Fig.  2 .

figure 2

Publications by year (n = 51)

Furthermore, the studies were analyzed based on the methodology used. It was established that mainly quantitative methods were used in most of the sampled studies, and the least used method was the survey, as shown in Fig.  3 .

figure 3

Sampled studies by methodology

The systematic review categorized the included studies according to the country in which they were published. The article distribution by country indicates that many studies were conducted in Malaysia, as shown in Fig.  4 .

figure 4

Distribution by country

3.2 Thematic analysis

This section presents the findings according to the identified themes in relation to the research questions. The theme identification process involved the two authors independently analyzing the included studies with regard to the research questions and eligibility for the full-text screening. There was consultation with a third author in settling any disputes. This procedure of screening the full text and extracting the data was conducted thoroughly, as illustrated in the PRISMA flow diagram in Fig.  1 . Then, the initial coding for key terms was summarized into themes that emerged from the process, categorized according to the research questions as in Table 2 .

3.2.1 Themes in ICT integration

ICT integration in secondary education is characterized by some common themes, patterns, distinctions, and variations across subjects. The analyzed studies highlight that ICT integration is not only an essential tool to make teaching more interesting and sufficiently transmit twenty-first century skills to learners in current secondary schools but also plays a vital role in enhancing student’s learning outcomes, motivation, engagement, and critical and innovative thinking development [ 13 , 18 ]. Therefore, this study identified three themes surrounding the integration of ICT in secondary schools: the benefits, the challenges, and the best practices and strategies for making ICT an integral and beneficial tool for teaching and learning. Indeed, several factors have influenced and impacted the successful integration of ICT in various subject areas.

These factors can be loosely classified as student factors and teacher factors. Student factors can be termed those that affect students' learning processes, while teacher factors impede the teacher’s abilities to deliver the learning experiences in the teaching process. This analysis discovered that student factors can be minimized by integrating appropriate ICT tools, especially tools and methods that align with the subject's learning objectives, content, and pedagogy [ 4 , 31 ]. For ICT integration to be effective, a number of considerations need to be made, such as the quality of the ICT tools and methodologies, student involvement, learning interaction, and the assessment methods to be used [ 16 , 28 ].

On the other hand, teacher factors such as inadequate professional development, lack of sufficient school support, and pedagogical knowledge influence teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, which determine their desire and actual ICT integration in various subjects. Based on the findings, instructors can use ICT tools in a variety of ways, and how they adapt and use them can affect how they view, adopt, and use these tools [ 27 , 29 ]. ICT integration skills can be developed through professional development [ 32 ], while school leadership and support can also assist teachers with ICT integration by providing them with resources, guidance, and motivation [ 21 , 33 ]. The teacher’s pedagogical expertise and views may also contribute to the tactics they use to integrate ICT into their classrooms, such as whether they prefer student- or teacher-centered approaches [ 25 ]. The integration of ICT tools may be affected not only by student and teacher factors but also by the nature of the subject area and its associated learning experiences. Therefore, the distribution of ICT integration of the sample by subject areas demonstrates that the highest integration level of ICT tools was recorded at 33% in ICT as a subject, followed by STEM subjects at 17%, as shown in Fig.  5 .

figure 5

Distribution of ICT tools integration in subjects

4 Discussion

Based on this systematic literature review, we provide insights into how ICT is used in schools to improve teaching and learning. To comprehensively explain the findings, the research questions that guided this study have been categorized and discussed.

RQ1: What are the benefits of using ICT in secondary education?

RQ1 examined how ICT integration impacts secondary schools' learning outcomes, motivation, engagement, and skill development. About Eleven studies covering mathematics, science, language, and social studies addressed this question based on the rigorous inclusion criteria. The integration of ICT in secondary schools has been found to benefit the teaching and learning processes by improving the quality and pace of curriculum coverage. It is without doubt that integrating computers in the teaching and learning process, if well done, may translate into efficiency, but if not well done, it becomes disruptive. It may disorient both the teachers and learners from attaining their academic goals.

Therefore, this study aimed at synthesizing the benefits of effective ICT integration, which would foster impactful advances in secondary schools’ educational attainments. The twenty-first century has registered considerable advancements in computer technology, transforming various sectors of society and increasing demand for advanced computer skills. This requires that teaching and learning at all levels, particularly in secondary schools, be improved to support, enhance, and alter the processes and outcomes of teaching and learning through the efficient and successful implementation of ICT tools in schools [ 3 ]. As a result, using ICT in the classroom improves students' learning outcomes, motivation, engagement, skill development, and teachers' attitudes, practices, and beliefs about the teaching and learning process [ 4 , 31 ]. Therefore, stakeholders must work together to promote fully effective and practical integration of ICT tools by addressing issues such as a lack of resources, training, time, support, curriculum alignment, and pedagogical change [ 6 , 7 ] that interfere with successful integration. Apart from human resource skills development, other suitable resources and tools, such as software packages, should be made available to secure a meaningful integration.

According to Latifi [ 34 ], GeoGebra software, for instance, was used to teach geometry in Mathematics, improving students' geometry knowledge and performance. Furthermore, it showed that academic achievement, conceptual understanding, problem-solving skills, and creativity were all positively affected by the ICT integration on student learning outcomes. Indeed, Woodrich [ 13 ] confirmed that students' writing skills, creativity, motivation, and achievement in biology increased using Moodle LMS [ 6 ]. In a study conducted by Thibaut [ 20 ], students' inquiry skills and scientific literacy were also improved through WebQuest. It is clear that effective ICT integration in different subjects positively influences the motivation, engagement, and skill development of both the teacher and the learners, making their work more exciting and easier to understand. Therefore, when ICT tools are appropriately used, curriculum content and information are accurately and diversely presented, enhancing learners' ability to grasp concepts and ideas more efficiently and accurately, making the teaching and learning process easier and more interesting.

Another set of benefits can be presented under access to the learning process. Furthermore, the effective integration of ICT in the educative process gives learners better access to curriculum content and information; for example, a teacher can make the learning experiences available for learners at all times. That is, learners are made to conveniently access online learning experiences as they enjoy the freedom to continue learning at their convenience. In addition, effective ICT integration enables learners to collaborate with peers and teachers, develop critical thinking and problem-solving abilities, and express their creativity and innovation during their learning. Moreover, effective ICT integration can also enhance and make learning more personalized. In this regard, ICT tools can assist teachers in designing and delivering more effective and personalized instruction assessments, monitoring student progress, and engaging them in different learning activities.

Furthermore, personalized learning enables the equitable sharing of learning resources such as e-textbooks, course wares, computers, digital media, and other resources available to learners according to their learning needs. The equitable sharing of learning resources has been confirmed by different studies to positively affect students' interest, curiosity, confidence, and satisfaction in learning when ICT tools are effectively integrated into the teaching and learning processes. For example, learning resources shared through WebQuest promoted active participation, collaboration, communication, and self-regulation among students, while Lie [ 14 ] found that equitably shared digital libraries also increased student engagement and reading comprehension. In this case, digital storytelling increased students' motivation and collaboration, as supported by Smeda [ 4 ] and Karahan [ 15 ], who stated that the Autograph software stimulated students' curiosity and confidence in mathematics. These and many other benefits can be accrued from an effective ICT integration in secondary schools, as shown in Table 2 and further discussed under RQ3 below on the effectiveness of ICT tools and different strategies and practices that have been implemented in the school environment.

The results identified some limitations and challenges associated with using ICT in secondary schools. There were technical challenges, such as lack of access, reliability, compatibility, and security of ICT tools and resources. Some concerns were pedagogical issues related to curriculum alignment, assessment methods, and instructional strategies. Students and teachers were sometimes not motivated, interested, or ready to use ICT due to psychological problems.

Therefore, a total of 16 studies, among the included studies in this review, identified barriers and challenges to effective and meaningful integration of ICT in secondary schools. They identified factors that negatively affect ICT integration, such as lack of resources, training, time, support, curriculum alignment, and lack of pedagogical change. According to Chen [ 17 ], technical difficulties or insufficient guidance contributed to some students' frustrations with WebQuest, while Toma [ 18 ] discovered that teachers had negative attitudes toward digital storytelling because they had not been properly trained or supported. Further, Dockendorff [ 19 ] highlighted that some curricula did not adequately include or evaluate ICT integration and evaluation.

Inadequate ICT tools and resources: inadequate, inaccessible, unreliable, and insecure ICT tools pose challenges for teachers and students to use ICT effectively and efficiently. It was found by Planinc [ 7 ] that some preservice mathematics teachers lacked access to GeoGebra software and computers at school or home. According to Smeda [ 4 ], some language teachers face technical difficulties when using digital storytelling tools. At the same time, the Moodle Learning Management System (LMS) had compatibility issues and security concerns for some in-service science teachers [ 23 ].

Insufficient or inadequate training: Teachers lack access to adequate, relevant, high-quality, or frequent professional development opportunities to enhance their abilities to integrate ICT effectively. According to Mohd Ayub [ 28 ], some in-service mathematics teachers lacked the training and experience to use GeoGebra effectively, and in-service biology teachers were not given enough support or training when using Moodle LMS [ 6 ]. Similarly, preservice language teachers lacked training and feedback while using digital storytelling in their classrooms [ 24 ].

Insufficient Planning Time: There is a lack of time for teachers to plan, implement, evaluate, or improve their ICT integration practices because of insufficient allocation, management, or flexibility of time. Mostly, teachers face this challenge, as they are not always able to use ICT effectively or efficiently due to a lack of time. Lie [ 14 , 20 ] found a lack of time for designing and implementing WebQuest projects in the classroom among preservice science teachers. Some in-service language teachers did not have adequate time to explore digital libraries or use them to enhance their teaching; according to Lie [ 14 ] in their study, Bratland [ 25 ] reported that some in-service mathematics teachers did not have time to learn and use GeoGebra software.

Inadequate Technical Support: There is a lack of support for teachers on technical, pedagogical, and emotional levels in terms of provision, quality, relevance, or frequency to improve their ability and competence in integrating ICT. Usually, this is coupled with a lack of appropriate ICT support for teachers, resulting in their inability to use ICT effectively or efficiently. Karahan [ 15 ] found that in-service math teachers lacked technical support when using Autograph software. When using WebQuest for teaching social studies, some in-service teachers lacked sufficient pedagogical support [ 16 ].

Misaligned Curriculum: ICT tools and methods are not aligned, integrated, or coherent with curriculum objectives, content, or standards for teaching and learning when they are not aligned, integrated, or coherent. There may be an inconsistency between the use of ICT and curriculum goals or expectations, which affects both teachers and students. Chen [ 17 ] found that WebQuest was not aligned or integrated with curriculum standards and objectives among in-service language teachers. It has been reported by Toma [ 18 ] that some in-service language teachers lack coherence between digital storytelling and curriculum content. The use of ICT in teaching and learning is not adequately incorporated or evaluated in some curricula [ 19 ].

Inadequate ICT Pedagogic Skills: ICT may not be sufficient for supporting, enhancing, or transforming teaching and learning if pedagogical approaches, strategies, or methods are not adopted, adapted, or innovated. This challenge mainly affects teachers, who may not have enough pedagogical changes to use ICT effectively. Several preservice mathematics teachers were not sufficiently adopting GeoGebra software or adapting it to their existing pedagogical practices [ 7 ]. Digital storytelling did not lead to enough innovation in pedagogical practices for some in-service language teachers [ 4 ]. For some in-service teachers, ICT was ineffective in shifting science teachers from teacher-centered to student-centered learning [ 35 ].

According to the research conducted on RQ3, teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding the integration of ICT are influenced by professional development, school support, leadership, pedagogical understanding, and technical knowledge. The review included 14 studies that addressed this question. These studies covered various aspects of teacher education, including preservice training, in-service training, mentoring, coaching, collaboration, reflection, feedback, evaluation, and certification. Most studies indicate that enhancing teachers' ICT integration skills and competencies requires professional development opportunities. Professional development significantly influenced teacher attitudes, beliefs, and practices related to ICT integration, as in the following examples:

Planinc and Kolnik [ 7 ] found that GeoGebra workshops improved preservice mathematics teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) and confidence in using GeoGebra.

Ilona-Elefteryja [ 6 ] established that biology teachers who attended a Moodle LMS course were more self-efficacious and motivated to use Moodle LMS in the classroom.

Thibault [ 20 ] identified that preservice science teachers who worked on WebQuest designed projects improved their inquiry skills as well as their pedagogical reasoning and

Lie [ 14 ] reported that mentored in-service language teachers became more proficient in digital literacy and pedagogical strategies for utilizing digital libraries.

Furthermore, school support, leadership, and culture can facilitate or hinder ICT integration in secondary education. In addition to providing adequate resources, infrastructure, and technical assistance for ICT integration, school support includes creating a shared vision, mission, and goals for ICT integration; fostering a supportive, collaborative, and innovative school climate for ICT integration; and rewarding, and recognizing teachers and students for their efforts and achievements. School leadership modeled, promoted, and advocated ICT integration, empowering, encouraging, and inspiring teachers and students. It also involved monitoring, evaluating, and improving the effectiveness and quality of integrating ICTs in the teaching and learning process, as itemized in the following examples which;

teachers' attitudes and practices regarding using Autograph software in mathematics were positively correlated with school support and leadership, as Karahan [ 15 ] observed,

Ruggiero and Mong [ 16 ] stated that obtaining school support and leadership was one of the most critical factors in implementing WebQuests to teach social studies and finally,

strong school leadership and school support can foster a culture of innovation and collaboration among teachers and students in the use of ICT, as Ramos and de Andrade [ 21 ] suggested.

Therefore, there should be a holistic and systemic approach to incorporating ICT tools in secondary education to achieve effective ICT integration. This empirical review shows that ICT integration involves changing teachers' and students' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, not just pedagogical or technical issues. Hence, the sampled studies attempted to address this issue by investigating how ICT tools could be meaningfully integrated into the learning environment in a quest to integrate useful ICT tools to improve the learning process and the well-being of its users. Sampled studies investigated the integration of a variety of ICT tools and methods, such as digital storytelling, WebQuest, GeoGebra, Moodle LMS, Autograph, and digital libraries. The studies described ICT tools and methods in terms of their features, functions, advantages, and disadvantages and granting examples of the impacts of these ICT tools in the learning environment.

As an example, Multimedia stories can be created and shared using digital tools and platforms. Through the study of digital literacy, students can improve their writing skills, creativity, motivation, collaboration, and communication skills. Moreover, it allows students to express their opinions, emotions, and experiences meaningfully. Language, social studies, and the arts are all possible applications of this technique [ 4 , 13 , 18 , 29 ]. Online resources are used to create and complete WebQuests, which are inquiry-based tasks. Student learning can be enhanced by improving inquiry skills, scientific literacy, critical thinking, problem-solving, and self-regulation. It also allows students to explore everyday issues, questions, and problems in a structured environment. In addition to science, mathematics, and social studies, this approach benefits all subjects [ 16 , 17 ].

Furthermore, GeoGebra uses algebraic expressions to create geometric constructions that can be modified dynamically. Students will learn geometry concepts more deeply, become more curious, and gain greater self-confidence through the program. Besides, it may be used to visually represent, explore, or prove geometric relationships, properties, and theorems. This approach may teach mathematical subjects [ 7 , 25 , 28 ]. You can manage and deliver online courses with multiple modules and activities with the Moodle Learning Management System. When students are motivated, engaged, and collaborate during the learning process, they are more likely to achieve, be motivated, and be engaged. Teachers can also use this software for designing, delivering, assessing, and monitoring online courses. It can cover various topics [ 6 , 23 ].

In addition, Using an Autograph program, dynamic graphs can be manipulated using numerical data and functions. Exposure to graphing concepts results in students performing better, understanding more, feeling more confident, and being more curious. Also, students can interact with graphs by visualizing, exploring, and analyzing them. To practice mathematics, users can access digital resources such as books, articles, images, and videos through digital libraries [ 14 , 15 ] and students can become more engaged, read more, and understand digital literacy better. As a result of a digital resource management system [ 14 ] digital resources can also be provided, organized, and recommended for use in a wide variety of subjects. In secondary education, ICT tools and methods suggest that it is a dynamic phenomenon that requires an adaptable and flexible approach to address diverse topics and situations. ICT integration is used to develop, implement, evaluate, and improve ICT-based learning activities to support, enhance, and transform teaching and learning. Based on our systematic review, Table 3 summarizes our discussion of challenges and possible solutions associated with the integration of ICT in secondary schools.

4.1 Implications for policy and practice

The implications of this systematic literature review for policy and practice in secondary education are numerous. Policymakers should consider implementing ICT integration in secondary education with clear, coherent, comprehensive policies and guidelines addressing various dimensions and factors. These factors are associated with ICT integration, including resources, training, support, curriculum alignment, and pedagogical changes. In secondary education, providing adequate and appropriate resources, infrastructure, and technical assistance is essential to ensuring that ICT tools and resources are available, accessible, reliable, compatible, and secure. Improving teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and practices related to ICT integration should support and facilitate effective and meaningful professional development opportunities. In addition, a shared vision, mission, and goals for ICT integration in secondary education should be created by cultivating a supportive, collaborative, and innovative school culture and climate. A culture and climate that inspires teachers and students to use ICT in education and recognizes, rewards, and celebrates teachers and students' ICT integration achievements.

Practitioners should incorporate ICT tools in teaching and learning to enhance, support, and transform student learning outcomes, motivation, engagement, and skills development. This can be achieved by adopting and adapting strategies and pedagogical methods to integrate ICT tools into the secondary school learning environment efficiently. The integration should be aligned and well coordinated with the curriculum's objectives, content, and standards for teaching and learning purposes. Therefore, Table 3 outlines how the practitioners can address the different issues surrounding the ICT tools integration in the learning process. For example, various topics and situations in teaching and learning may require practitioners to explore, use, or suggest ICT tools and methods to address each context and subject area's specific needs, challenges, and opportunities. There should be effective mechanisms for monitoring, assessing, and improving the quality and effectiveness of ICT integration in teaching and learning by planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving ICT-based learning activities. It is evident from this systematic literature review that a framework is needed to promote better computer-aided learning in secondary schools and to integrate ICT effectively. Therefore, to ensure an effective and beneficial integration of ICT tools in schools, the researchers have proposed the ICT integration framework as in Fig.  6 , illustrating how different aspects of an effective integration interact within an integration system.

figure 6

ICT integration framework

According to the sampled studies, effective integration of ICT depends on students' and teachers' motivation [ 13 , 18 , 19 , 28 ] Additionally, the authors recommend that secondary schools align ICT integration with their curricula [ 6 , 20 ] and learning objectives as well as maintaining ICT tools [ 4 , 14 ] and develop appropriate ICT skills for teachers as well as learners [ 15 , 16 , 17 ]. Therefore, ICT integration depends mainly on capacity development [ 6 , 7 ], which should be focused on harnessing technological knowledge with pedagogical understanding [ 16 , 21 ] in a conducive learning environment supported by all stakeholders [ 15 , 20 , 29 ]. Finally, capacity development should further enable students, teachers, and other experts to identify challenges and address them efficiently [ 23 , 25 , 26 ]. This framework is a cyclic model of effectively integrating ICT in a learning context.

4.2 Limitations and future research

A systematic literature review has several limitations, including that the scope of the review was limited to the use of information and communication technology in secondary schools for teaching and learning. Therefore, the study findings cannot be generalized or applied to any other level or setting of education, such as primary schools, higher education, or informal education. Studies that are included in a review determine its quality. Methodological aspects such as sample size, design, measurement, or analysis may affect the included studies' results. Thus, the strengths and weaknesses of the synthesis methods may affect the synthesis results.

ICT integration in secondary education should be explored in more diverse and dynamic ways to accommodate various topics and situations in secondary education. Every context and subject area may present different needs, challenges, and opportunities, which require tools that can be applied to them. Examine holistic and systemic approaches to integrating ICT into secondary school teaching and learning that address the resource, training, support, curriculum alignment, and pedagogical changes associated with ICT integration.

5 Conclusion

This study was conducted to comprehensively and rigorously review peer-reviewed studies on integrating information and communication technology in secondary schools. This study followed PRISMA guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews [ 9 ] as the framework, assuring rigor and transparency. In this analysis, three research questions on ICT integration in secondary education were explored with regard to benefits, challenges, best practices, and barriers. As this systematic review highlights, several types and characteristics of ICT tools and methods can be utilized in teaching various secondary education topics. For adequate and appropriate ICT integration resources, infrastructure, and technical assistance, policymakers should develop and implement clear, coherent, and comprehensive policies and guidelines. To foster a supportive, collaborative, and innovative school climate, teachers must be able to participate in practical and meaningful professional development opportunities. For information and communication technology to be effectively utilized for teaching and learning, practitioners must adopt, adapt, or innovate pedagogical approaches, strategies, and methods that align and integrate ICT tools with curriculum objectives, content, or standards. They should explore, use, and propose diverse and dynamic ICT tools and methods for a wide range of topics to ensure that learners get the best out of the learning process.

Data availability

Not applicable. The data for this study originated from secondary desk research.

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1.1 Appendix 1: Summary of included studies highlighting ict integration and impacts in secondary schools

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Based on a celebrated 19th-century trial in which the defendant was accused of impersonating a nobleman, Smith’s novel offers a vast panoply of London and the English countryside, and successfully locates the social controversies of an era in a handful of characters.

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From From by Monica Youn

In her fourth book of verse, a svelte, intrepid foray into American racism, Youn turns a knowing eye on society’s love-hate relationship with what it sees as the “other.”

book cover for A Guest in the House

A Guest in the House by Emily Carroll

After a lonely young woman marries a mild-mannered widower and moves into his home, she begins to wonder how his first wife actually died. This graphic novel alternates between black-and-white and overwhelming colors as it explores the mundane and the horrific.

book cover for The Heaven & Earth Grocery Store

The Heaven & Earth Grocery Store by James McBride

McBride’s latest, an intimate, big-hearted tale of community, opens with a human skeleton found in a well in the 1970s, and then flashes back to the past, to the ’20s and ’30s, to explore the town’s Black, Jewish and immigrant history.

book cover for Hello Beautiful

Hello Beautiful by Ann Napolitano

In her radiant fourth novel, Napolitano puts a fresh spin on the classic tale of four sisters and the man who joins their family. Take “Little Women,” move it to modern-day Chicago, add more intrigue, lots of basketball and a different kind of boy next door and you’ve got the bones of this thoroughly original story.

book cover for A History of Burning

A History of Burning by Janika Oza

This remarkable debut novel tells the story of an extended Indo-Ugandan family that is displaced, settled and displaced again.

book cover for Holly

Holly by Stephen King

The scrappy private detective Holly Gibney (who appeared in “The Outsider” and several other novels) returns, this time taking on a missing-persons case that — in typical King fashion — unfolds into a tale of Dickensian proportions.

book cover for A House for Alice

A House for Alice by Diana Evans

This polyphonic novel traces one family’s reckoning after the patriarch dies in a fire, as his widow, a Nigerian immigrant, considers returning to her home country and the entire family re-examines the circumstances of their lives.

book cover for The Iliad

The Iliad by Homer

Emily Wilson’s propulsive new translation of the “Iliad” is buoyant and expressive; she wants this version to be read aloud, and it would certainly be fun to perform.

book cover for Ink Blood Sister Scribe

Ink Blood Sister Scribe by Emma Törzs

The sisters in Törzs's delightful debut have been raised to protect a collection of magic books that allow their keepers to do incredible things. Their story accelerates like a fugue, ably conducted to a tender conclusion.

book cover for Kairos

Kairos by Jenny Erpenbeck

This tale of a torrid, yearslong relationship between a young woman and a much older married man — translated from the German by Michael Hofmann — is both profound and moving.

book cover for Kantika

Kantika by Elizabeth Graver

Inspired by the life of Graver’s maternal grandmother, this exquisitely imagined family saga spans cultures and continents as it traces the migrations of a Sephardic Jewish girl from turn-of-the-20th-century Constantinople to Barcelona, Havana and, finally, Queens, N.Y.

book cover for Land of Milk and Honey

Land of Milk and Honey by C Pam Zhang

Zhang’s lush, keenly intelligent novel follows a chef who’s hired to cook for an “elite research community” in the Italian Alps, in a not-so-distant future where industrial-agricultural experiments in America’s heartland have blanketed the globe in a crop-smothering smog.

book cover for Lone Women

Lone Women by Victor LaValle

The year is 1915, and the narrator of LaValle’s horror-tinged western has arrived in Montana to cultivate an unforgiving homestead. She’s looking for a fresh start as a single Black woman in a sparsely populated state, but the locked trunk she has in stow holds a terrifying secret.

book cover for Monica

Monica by Daniel Clowes

In Clowes’s luminous new work, the titular character, abandoned by her mother as a child, endures a life of calamities before resolving to learn about her origins and track down her parents.

book cover for The Most Secret Memory of Men

The Most Secret Memory of Men by Mohamed Mbougar Sarr

Based on a true story and translated by Lara Vergnaud, Sarr’s novel — about a Senegalese writer brought low by a plagiarism scandal — asks sharp questions about the state of African literature in the West.

book cover for The New Naturals

The New Naturals by Gabriel Bump

In Bump’s engrossing new novel, a young Black couple, mourning the loss of their newborn daughter and disillusioned with the world, start a utopian society — but tensions both internal and external soon threaten their dreams.

book cover for North Woods

North Woods by Daniel Mason

Mason’s novel looks at the occupants of a single house in Massachusetts over several centuries, from colonial times to present day. An apple farmer, an abolitionist, a wealthy manufacturer: The book follows these lives and many others, with detours into natural history and crime reportage.

book cover for Not Even the Dead

Not Even the Dead by Juan Gómez Bárcena

An ex-conquistador in Spanish-ruled, 16th-century Mexico is asked to hunt down an Indigenous prophet in this novel by a leading writer in Spain, splendidly translated by Katie Whittemore. The epic search stretches across much of the continent and, as the author bends time and history, lasts centuries.

book cover for The Nursery

The Nursery by Szilvia Molnar

“I used to be a translator and now I am a milk bar.” So begins Molnar’s brilliant novel about a new mother falling apart within the four walls of her apartment.

book cover for Our Share of Night

Our Share of Night by Mariana Enriquez

This dazzling, epic narrative, translated from the Spanish by Megan McDowell, is a bewitching brew of mystery and myth, peopled by mediums who can summon “the Darkness” for a secret society of wealthy occultists seeking to preserve consciousness after death.

book cover for Pineapple Street

Pineapple Street by Jenny Jackson

Jackson’s smart, dishy debut novel embeds readers in an upper-crust Brooklyn Heights family — its real estate, its secrets, its just-like-you-and-me problems. Does money buy happiness? “Pineapple Street” asks a better question: Does it buy honesty?

book cover for The Reformatory

The Reformatory by Tananarive Due

Due’s latest — about a Black boy, Robert, who is wrongfully sentenced to a fictionalized version of Florida’s infamous and brutal Dozier School — is both an incisive examination of the lingering traumas of racism and a gripping, ghost-filled horror novel. “The novel’s extended, layered denouement is so heart-smashingly good, it made me late for work,” Randy Boyagoda wrote in his review. “I couldn’t stop reading.”

book cover for The Saint of Bright Doors

The Saint of Bright Doors by Vajra Chandrasekera

Trained to kill by his mother and able to see demons, the protagonist of Chandrasekera’s stunning and lyrical novel flees his destiny as an assassin and winds up in a politically volatile metropolis.

book cover for Same Bed Different Dreams

Same Bed Different Dreams by Ed Park

Double agents, sinister corporations, slasher films, U.F.O.s — Park’s long-awaited second novel is packed to the gills with creative elements that enliven his acerbic, comedic and lyrical odyssey into Korean history and American paranoia.

book cover for Take What You Need

Take What You Need by Idra Novey

This elegant novel resonates with implication beyond the taut contours of its central story line. In Novey’s deft hands, the complex relationship between a young woman and her former stepmother hints at the manifold divisions within America itself.

book cover for This Other Eden

This Other Eden by Paul Harding

In his latest novel, inspired by the true story of a devastating 1912 eviction in Maine that displaced an entire mixed-race fishing community, Harding turns that history into a lyrical tale about the fictional Apple Island on the cusp of destruction.

book cover for Tom Lake

Tom Lake by Ann Patchett

Locked down on the family’s northern Michigan cherry orchard, three sisters and their mother, a former actress whose long-ago summer fling went on to become a movie star, reflect on love and regret in Patchett’s quiet and reassuring Chekhovian novel.

book cover for The Unsettled

The Unsettled by Ayana Mathis

This novel follows three generations across time and place: a young mother trying to create a home for herself and her son in 1980s Philadelphia, and her mother, who is trying to save their Alabama hometown from white supremacists seeking to displace her from her land.

book cover for Victory City

Victory City by Salman Rushdie

Rushdie’s new novel recounts the long life of Pampa Kampana, who creates an empire from magic seeds in 14th-century India. Her world is one of peace, where men and women are equal and all faiths welcome, but the story Rushdie tells is of a state that forever fails to live up to its ideals.

book cover for We Could Be So Good

We Could Be So Good by Cat Sebastian

This queer midcentury romance — about reporters who meet at work, become friends, move in together and fall in love — lingers on small, everyday acts like bringing home flowers with the groceries, things that loom large because they’re how we connect with others.

book cover for Western Lane

Western Lane by Chetna Maroo

In this polished and disciplined debut novel, an 11-year-old Jain girl in London who has just lost her mother turns her attention to the game of squash — which in Maroo’s graceful telling becomes a way into the girl’s grief.

book cover for Witness

Witness by Jamel Brinkley

Set in Brooklyn, and featuring animal rescue workers, florists, volunteers, ghosts and UPS workers, Brinkley’s new collection meditates on what it means to see and be seen.

book cover for Y/N

Y/N by Esther Yi

In this weird and wondrous novel, a bored young woman in thrall to a boy band buys a one-way ticket to Seoul.

book cover for Yellowface

Yellowface by R.F. Kuang

Kuang’s first foray outside of the fantasy genre is a breezy and propulsive tale about a white woman who achieves tremendous literary success by stealing a manuscript from a recently deceased Asian friend and passing it off as her own.


The 272 by Rachel L. Swarns

Building on her groundbreaking work for The Times, Swarns fashions a complex portrait of 19th-century American Catholicism through the story of the nearly 300 people enslaved on Jesuit plantations who were sold in 1838 to save Georgetown University from ruin.

book cover for Anansi’s Gold

Anansi’s Gold by Yepoka Yeebo

Yeebo, a journalist, tracks down the elusive story of John Ackah Blay-Miezah, who revolutionized the “advance fee” scam (say, a Nigerian prince wants to wire you money), and contextualizes it within a Ghana — and a world — that allowed him to thrive.

book cover for Battle of Ink and Ice

Battle of Ink and Ice by Darrell Hartman

This fast paced, true-life adventure revives the headline-grabbing debate over which explorer reached the North Pole first — and which newspaper broke the news.

book cover for The Best Minds

The Best Minds by Jonathan Rosen

A literary and compassionate examination of the porous line between brilliance and insanity, this riveting memoir traces the author’s childhood friendship and sometime rivalry with a neighbor and Yale classmate who is now in prison for murdering his girlfriend.

book cover for Bottoms Up and the Devil Laughs

Bottoms Up and the Devil Laughs by Kerry Howley

Howley writes about the national security state and those who get entangled in it — fabulists, truth tellers, combatants, whistle-blowers. Like many of us, they have left traces of themselves in the digital ether by making a phone call, texting a friend, looking something up online.

book cover for Built From the Fire

Built From the Fire by Victor Luckerson

This ambitious history, by a journalist based in Tulsa, provides an authoritative account of the prosperous Black neighborhood decimated by the city’s 1921 race massacre and a gripping portrait of the community resurrected in its aftermath.

book cover for Cobalt Red

Cobalt Red by Siddharth Kara

Cobalt is essential to the tech industry, but as Kara’s harrowing account demonstrates, it comes at a high cost: Much of the mineral is mined in toxic conditions for subsistence wages in Congo — all too often, by children.

book cover for Crossings

Crossings by Ben Goldfarb

Goldfarb, an environmental journalist, crafts a fascinating and sensitive look at the costs of roads, both for wild animals and for the humans whose cities are divided by highways along racial lines.

book cover for Daughter of the Dragon

Daughter of the Dragon by Yunte Huang

Huang’s new book, a biography embedded in cultural criticism, is an absorbing account of the life and times of the Chinese American starlet Anna May Wong, whose career spanned silent movies, talkies and television.

book cover for Doppelganger

Doppelganger by Naomi Klein

After she was repeatedly confused online with the feminist scholar turned anti-vaxxer Naomi Wolf, Klein turned the experience into this sober, stylish account of the lure of disdain and paranoia.

book cover for Easily Slip Into Another World

Easily Slip Into Another World by Henry Threadgill and Brent Hayes Edwards

The jazz artist Henry Threadgill’s ardent memoir ranges from his maddening wartime experiences in Vietnam to his boundary-pushing musical career.

book cover for The Exceptions

The Exceptions by Kate Zernike

Zernike’s excellent and infuriating tale of the fight for fairness at M.I.T. and beyond is not merely a fast-paced account of one woman’s accomplishments but a larger history of women in STEM (or lack thereof).

book cover for Fire Weather

Fire Weather by John Vaillant

This timely and riveting account of the 2016 McMurray wildfire explores not just that Canadian inferno but what it bodes for the future. Vaillant has a chillingly serious message: This is the inevitable result of climate change, and it will happen again and again.

book cover for The Great Escape

The Great Escape by Saket Soni

In this gripping account, Soni, a labor organizer, details the story of several hundred Indian men lured to this country on promises of work and green cards, who ended up in semi-captivity in Mississippi until his efforts to free them.

book cover for The Half Known Life

The Half Known Life by Pico Iyer

In talking to people the world over about what paradise means to them, Iyer provides hours of thought-provoking meditations. “Paradise becomes something different in every neighbor’s head,” he says.

book cover for How to Say Babylon

How to Say Babylon by Safiya Sinclair

In this breathless, scorching memoir of a girlhood spent becoming the perfect Rasta daughter and an adolescence spent becoming one of Jamaica’s most promising young poets, Montego Bay drips with as much tender sensuality and complexity as the buoyant patois of Sinclair’s parents’ banter.

book cover for Humanly Possible

Humanly Possible by Sarah Bakewell

In earlier books, Bakewell has written about Montaigne and the existentialists; here, she manages to wrangle seven centuries of humanist thought into a brisk narrative with characteristic wit and clarity, resisting the traps of windy abstraction and glib oversimplification.

book cover for Judgment at Tokyo

Judgment at Tokyo by Gary J. Bass

This comprehensive treatment of the prosecution of Japanese war crimes after World War II is an elegantly written and immersive account of a moment that shaped not just the politics of the region, but of the Cold War to come.

book cover for King

King by Jonathan Eig

The first comprehensive biography of Martin Luther King Jr. in decades, Eig’s book draws on a landslide of recently released government documents as well as letters and interviews. This is a book worthy of its subject: both an intimate study of a complex and flawed human being and a journalistic account of a civil rights titan.

book cover for The Kingdom, the Power, and the Glory

The Kingdom, the Power, and the Glory by Tim Alberta

Having detailed how President Trump's rise to power occurred amid a years-long civil war within the Republican party in his 2019 book "American Carnage," Alberta, a staff writer for The Atlantic, turns his eye on another institution that has become split in two as a result of the former president: the American evangelical movement.

book cover for The Land of Hope and Fear

The Land of Hope and Fear by Isabel Kershner

Published months before the Israel-Hamas war, this book by a longtime correspondent in Jerusalem presents a complicated portrait of the many communities and faiths that constitute Israel three-quarters of a century into its existence.

book cover for Liliana’s Invincible Summer

Liliana’s Invincible Summer by Cristina Rivera Garza

In 1990, Rivera Garza’s 20-year-old sister was murdered in Mexico. That case is the inspiration and launching point for this memoir, a personal and cultural look at femicide in Mexico.

book cover for Lives of the Wives

Lives of the Wives by Carmela Ciuraru

The relationships at the center of Ciuraru’s lively and absorbing new literary history vary widely, but are united by questions of ego and agency, competition and resentment.

book cover for A Living Remedy

A Living Remedy by Nicole Chung

Chung’s powerful second memoir is a look at family, illness and grief, and the way systemic issues like access to health care, capitalism and racism exacerbate loss.

book cover for Master Slave Husband Wife

Master Slave Husband Wife by Ilyon Woo

Woo’s book recounts a daring feat: the successful flight north from Georgia in 1848 by an enslaved couple disguised as a sickly young white planter and his male slave. But her meticulous retelling is equally a feat — of research, storytelling, sympathy and insight.

book cover for Monsters

Monsters by Claire Dederer

“Everyone alive is either canceled or about to be canceled,” writes the author of this sometimes maddening, always challenging meditation on polarizing cultural figures (Nabokov, Polanski, et al.) and the struggle to reconcile great art with the misdeeds of its creators.

book cover for My Name is Barbra

My Name is Barbra by Barbra Streisand

“I’m the greatest star!” the 21-year-old actress defiantly sang in Broadway’s 1964 hit “Funny Girl.” Nearly six decades later, over 992 pages, Streisand chronicles how she delivered on that promise, a rocket ride from Brooklyn to Malibu.

book cover for The Odyssey of Phillis Wheatley

The Odyssey of Phillis Wheatley by David Waldstreicher

A beautiful and cogently argued biography offers a radical new vision of the life and work of colonial America’s brilliant Black female poet.

book cover for Ordinary Notes

Ordinary Notes by Christina Sharpe

In this volume of 248 numbered notes, Sharpe assembles memories and insights, artifacts and artworks, balancing the persistence of racism and brutality with a rich variety of Black life.

book cover for Oscar Wars

Oscar Wars by Michael Schulman

A deeply researched and compulsively readable history digs into the scandal-soaked history of the Academy Awards.

book cover for Our Migrant Souls

Our Migrant Souls by Héctor Tobar

Tobar, a longtime journalist, delivers a kaleidoscopic account of Latino American experience, dispelling stereotypes and underscoring diversity in prose that is by turns lyrical, outraged, scholarly and affectingly personal.

book cover for Pageboy

Pageboy by Elliot Page

The Oscar-nominated actor offers a brutally honest account of child stardom, the pressure to conform in Hollywood and, ultimately, the announcement of his gender transition in 2020.

book cover for Poverty, by America

Poverty, by America by Matthew Desmond

The central claim of this manifesto by the Princeton sociologist is that poverty in the United States is the product not only of larger economic shifts, but of choices and actions by more fortunate Americans.

book cover for The Rediscovery of America

The Rediscovery of America by Ned Blackhawk

This ambitious retelling of the American story, by a historian who is also a Native American, places Indigenous populations at the center, a shift in perspective that yields fresh insights and thought-provoking questions.

book cover for The Rigor of Angels

The Rigor of Angels by William Egginton

Challenging, ambitious and elegant, this mind-expanding book explores nothing less than “the ultimate nature of reality” through the work of three figures: the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges, the German quantum physicist Werner Heisenberg and the 18th-century German philosopher Immanuel Kant.

book cover for Schoenberg

Schoenberg by Harvey Sachs

Sachs has written well for decades about conventional classical music. This impassioned defense of Arnold Schoenberg — creator of some of the most challenging music ever — might seem surprising from him, but Schoenberg’s life was one of the 20th century’s great narratives.

book cover for Sink

Sink by Joseph Earl Thomas

The lush prose of this memoir perfectly suits the author’s tender, teeming boyhood imagination, in which video-game and manga characters offered more guidance than volatile adults did. Most remarkable is Thomas’s matter-of-fact depiction of the daily depredations he faced without losing his spirit or his abundant creative gifts.

book cover for The Slip

The Slip by Prudence Peiffer

From Ellsworth Kelly to Agnes Martin to Robert Indiana, a group of scrappy artists gathered in illegal studios at the tip of Lower Manhattan in the 1950s, trying to provide an answer to Abstract Expressionism. This group biography reflects the excitement of those years — and our debt to them.

book cover for Some People Need Killing

Some People Need Killing by Patricia Evangelista

In powerful, gripping prose, a Philippine journalist recounts her investigation into the campaign of extrajudicial murders under former President Rodrigo Duterte.

book cover for Spoken Word

Spoken Word by Joshua Bennett

Bennett’s engaging history of a literary and cultural movement that took hold in many realms — including music, theater, film, television and, of course, poetry — tracks its evolution from the earliest days of the Nuyorican Poets Cafe on the Lower East Side to the first iterations of slam poetry and beyond.

book cover for A Thread of Violence

A Thread of Violence by Mark O’Connell

O’Connell brings literary flourish and a philosophical bent to this investigation of an infamous and confounding Irish murder case.

book cover for Time’s Echo

Time’s Echo by Jeremy Eichler

This cultural history takes up works by Schoenberg, Britten, Shostakovich and Richard Strauss that reflect on World War II and the Holocaust, urging listeners to consider the link between music and remembrance.

book cover for The Undertow

The Undertow by Jeff Sharlet

Anxious about America’s political divides, and fearful that they presage the end of the union, Sharlet spent a year speaking with conservative pastors, gun fanatics and QAnon adherents, among others. The result is an eloquent cri de coeur by a writer struggling to meet political and moral unreason with compassion and grace.

book cover for Unscripted

Unscripted by James B. Stewart and Rachel Abrams

This jaw-dropping chronicle by two Times reporters of the final years of Sumner Redstone, the head of Paramount, is an epic tale of toxic wealth and greed populated by connivers and manipulators, not least Redstone himself.

book cover for Up Home

Up Home by Ruth J. Simmons

Simmons’s evocative account of her remarkable trajectory from Jim Crow Texas, where she was the youngest of 12 children in a sharecropping family, to the presidencies of Smith College and Brown University shines with tenderness and dignity.

book cover for The Wager

The Wager by David Grann

After the H.M.S. Wager was shipwrecked off the coast of Patagonia in 1742, surviving crew members returned to England with dramatic — and starkly conflicting — tales about what had transpired. Grann recreates the voyage in all its enthralling horror.

book cover for Waiting to Be Arrested at Night

Waiting to Be Arrested at Night by Tahir Hamut Izgil

Offering a rare glimpse into the life and culture of China’s brutally persecuted Muslim Uyghur minority, this eloquent memoir by a poet who escaped with his family to the United States (and translated by Joshua L. Freeman) unfolds a horror story with calm restraint.

book cover for What An Owl Knows

What An Owl Knows by Jennifer Ackerman

There are some 260 species of owls spread across every continent except Antarctica, and in this fascinating book, Ackerman explains why the birds are both naturally wondrous and culturally significant.

book cover for Wifedom

Wifedom by Anna Funder

Even George Orwell, whose dealings with women were often problematic, admitted that he behaved badly toward his first wife, Eileen O’Shaughnessy. This book focuses on O’Shaughnessy, and combines her story with a bravura analysis of female invisibility.

book cover for You Have to Be Prepared to Die Before You Can Begin to Live

You Have to Be Prepared to Die Before You Can Begin to Live by Paul Kix

The 1963 campaign to integrate Birmingham, Ala., led to shocking brutality: youths blasted by fire hoses and set upon by snarling police dogs. Kix, a journalist, weaves those images into a harrowing narrative of a crucial juncture in the civil rights movement.

Explore More in Books

Want to know about the best books to read and the latest news start here..

The political artist Edel Rodriguez drew some of the most provocative images of the Trump presidency. His new graphic memoir skewers the powerful once more .

Barbra Streisand’s 970-page memoir, “My Name is Barbra,” is a victory lap past all who ever doubted or diminished her, our critic writes .

Rebecca Yarros drew on her experience with chronic illness and life in a military family to write “Fourth Wing,” a huge best seller that spawned a spicy fantasy series .

Do you want to be a better reader?   Here’s some helpful advice to show you how to get the most out of your literary endeavor .

Each week, top authors and critics join the Book Review’s podcast to talk about the latest news in the literary world. Listen here .



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  1. A Bibliometric Review of Research on Educational Administration ...

    The authors identified 22,361 peer-reviewed articles pub- lished in 22 Scopus-indexed E A journals between 1960 and 2018. The authors used VOSviewer, Excel, and Tableau software to analyze the data set. The review found that the E A knowledge base has grown dramatically since 1960

  2. PDF Research in Educational Administration &Leadership

    Research in Educational Administration & Leadership, 6(3), 554-584. DOI: 10.30828/real/2021.3.2 . ... systematic review does not seek to synthesize substantive findings reported in [his] corpus of [selected] studies. ... educational leadership literature (Brundrett & Rhodes, 2014; Grogan & Simmons, 2012; Ribbins & Gunter, 2002) and the wider ...

  3. A Bibliometric Review of Research on Educational Administration

    A Bibliometric Review of Research on Educational Administration: Science Mapping the Literature, 1960 to 2018 Philip Hallinger https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5935-7544 and Jasna Kovačević View all authors and affiliations Volume 89, Issue 3 https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654319830380 Contents Get access More Abstract

  4. PDF Research in Educational Administration & Leadership

    Research in Educational Administration & Leadership 6(2), June 2021, 472-513 476 affects the relationship between instructional leadership and school effectiveness. Literature Review Instructional Leadership (IL) Instructional leadership of the school leader is considered to be a key factor in school effectiveness (Adams, Mooi, & Muniandy,

  5. Evaluation of educational administration: A decade review of research

    Recent literature review on educational leadership revealed that multiple studies have examined issues surrounding educational leader preparation, socialization, development, effectiveness, evaluation, and retention ( Zepeda et al., 2008 ).

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    American with Non-Latin American leadership literature. Research in Educational Administration & Leadership, 6(2), 378-430. DOI: 10.30828/real/2021.2.2 Introduction This paper emerges from the International Study of Leadership Development in Higher Education project (ISLDHE) which is focused on

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    Tip Sheet Noel Studio handout on writing a literature review. Schedule a consultation Need help with sources for your literature review? I can meet with you in person, in an online chat, or on Zoom to discuss your research needs. Email me at [email protected] to schedule an appointment. Last Updated: Aug 16, 2023 4:11 PM

  9. An Empirical Reflection on Educational Administration Quarterly's

    The review applied bibliometric analyses to 1,357 articles published in the journal from 1965 through 2020. Geographic authorship patterns have remained quite stable across the past six decades, with the national origin of authors highly skewed toward the USA, and to a far greater extent than other leading journals in the field.

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    Adapted from "The Literature Review: A Few Tips on Conducting It", by Dena Taylor and Margaret Procter, University of Toronto: www.writing.utoronto.ca (file linked below) This two-page PDF handout created by Dena Taylor and Margaret Procter at the University of Toronto has excellent guidance on conducting a literature review.

  11. Evaluation of educational administration: A decade review of research

    The objective of this literature review was to collect, categorize, and. Author note. Oksana Parylo is a doctoral student admitted into candidacy in Educational Administration and Policy at the University of Georgia. Currently, Oksana is a full-time research assistant in the Department of Lifelong Education, Administration and Policy.

  12. Journal of Educational Administration

    The Journal of Educational Administration, founded in 1963, was the first international refereed journal in the field of educational leadership and management. From its inception, JEA has sought to publish research on educational administration conducted across diverse political, economic and socio-cultural contexts. ... Literature review. This ...

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    Methodology. The main conceptual framework followed for this systematic review of literature on distributed leadership was that developed by Hallinger (Citation 2013), that has also been adopted by other systematic reviews of educational leadership (for example, Bellibas and Gumus Citation 2019; Gumus et al. Citation 2018) combined with aspects from Oplatka and Arar's (Citation 2017 ...

  14. Educational Management Administration & Leadership: Sage Journals

    Educational Management Administration & Leadership (EMAL) is an international peer-reviewed journal which publishes original and significant contributions on educational administration, management and leadership, in its widest sense, from all over the world. This includes primary research projects located in schools, and in further, vocational and higher education institutions.

  15. PDF Research in Educational Administration & Leadership The Field of

    Educational administration (EA) as a field of study that is strongly related to the discipline of education faces consistently the pendulum of theory versus practice (Oplatka, 2009), and therefore, is influenced ... literature and practice, thereby giving an impression that Western administration is a universal structure, but it is not (Barakat &

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  19. Systematic review of research on women and educational leadership in

    Hammad W, Samier EA, Mohammed A (2022) Mapping the field of educational leadership and management in the Arabian gulf region: A systematic review of arabic research literature. Educational Management Administration & Leadership 50(1): 6-25.

  20. (PDF) A systematic review of educational leadership and management

    A systematic review of educational leadership and management research in Turkey: Content analysis of topics, conceptual models, and methods July 2019 Journal of Educational Administration 57(6 ...

  21. A systematic literature review of ICT integration in secondary

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  25. PDF Review on Educational Administration and Management

    Bush (2000) puts it that Educational Administration refers to routine clerical and financial functions. Okumbe (1998) views Educational Administration as a process of acquiring and allocating resources for the achievement of predetermined educational goals. Teklemarian (2009) on the other hand, believes that Educational Administration, as a

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  27. A systematic review of SVVR in language education in terms of the ADDIE

    Dr ZOU Di is an Associate Professor and the Head of the Centre for English and Additional Languages, Lingnan University, Hong Kong. Her research interests include technology-enhanced learning, AR/VR-enhanced learning, game-based language learning, vocabulary learning, flipped classroom, computer assisted language learning, and learning analytics.

  28. 100 Notable Books of 2023

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