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Purdue Owl: APA Formatting & Style Guide
Developed by Purdue's Online Writing Lab. Contains resources on in-text citation and the references page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.
Contributor, corporate author, related organizations, citation type.
Writing with Research: Guide
- Lesson Ideas
This is a guide to locating reliable resources in understanding APA 7th edition style citations, but there are other ways of making citations. There is an MLA style that is common in schools, but it is important to teach both styles in the approach to writing. APA 7th edition is popular in college, and it should be introduced in high school to make the transition into college easier for high school students.
Commonly cited materials are books, ebooks, websites, and journals, but there are many others that can be cited and used in research papers. purdue owl is a great source for citing resources, and the university has a search engine through chegg to help cite resources for you. however, do check that the citation is created correctly. this can be checked through the purdue owl resources mentioned or through the nhcc resource listed below. it is important to check if the citation is formatted correctly because if not, then it can be considered plagiarism. , in this index, anything that is needed to understand how to cite a resource in apa 7th edition is found on the website. it contains three different sections that can be referenced for any citation needs. style introduction and workshop are on top, with formatting and style guide for the 7th edition located underneath the subsection. in the introduction area it also includes a poster that can be printed and hung up in any classroom to use as a great reference source. in the workshop area, it provides a detailed understanding of the citations. under the subsections, it goes into detail on how to make the actual citation in apa 7th edition style..
Purdue University. (n.d.) APA Style. In Purdue OWL® index. Retrieved December 1, 2023, from https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/index.html
The website explains the basics of APA citation, including when to use in-text citations and how to accurately cite the APA in-text citations. When to use in-text citations when there are short quotations, long quotations, quotations from sources without pages, and summary or paraphrasing. Perdue offers examples and a detailed guide on how to make and when to use citations.
In-text citations: the basics . (n.d.) purdue owl® - purdue university. retrieved november 30, 2023, from https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_the_basics.html , apa 7 citations, the guide for everything apa 7th edition citations in formatting or style is found on this website. it lists the different guidelines for the different resources, books, websites, journals, etc. it goes into detailed explanation over in-text citations for apa 7th edition. it has subsections for each different format that is needed for citations, such as headings, footnotes, and tables and figures. it is the main website to learn all that is needed to know about correctly citing resources in apa 7th edition formatting., apa formatting and style guide (7th edition) . (n.d.) purdue owl® - purdue university. retrieved on november 29, 2023, from https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/index.html , on the website, the library has provided a guide to citing in apa 7 format. it contains information on how to cite, in-text citations, a reference list, and sample papers, an annotated bibliography, and a help section. there are links to other resources that could help students who are not near the university of nevada that i found interesting as it included a website for a textbook that included guides as well. the first page introduces what is new to the 7th edition and how it changes the citations that are being made now instead of the 6th edition apa format. , walshe, e. (2021, march 21). library guides: apa citation guide (7th edition). library guides at the university of nevada, reno. https://guides.library.unr.edu/apacitation, what is plagiarism, knowingly presenting the work of another as your own, inadvertently presenting the work of another as your own, failing to cite the work of another correctly, whether you are quoting verbatim, paraphrasing, or manipulating the content. , cite your sources correctly, plagiarism . (n.d.) north hennepin community college. retrieved on november 29, 2023, from https://www.nhcc.edu/academics/library/doing-library-research/plagiarism.
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APA Style: Purdue OWL
- Why Document Sources?
- Differences Between the 6th and 7th edition
- Two Kinds of Citations
- What happens if you are missing a part of the reference?
- Legal References
- Other Resources
- Citation and Grammar helps
- EasyBib | APA Format for Students & Researchers
- American Psychological Association
- Video and PowerPoint Tutorials
- Preferred Spellings
- Missing a part of the citation
- Videos on APA Style
- How to Cite ChatGPT
The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Students, members of the community, and users worldwide will find information to assist with many writing projects. Teachers and trainers may use this material for in-class and out-of-class instruction.
- Purdue OWL Purdue OWL is an online writing reference that provides detailed information in APA, MLA, Chicago styles of citation as well as general citation and research assistance.
- Purdue Owl | APA Guide | Examples
- APA Style General Formatting and Style Guide 7th ed
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
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- A Quick Guide to Resources
Changes in 9th edition
The 9th edition of the MLA Handbook was published in 2021. In this update, the format for both in-text and Works Cited citations is the same as the 8th edition. The 9th edition also includes this clarification on citing a film/DVD.
A film/DVD: Generally list film directors as key contributors in the Contributor element Blade Runner . 1982. Directed by Ridley Scott, director’s cut, Warner Bros., 1992.
Examples of MLA Style
Creating a Works Cited Page
With MLA style, you must include a Works Cited page at the end of your paper. A Works Cited page is an alphabetical listing of the resources cited in your paper. Below are some examples of MLA style citations. Note: Some instructors may require access dates for websites or other pieces of information. Please check with your instructor if you have any questions.
- Official MLA Style Center
A Modern Language Association hosted website with information on MLA citation and related resources. The MLA Style Center does not contain the full text of the handbook, although it walks users through the process of creating an entry in the works cited list.
- Purdue Online Writing Lab
Online writing lab with formatting tips and sample papers. The "Cite your source automatically" feature on Purdue Owl pages is part of another website, and not recommended.
- Excelsior Writing Lab
Citation examples, videos, and formatting guides for MLA, APA, and Chicago styles.
- Citing Government Information using MLA
Information on citing government print and electronic resources using MLA citation style. (Courtesy of the University of Nevada-Reno)
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How did Purdue football grade out in comeback Oaken Bucket win over IU Saturday?
WEST LAFAYETTE — Purdue football quarterback Hudson Card managed a memorable goodbye to an otherwise forgettable regular season that ended Saturday with a 35-31 "Oaken Bucket" win over rival Indiana at Ross-Ade Stadium.
Despite not being fully healthy, Card delivered a gutsy send off to a 4-8 season with a game-winning 10-yard touchdown run with 2:39 to play.
Purdue coach Ryan Walters said Card battled through a rib injury that kept him from playing last week's 23-15 loss to Northwestern.
More: Hudson Card leads Purdue football to comeback win over Indiana
"Obviously it was painful," Walters said. "You saw he's a tough kid. You could see by body language that he was hurting. He doesn't like to be babied and he says he's good, but it's hard to mask when you're in pain. I'm sure he'll be sore tomorrow."
Purdue, which is not bowl eligible, showed glimmers of hope for the future after outstanding performances by sophomores linebacker Nic Scourton, wide receiver Deion Burks and tight end Drew Biber along with freshmen standouts defensive back Dillon Thieneman and tight end George Burhenn.
Here are the grades for Purdue after winning the 125th matchup against Indiana.
The gritty Card kept Purdue in the game despite consistent pressure from Indiana's defensive line. He galloped for a career high 85 yards and finished 21 of 34 passing for 275 yards and three touchdowns.
The Texas-transfer evaded trouble using his legs and keeping his eyes downfield to find targets.
Burks made seven catches for 87 yards and Burhenn five for 75 yards in his first offensive appearance while Biber snagged a 16-yard touchdown.
Burhenn, a 2023 Mt. Vernon grad, caught his first career touchdown and was targeted in the fourth quarter to set up Card's winning run. He showed the athleticism and speed that awaits future games at Ross-Ade Stadium.
Thieneman had two interceptions, giving him six for the season while Scourton made a crushing tackle against IU quarterback Brendan Sorsby with 2:34 remaining.
Purdue forced three interceptions in all Saturday and made the tackles it needed late.
Plenty of talent for Purdue on defense moving forward with Scourton and Thieneman leading the charge.
Special teams: C+
Purdue crashed and burned repeatedly only to resuscitate itself from complete demise.
A 100-yard kickoff return for a touchdown by IU's Jaylin Lucas in the third quarter was followed by being drawn offsides on fourth-and-5.
Boiler kicker Ben Freehill missed a 31-yard attempt on Purdue's opening drive, but later drilled a career long 44-yard field goal, part of three straight makes, including a game tying 39-yarder with 8:41 to play.
Coach Ryan Walters made the needed adjustments after trailing 14-12 at halftime.
Purdue squib kicked on the two special teams plays after Lucas' TD return by Lucas. Offensive Coordinator Graham Harrell had the call of the game by dialing up a fourth-and-2 play-action pass to running back Devin Mockobee for 38 yards. The Boilermakers were calculated and overcame a bad night on special teams to watch Card deliver a season ending win.
2023 Best Books for Kids — College of Education Gift-Giving Guide
Looking to minimize screen time for that special young person in your life? Consider the gift of reading! Books support cognitive growth, develop language skills, and improve imagination and creativity…and they don’t require batteries! Here are some “best books for kids” recommendations from Purdue University professors who are affiliated with the College of Education’s Center for Literacy and Language Education and Research (CL 2 EAR) or the College of Health and Human Sciences’ Center for Early Learning .
- Christy Wessel Powell , associate professor of literacy and language education and center director of CL 2 EAR, College of Education
- Nancy Boes , continuing lecturer of literacy and language education, College of Education
- Laura Bofferding , associate professor of mathematics education, College of Education
- Breanya Hogue , assistant professor of literacy and language education, College of Education
- David Purpura , professor and director of the Center for Early Learning, College of Health and Human Sciences
The Day the Crayons Came Home by Drew Daywalt and Oliver Jeffers
The companion book to the award winning book The Day the Crayons Quit tells the silly story of all the underused colors — like Pea Green, Maroon, and Turquoise — who ran away or were forgotten under the couch because kids barely picked them from the crayon box. Each crayon has an incredibly sad story to tell and kids will laugh — and maybe feel a bit more empathetic toward Burnt Sienna. Each page includes a hidden glow-in-the-dark picture for added fun.
I’m Trying to Love Germs by Bethany Barton
Calling all the parents of science lovers! This fun, interactive book engages young scientists through a graphic novel style format and humor, which makes it the perfect gift this holiday season. The book overviews “good germs” versus “bad germs” through vibrant pictures and lots of action. Children will finish the story gaining more of an understanding about microbes and probably generate more questions to explore!
SANKOFA: A Culinary Story of Resilience and Belonging by Eric Adjepong
As we gather with our families to celebrate our various traditions and holidays, this book is the perfect story to share as it highlights not just the traditions of a young Ghanaian American child, Kofi, but an understanding of key vocabulary related to all of our collective cultures and traditions as a whole. Through food and oral storytelling, Kofi learns about and is connected to the resiliency of his ancestors.
Seals are Jerks! by Jared Chapman
Seals are Lorilei’s favorite adorable, cuddly animal — until she researches them for a class project and finds out they’re actually penguin-eating jerks! Hilarious casual dialogue between the characters reveals tons of real (and horrifying?) facts about the food chain. This book also makes a great mentor text for young writers.
Something, Someday by Amanda Gorman
This simple, poetic children’s book by New York Times #1 Bestselling Author Amanda Gorman and illustrated by Caldecott Honor winner Christian Robinson affirms children by sending the message that no matter how small you may be you can still accomplish great things, especially with the help of others. What better gift to inspire a child this holiday season?
Stickler Loves the World by Lane Smith
From the illustrator of The True Story of the Three Little Pigs and Stinky Cheese Man and Other Stupid Fairytales comes the story of Stickler, a woodland creature with multiple eyes who loves the world it sees around it each day. From the awe-inspiring sunrise to the stars at night, to seed pods blowing in the wind and especially each and every stick, Stickler’s observations are a simple exercise in discovering microjoys and engaging in mindfulness.
Why do Elephants Have Big Ears? Questions — and Surprising Answers — About Animals by Steve Jenkins and Robin Page
Ever wonder why elephants have those big ears, why narwals have tusks, or what giant squids’ gigantic eyes help them do? This fascinating animal facts book has the answers, complete with oversized, gorgeous and accurately detailed illustrations from a Caldecott Honor-winning author duo.
Zero Zebras: A Counting Book About What’s Not There by Bruce Goldstone
This innovative take on a counting book (up to 12) has readers considering the increasing numbers of animals on a safari but more importantly, what isn’t there! This is a fun introduction to the number zero.
By Purdue Authors for Grades PK-2
The Little Elephants’ Big Adventures Series (PK: ages 2-5) by a collaboration of the Purdue Early Achievement Research Labs
The Little Elephants’ Big Adventures series of three books teaches early childhood math with fun adventures filled with mathematical words. Too Many Pillows uses the concepts of more, less, many and a lot as animals pack for a trip. Just Enough Eggs uses the concepts of same, similar, different, and enough as animals bake a just-right cake for a friend’s birthday. Picnic With Some Peanuts uses the concepts of fewer, less, and a little bit as animals save their picnic and a friend while solving a mystery. The books are a collaboration of the Purdue Early Achievement Research Labs.
Never Catch Me! Nursery Rhyme Book by Breanya Hogue
“Never Catch Me!” is an original song that author’s mother made up and repeatedly sang to the author and her sister. When the author grew up to become an educator and children’s book author ( Shawn Trenell book series) she developed the idea to publish her mother’s song after she overheard her mother singing it to a special young friend. The original insect in the tune was actually a flea, but the author felt that a bee would be more fun and relatable for young readers. Enjoy Never Catch Me! and may it become one of your family’s favorite nursery rhymes as it has for the author’s family.
The Pattern Pals Series (PK: ages 3-6) by a collaboration of the Purdue Early Achievement Research Labs
The Pattern Pals series of three books focuses on patterning skills through stories about a birthday party ( Birthday Beeps and Boops ), a sleepover ( Sleepover Similarities ), and a trip to the library ( Levels in the Library ). The books were also developed with built-in prompts for caregivers to use to enhance the reading experience with children.
Counting in Dog Years and Other Sassy Math Poems by Betsy Franco
This book of 29 poems is paired with beautiful illustrations from Priscilla Tey and focuses on mathematical topics in a fun way that relates to children’s lives.
Diary of a Wimpy Kid: No Brainer by Jeff Kinney
Parents and kids alike will enjoy this series of hilariously irreverent and painfully emotionally accurate diary-style stories from a middle schooler’s perspective. In this newest installment, No Brainer (Book #18), Greg saves his crumbling school from closure after he finds out it will cause him and his best friend Rowley to attend different schools.
Jawbreaker by Christina Wyman
Max is a kid with lots of problems: school bullies (her sister is the worst one), and teeth that require headgear that hurts so much it’s nicknamed “the jawbreaker”. Her life is complicated, and it’s only getting more complicated when she decides to follow her dreams and enter a journalism competition.
Key Player (Front Desk #4) by Kelly Yang
First, if you haven’t read Front Desk or the others in the series, go back and read the whole set! The books follow Mia, a tween who manages the front desk of her immigrant family’s hotel where they also live. In the newest book, Key Player , Mia finally sees her California and Chinese identities coming together during World Cup Soccer fever.
The One Thing You’d Save by Linda Sue Park
If your house was on fire, what’s the one thing you would save? This book is written in verse about the different well-loved and meaningful items a class of middle school kids would save and value for special reasons.
A Rover’s Story by Jasmine Warga
If you liked Wild Robot and The One And Only Ivan , you’ll love this moving fictional story about the journey of a Mars Rover.
There Was a Party for Langston: King O’ Letters by Jason Reynolds
In this beautifully illustrated and lively rendition of a party in Harlem, New York, YA novelist Jason Reynolds’ debut picture book celebrates the writer/Renaissance Man Langston Hughes and all the great minds he inspired.
Thirst by Varsha Bajaj
Minni lives in the poorest part of Mumbai, India, where water access is scarce. Should she risk it all to take on a water mafia boss?
By Purdue Authors for Grades 3-5
Act Your Age, Shawn Trenell! by Breanya Hogue
Ten-year-old Shawn Trenell is having a difficult time with understanding exactly what the phrase every adult keeps uttering to him, “Act Your Age” means. Aren’t ten-year-olds supposed to have fun and joke around all of the time? Why was everyone on his case all of a sudden? Read more to experience a typical day in Shawn’s shoes. Along with the adventure, discover the lesson he learns about growing up and what his mom realizes about having patience.
Shawn Trenell: The Greatest of All Time by Breanya Hogue
Shawn returns! This time around he needs a slice of humble pie. He knows he’s the fastest, strongest and the brightest and doesn’t miss the opportunity to rub it in his peers’ faces. After getting overlooked, Shawn learns a valuable lesson about humility and teamwork.
Temperature Turmoil by Laura Bofferding
Hot. Cold. More. Less. Higher. Lower. Positive. Negative. Incompatible opposites? Or Friends with new viewpoints? Follow Ilana Icy and Curt Cozy as they sort through temperature turmoil!
Alebrijes by Donna Barba Higuera
This novel is a mix of science fiction and Mexican folklore set in a dystopian world where the few humans left scrape together an existence in a city wasteland. The protagonists, Leandro and Gabi, are teen pickpockets and siblings. After stealing, Leandro’s punishment is to have his consciousness placed in an ancient drone and he becomes an Alebrije , a fantastical, mythological creature and spirit guide. Together he and other Alebrijes seek hope, humanity, and a better world.
Elf Dog and Owl Head by M. T. Anderson
This book is set during the pandemic. Stuck inside sharing a computer with his siblings for online school and smothered by his parents’ financial worries, Clay decides to venture out to the woods. While exploring he unexpectedly encounters a magic dog who leads him deeper into the woods and on surreal adventures.
Hidden Systems: Water, Electricity, the Internet, and the Secrets Behind the Systems We Use Every Day by Dan Nott
This scientifically accurate graphic novel illustrates how different systems we “can’t live without” came to be, how they work, and what they might hold in the future.
The Labors of Hercules Beal by Gary Schmidt
We’ve all heard of the mythical Hercules and maybe about his “12 Labors” — taking on a lion, taming a hydra, and cleaning up after thousands of sheep in a single day. In this book, a history teacher assigns seventh grader Herc Beal to complete his own modern versions of the challenges of his namesake, all set in modern-day middle school. Through his trials he gets help from other people and animals alike.
Once There Was by Kiyash Monsef
While grieving her father’s sudden death, an Iranian American girl learns he was secretly a veterinarian for fantastic magical creatures. Now that he’s gone she must take up his position and all the dangers that come with it.
The Probability of Everything by Sarah Everett
Eleven-year-old Kemi gravitates toward facts, numbers, and statistical probability. And she loves her family. But when an asteroid is seen hovering in the sky with an 84.7% chance of hitting earth in the next four days, Kemi’s life is engulfed by the inevitability of everything coming to an end. Amazed that many people around her keep going on with life like nothing’s changed, Kemi resolves to create a time capsule to capture the cherished and unique qualities of her loved ones as she prepares to say goodbye.
Simon Sort of Says by Erin Bow
This book is funny despite dealing with heavy topics and is full of animal-focused antics. Simon is a famous survivor of a school shooting incident. His family moves to the only place in America where the Internet is banned and he’s not virally famous. Since he’s unknown here, he can spin a new tale for everyone to take up.
The Sum of Us (Adapted for Young Readers): How Racism Hurts Everyone by Heather McGhee
If you liked Stamped for Kids by Ibrahim X. Kendi and Jason Reynolds, you’ll love The Sum of Us. Written by a policy expert and adapted for youth, this New York Times bestselling nonfiction book is about how economic and racial inequality impacts our world, and what can be done to shift it.
Grades 9-12 and beyond
All My Rage by Sabaa Tahir
An emotionally poignant multigenerational story of the impacts of trauma, abuse, discrimination, and forgiveness in the lives of two Pakistani American teenagers and friends who live in — and dream of escaping from — a small working-class California town.
Firekeeper’s Daughter by Angeline Boulley
This mystery/thriller follows Daunis, a teen athlete with an Ojibwe dad and white mom, who’s navigating coming of age and going away to college to study biology. However, all her plans are put on hold when she witnesses a murder. She reluctantly cooperates with the FBI to weed out corruption that has caused a series of drug-related deaths in her community. Author Angeline Boulley is a member of the Sault Sainte Marie Tribe of Chippewa and weaves Chippewa language and customs throughout this fast-paced book.
Promise Boys by Nick Brooks
If you like Jason Reynolds or Angie Thomas books, you’ll love Promise Boys , a mystery thriller about three teens at Promise Urban Academy who have to investigate their principal’s murder to clear their own names.
Rez Ball by Bryan Graves
Tre loves basketball and plays on the Reservation High basketball team. After his older brother dies in an accident, Tre fills his brother’s shoes on the team and dreams of someday playing in the NBA. His Ojibwe community needs a hero, and this might be his first step toward it.
True Biz by Sara Novic
“True biz” is American Sign Language (ASL) slang for real talk . This book dishes up plenty of true biz about the lives of River Valley School for the Deaf students as they get through their classes, struggle with family drama, and navigate high school relationships. Charlie, the rebellious transfer who grew up in the hearing world, and Austin, the school’s legacy student and CODA (child of deaf adults) whose baby brother was just born hearing, grapple with their place in the world and what it means to be in the Deaf community. When their school is threatened with closure, they spring into action for justice.
Enjoy your books and happy reading!
Source: Purdue University College of Education – Christy Wessel Powell, [email protected]
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Purdue OWL APA 7th edition
Purdue's OWL (Online Writing Lab) is the "go to" for instruction on how to use APA 7th. Below are a few of the topics OWL has. Check out their website for more. https://owl.purdue.edu/index.html
- APA Style Introduction APA 7th
- APA Overview and Workshop APA 7th
- General Formating APA 7th
- In-Text Citation: Authors APA 7th
- Foot Notes and Appendices APA 7th
- Changes in the 7th Edition APA 7th
APA Tutorials on 7th edition
If you need to format your research paper or dissertation in APA style, check out these tutorials from APA.
APA 7th edtion
- Comparative Chart of APA 6th and APA 7th This is a quick chart created by the Janis P. Bellack Library comparing the new edition of APA.
NOTE FROM APA about 7th edition:
There is no electronic version of APA 7th edition.
"APA does NOT have an institutional license model for APA’s Publication Manual , but electronic versions are available at Vital Source ( www.vitalsource.com ) and RedShelf ( www.redshelf.com ).
To help students in need of APA Style guidance, tutorials and quick guides adapted from Academic Writer ® , APA’s tool for teaching and learning effective writing, are now freely available through July 1, 2020.
The Basics of Seventh Edition APA Style tutorial and other material will stay on the APAStyle.org site for free after that date. "
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