- Awards Season
- Big Stories
- Pop Culture
- Video Games
PowerPoint vs Other Presentation Tools: Which is Right for You?
When it comes to creating impactful presentations, there are numerous tools available in the market. However, one of the most popular and widely used applications is Microsoft PowerPoint. While PowerPoint has been the go-to choice for many professionals and educators, it’s important to consider other presentation tools as well. In this article, we will compare PowerPoint with other presentation tools to help you decide which one is right for you.
PowerPoint: The Classic Choice
Microsoft PowerPoint has been around since 1987 and continues to dominate the presentation software market. It offers a wide range of features and functionalities that make it ideal for creating visually appealing slideshows. With its user-friendly interface, anyone can quickly learn how to use it effectively.
One of the key advantages of PowerPoint is its compatibility with various operating systems, including Windows and Mac. This means you can easily create presentations on one device and present them on another without any compatibility issues.
PowerPoint also provides a vast library of templates, themes, and design elements that allow users to create professional-looking presentations in no time. It offers a plethora of customization options, allowing you to tailor your slides according to your specific needs.
Prezi: The Dynamic Alternative
Prezi is a cloud-based presentation software that takes a different approach than traditional slide-based tools like PowerPoint. Instead of using slides, Prezi allows users to create dynamic presentations on a virtual canvas where they can zoom in and out and navigate through content freely.
This unique feature makes Prezi an excellent choice for storytelling or when you want to present information in a nonlinear format. It enables presenters to create engaging visuals that captivate their audience’s attention from start to finish.
Additionally, Prezi offers seamless collaboration features that allow multiple users to work on the same presentation simultaneously. This makes it an excellent choice for teams or individuals who need real-time collaboration capabilities.
Google Slides: The Collaborative Solution
Google Slides is a web-based presentation tool that is part of the Google Workspace suite. Similar to PowerPoint, it offers a range of features to create visually appealing presentations. Its intuitive interface and easy-to-use tools make it accessible to users of all skill levels.
One of the standout features of Google Slides is its collaborative capabilities. Multiple users can work on a presentation simultaneously, making it ideal for team projects or remote collaboration. It also allows for real-time commenting and editing, ensuring seamless communication among team members.
Another advantage of Google Slides is its integration with other Google Workspace apps such as Google Docs and Sheets. This integration allows users to import data directly from these apps, saving time and effort when creating presentations.
Keynote: The Mac-Friendly Option
If you are an Apple user, Keynote is the presentation software designed specifically for you. Keynote offers a sleek and modern interface with powerful tools that allow users to create stunning presentations effortlessly.
One of the key advantages of Keynote is its seamless integration with other Apple devices and software. You can easily create presentations on your Mac and present them using your iPhone or iPad without any compatibility issues.
Keynote also provides a wide selection of pre-designed templates that cater to various presentation styles. Additionally, it offers advanced animation and transition effects that can enhance the visual appeal of your slideshows.
Choosing the right presentation tool depends on your specific needs and preferences. PowerPoint remains a solid choice for its versatility, while Prezi offers a dynamic alternative for nonlinear storytelling. Google Slides excels in collaborative capabilities, especially for remote teams, while Keynote provides an excellent option for Apple users seeking seamless integration across devices.
Consider the features, ease-of-use, collaboration options, and platform compatibility when deciding which presentation tool suits you best. Ultimately, selecting the right tool will empower you to create impactful presentations that engage and impress your audience.
This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.
MORE FROM ASK.COM
- Campaign videos
- For children
- IFRC Videos
- MHPSS in The Movement
- Self-care exercises
- Video podcasts
- Older adults
- Caring for volunteers and staff
- Caring for Staff and Volunteers in Emergencies
- Corona / COVID-19
- Emergency Related Guidelines
- Humanitarian Programme Tools
- Information, Education and Communications (IEC)
- Asia Pacific
- Ukraine response
- Supporting Afghans
- Middle East and North Africa
- Armed Conflict
- Children and Youth in Emergencies
- Natural Hazards
- Public Health Emergencies
- Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Migrants
- Sexual and Gender Based Violence
- Technological or Man-Made Hazards
- Mental health
- Programme tools
- Earthquake response
- Trainings offered by the PS Centre
- Upcoming Trainings
- Online Training
- Frequently asked questions
- Mission and Strategy
- Annual reports
- Work with us
- Technical and operational support
- The Research Network
- How we assist National Societies
- The MHPSS Framework
- Community mental health care
- MHPSS and Climate change
- Event Calendar
Sexual and Gender Based Violence – Training DAY 1, Powerpoint
Search by title, advanced search filter.
Display tags here
The training provides information about different types of Sexual and Gender Based Violence as well as practical guidance on psychosocial support related to SGBV. The focus is on the direct response to survivors of SGBV. It provides participants with skills and knowledge on how to handle disclosures of SGBV and how to provide psychosocial support to people affected by SGBV. It is a standalone, two-day training workshop, but can also be combined with the PS Centre’s Community-based Psychosocial Support: Training kit or other basic trainings in psychosocial support.
Publication: sexual and gender-based violence
Themes: Programme tools , Sexual and Gender Based Violence
File extension: PowerPoint
Sexual and Gender-Based Violence – Training Guide
A Guide to Psychological First Aid
Sexual and Gender Based Violence – Training DAY 2 PPT
A Short Introduction to Psychological First Aid
Necessary cookies are used for storing session data like navigation and login.
We use Google Analytics to register your visit and traffic anonymously on our website.
Gender based violence
This presentation contains concept of Gender based violence, Forms of GBV, human trafficking, and so on
More Related Content
What's hot ( 20 )
Similar to Gender based violence
Similar to Gender based violence ( 20 )
More from Dr. Kishor Adhikari
More from Dr. Kishor Adhikari ( 9 )
Recently uploaded ( 20 )
- 1. GENDER BASED VIOLENCE Dr. Kishor Adhikari Assoc. Professor, SPH&AS, CMC
- 2. Myths surrounding gender- based violence Myths and stereotypical attitudes about GBV shape the way in which society perceives and responds to violence perpetrated against women. Such myths and attitudes are harmful as they tend to blame the survivors for the violence, rather than holding perpetrators responsible for their behaviour: Conflicts and discord are a normal part of any relationship. Men and women are equally violent to each other. Domestic violence happens only to a certain type of person. GBV only includes physical abuse (hitting, punching, biting, slapping, pushing, etc Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 3. Myths …………….Contd. GBV is caused by substance abuse such as alcohol and/or drugs. Women should tolerate violence to keep the family together. Domestic violence is a private family matter, in which the state has no right to intervene. How a man treats his wife is a private matter. Sex workers cannot experience rape. A man cannot rape his wife. Most GBV is perpetrated by strangers. Victims of gender-based violence are helpless. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 4. Myths survivors of sexual assault are responsible for their attack or are capable of preventing it. “boys will be boys” violent/ sexual aggravators represent a tiny percentage of the population. domestic violence and sexual assault are the only types of violence women experience. slavery doesn’t exist today Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) only happens to women against their will. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 5. Some stories Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 6. My husband slaps me, has sex with me against my will and I have to conform. Before being interviewed I didn't really think about this. I thought this is only natural. This is the way a husband behaves. Woman interviewed in Bangladesh during the WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence Against Women ”
- 7. So I take a blanket and I spend the night with my children out in the cold because he is hitting me too much. I have to take the kids to stop him hitting them too. I would go out in the fields and sleep there all night. I have done that more than ten times… Woman interviewed in Peru during the WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence Against Women “ ”
- 8. If I protest I’ll be marked in the society and then my daughter wouldn’t be able to get married… If I voice my protest the community will blame me for not bearing it in silence. This helplessness is a torture in itself. Woman, 43 years old, interviewed in Bangladesh during the WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence Against Women. “ ”
- 9. Statistics based on reported cases heavily underestimate the level of violence. Only about one in three women assaulted by partners report an assault to police * 2004 Canadian General Survey on Victimisation
- 10. Gender-based Violence Definition The UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women (Article 1) defines as: ‘Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of violence, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life.’ Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 11. Article 2 of the Declaration further specifies that violence against women should include, but not be limited to: “Acts of physical, sexual and psychological violence whether they be in the family or the community. The acts of violence specified in this article include: spousal battering, sexual abuse of female children, dowry-related violence, rape including marital rape, traditional practices harmful to women such as female genital mutilation, non-spousal violence, sexual harassment and intimidation, trafficking in women, forced prostitution, and violence perpetrated or condoned by the state such as rape in war.”Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 12. Broader definition by USAID Women and girls are the most at risk and most affected by gender-based violence. Consequently, the terms “violence against women” and “gender-based violence” are often used interchangeably. However, boys and men can also experience gender-based violence, as can sexual and gender minorities. Regardless of the target, gender-based violence is rooted in structural inequalities between men and women and is characterized by the use and abuse of physical, emotional, orDr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 13. Types of GBV Intimate partner violence (physical, sexual, psychological, economic) Sexual coercion Childhood sexual abuse Rape Trafficking Rape in conflict situations Acid throwing Female Genital Mutilation Honour killings Dowry deaths --Source: WHO TEACH-VIP, 2005 Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 14. Gender-based Violence Violence against women and girls is one of the most widespread, persistent and devastating human rights violations in our world today It is a major obstacle to the fulfillment of women’s and girls’ human rights and to the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. (G5) It occurs worldwide, cutting across all generations, nationalities, communities and spheres of our societies, irrespective of age, ethnicity, disability or other background. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 15. Global Statistics Violence against women – particularly intimate partner violence and sexual violence – is a major public health problem and a violation of women's human rights. Global estimates published by WHO indicate that about 1 in 3 (35%) of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence in their lifetime. Most of this violence is intimate partner violence. Worldwide, almost one third (30%) of women who have been in a relationship report that they have experienced some form of physical and/or sexualDr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 16. Global Statistics………….Contd. Globally, as many as 38% of murders of women are committed by a male intimate partner. Violence can negatively affect women’s physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health, and may increase the risk of acquiring HIV in some settings. Men are more likely to perpetrate violence if they have low education, a history of child maltreatment, exposure to domestic violence against their mothers, harmful use of alcohol, unequal gender norms including attitudes accepting of violence, and a sense of entitlement over women.Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 17. Global Statistics……Contd. Women are more likely to experience intimate partner violence if they have low education, exposure to mothers being abused by a partner, abuse during childhood, and attitudes accepting violence, male privilege, and women’s subordinate status. There is evidence that advocacy and empowerment counselling interventions, as well as home visitation are promising in preventing or reducing intimate partner violence against women. Situations of conflict, post conflict and displacement may exacerbate existing violence, such as by intimate partners, as well as and non-partner sexual violence, and may also lead to new forms of violence against women. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 18. Regional rates of Intimate Partner Violence around the World Source: Preliminary analysis by WHO (World Health Organization), presented in Klugman et al. 2014. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 19. National Scenario According to the 2011 Nepal Demographic Health Survey, 22 per cent of women aged 15-49 have experienced physical violence at least once since age 15, and 9 per cent experienced physical violence within the 12 months prior to the survey. One in ten women reported having experienced sexual violence. In Nepal close to half of women (48%) reported experiencing violence in their lifetime, and over a quarter had experienced violence in the past 12 months. Emotional violence (40%) was most commonly reported, followed by physical violence (27%), sexual violence (15%), and economic abuse (8%). Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 20. Women who had experienced violence reported that almost three-quarters of the perpetrators were husbands. A high percentage of young women (74%) reported having experienced sexual violence in Nepal. Domestic violence, marital rape, dowry-related violence, child marriage, polygamy, female infanticide and trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation are particular problems of GBV in Nepal. UNFPA Nepal (2014) “Engaging Men and Boys, Communities and Parents to End Violence against Women, Child Marriage and Other Harmful Practices in Nepal” Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 21. About a third of married women suffer from spousal violence, with higher rates of occurrence in Terai and among those with no education and from poorer households. According to a report published by Informal Sector Service Centre, it recorded 2,202 cases of domestic violence, 222 cases of polygamy, 242 rape cases, 94 cases of attempted rape, 37 cases of sexual abuse, seven attempted trafficking in persons and 34 witchcraft accusations. INSEC said a total of 2,910 cases of violence against women were reported in 2016. UN Statement for 16 Days of Activism against Violence against Women 2013 Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 22. A UNFPA 2013 perception study also revealed that women from lower-caste or religious minority groups, widowed, divorced, or separated women, and women belonging to the hill regions, were significantly more likely to report lifetime experiences of violence. Dalit women face a high degree of exclusion and traditional harmful practices such as Badi, Chaupadi, Kamlari and Deuki, as well as child marriage, which are still prevalent in many parts of Nepal despite being formally prohibited. Nepal MDG Progress Report p. 35; Amnesty International, Nepal Submission to the United Nations Human Rights Committee, Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 23. Women also face violence related to accusations of witchcraft. There are also other traditional practices like son- preference, stigmatisation of widows, seclusion of women (purdah), family violence, and polygamy. Third- gender face a separate and specific set of gender based violence issues. Boys are more likely to be educated in Nepal as they are seen as the future family breadwinner while daughters live home to live with their in-laws. Almost half of the population gets married between the age of 14 to 19 years and dowry is the major driver of child marriage as well as a cause of violence against girls and women. The recent desk review by UN Women (2015) “A Desk Review: Conflict Related Sexual Violence in Nepal” (March 2015), UN Women Nepal Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 24. Scope Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 25. Factors that Perpetuate Violence 1. Socio-cultural factors: Socio-cultural factors like unequal power relations, low status of women in society 2. Legal factors: inadequate legal provisions, inaccessibility of legal services, and ignorance of rights and responsibilities. 3. Policies and practices: There are factors like negative policy environment, gender insensitive policies . Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 26. Factors that Perpetuate Violence 4. Economic factors: Economic factors include economic dependence, poverty, limited opportunities and income sources, lack of control of own resources . 5. Education: Illiteracy and limited educational opportunity 6. Institutional factors: lack of or inadequate victim support services and distances from courts, health facilities, police services, etc. which does not provide enabling atmosphere. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 27. Forms of gender-based violence Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 28. Economic and Social Council. “Report of the Working Group on Violence against Women,” Vienna, United Nations, 1992 has defined the forms of Gender- based violence as follows: 1. Physical violence: Physical violence is defined as the intentional use of physical force with the potential to cause death, disability, injury or harm. Physical violence includes, but is not limited to: scratching, pushing, shoving, throwing, grabbing, biting, choking, shaking, poking, hair-pulling, slapping, punching, hitting, burning, use of a weapon (gun, knife or other object), and use of restraints or one's body, size, or strength against another person. Physical violence also includes coercing other people to commit any of the above acts. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 29. 2. Sexual violence: Sexual violence: is divided into three categories: a. Use of physical force to compel a person to engage in a sexual act against his or her will, whether or not the act is completed b. An attempted or completed sex act involving a person who is unable to understand the nature or condition of the act, to decline participation, or to communicate unwillingness to engage in the sexual act (e.g. because of illness, disability, or the influence of alcohol or other drugs, or due to intimidation or pressure).Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 30. c. Abusive sexual contact, including intentionally touching directly or through the clothing, of the genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttocks of any person against his or her will, or of any person who is unable to understand the nature or condition of the act, to decline participation, or to communicate unwillingness to engage in the sexual act (e.g. because of illness, disability, or the influence of alcohol or other drugs, or due to intimidation or pressure). Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 31. 3. Threat of physical or sexual violence: The use of words, gestures, or weapons to communicate the intent to cause death, disability, injury, or physical harm. Also the use of words gestures or weapons to communicate the intent to compel a person to engage in sex acts or abusive sexual contact when the person is either unwilling or unable to consent. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 32. 4. Psychological/emotional violence: Psychological/emotional violence: Trauma to the victim caused by acts, threats of acts, coercive tactics when there has also been prior physical or sexual violence, or prior threat of physical or sexual violence. Psychological/emotional abuse can include but is not limited to: humiliating a person; controlling what the person can and cannot do; withholding information from the person; getting annoyed if the person disagrees; deliberately doing something to make the person feel diminished (e.g. less smart, less attractive); deliberately doing something to make the person feel embarrassed; isolating the person from friends and family; prohibiting access to transportation or telephone; denying access to money and other resources; threatening loss of custody of children; and, smashing objects or destroying property. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 33. Contd. Psychological/emotional abuse as described above may be considered as acts of violence only when there has also been prior physical or sexual violence, or the prior threat of physical or sexual violence. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 34. “GBV is Public Health Issue” Justify Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 35. Types of Violence Against Women being practiced in Nepal Sex Selective Abortion Attempt to Trafficking Domestic Violence Witchcraft Allegation Jari Polygamy Lack of Pre and Post Partum Service Rape Rape attempt Sexual Abuse Women Trafficking Dowry System CHHAUPADI System Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 36. Gender-based violence through the lifecycle Source: Heise L, Pitanguy J and Germain A. Violence against women: The hidden health burden. World Bank Discussion Paper no. 255, Washington, The World Bank, 1994, p.5.PHASE TYPES OF VIOLENCE Pre-birth Sex-selective abortion (as prevalent, for example, in China, India, Republic of Korea); Battering during pregnancy (which can have serious emotional and physical effects on the woman; and effects on birth outcomes); coerced pregnancy (for example, mass rape in war) Infancy Female infanticide; emotional and physical abuse; differential access to food and medical care for girl infants Girlhood Child marriage; genital mutilation; sexual abuse by family members and strangers; differential access to food and medical care; child prostitutionDr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 37. PHASE TYPES OF VIOLENCE Adolescenc e Dating and courtship violence (for example, acid throwing in Bangladesh, date rape in the USA); economically coerced sex (for example, African secondary school girls having to date “sugar daddies” to afford school fees); sexual abuse in the workplace; rape; sexual harassment; forced prostitution; trafficking in women Reproductiv e Age Abuse of women by intimate male partners; marital rape; dowry abuse and murders; partner homicide; psychological abuse; sexual abuse in the workplace; rape; sexual harassment; abuse of women with disabilities Elderly Abuse of widows; elder abuse Gender-based violence through the lifecycle Source: Heise L, Pitanguy J and Germain A. Violence against women: The hidden health burden. World Bank Discussion Paper no. 255, Washington, The World Bank, 1994, p.5. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 38. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 39. Risk Factors Factors associated with intimate partner and sexual violence occur at individual, family, community and wider society levels. Some are associated with being a perpetrator of violence, some are associated with experiencing violence and some are associated with both. Risk factors for both intimate partner and sexual violence include: lower levels of education (perpetration of sexual violence and experience of sexual violence); a history of exposure to child maltreatment (perpetration and experience); witnessing family violence (perpetration and Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 40. antisocial personality disorder (perpetration); harmful use of alcohol (perpetration and experience); having multiple partners or suspected by their partners of faithlessness (perpetration); attitudes that condone violence (perpetration); community norms that privilege or ascribe higher status to men and lower status to women; and low levels of women’s access to paid employment.Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 41. Factors specifically associated with intimate partner violence include: beliefs in family honour and sexual purity ideologies of male sexual entitlement weak legal sanctions for sexual violence. Gender inequality and norms on the acceptability of violence against women are a root cause of violence against women. Source: WHO, 2017Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 42. Consequences of GBV Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 43. Group work Discuss on social and health effects of violence on age groups: a. Children (Group A: Roll 1 to 5) b. Adolescents (Group B: Roll 6 to 10) c. Youths (Group C: Roll 11 to 15) d. Adults (Group D: Roll 16 to 20) e. Elderly (Group E: Roll 21 to all) Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 44. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 45. Health Consequences Intimate partner (physical, sexual and emotional) and sexual violence cause serious short- and long-term physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health problems for women. They also affect their children, and lead to high social and economic costs for women, their families and societies. Such violence can: Have fatal outcomes like homicide or suicide. Lead to injuries, with 42% of women who experience intimate partner violence reporting an injury as a consequence of this violence.Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 46. Lead to unintended pregnancies, induced abortions, gynaecological problems, and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The 2013 analysis found that women who had been physically or sexually abused were 1.5 times more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection and, in some regions, HIV, compared to women who had not experienced partner violence. They are also twice as likely to have an abortion. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 47. Intimate partner violence in pregnancy also increases the likelihood of miscarriage, stillbirth, pre-term delivery and low birth weight babies. The same 2013 study showed that women who experienced intimate partner violence were 16% more likely to suffer a miscarriage and 41% more likely to have a pre-term birth. These forms of violence can lead to depression, post-traumatic stress and other anxiety disorders, sleep difficulties, eating disorders, and suicide attempts. The 2013 analysis found that women who have experienced intimate partner violence were almost twice as likely to experience depression and problem drinking.Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 48. Health effects can also include headaches, back pain, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal disorders, limited mobility and poor overall health. Sexual violence, particularly during childhood, can lead to increased smoking, drug and alcohol misuse, and risky sexual behaviours in later life. It is also associated with perpetration of violence (for males) and being a victim of violence (for females). Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 49. Impact of GBV on children Children who grow up in families where there is violence may suffer a range of behavioural and emotional disturbances. These can also be associated with perpetrating or experiencing violence later in life. Intimate partner violence has also been associated with higher rates of infant and child mortality and morbidity (through, for example diarrhoeal disease or malnutrition). Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 50. Social and economic costs The social and economic costs of intimate partner and sexual violence are enormous and have ripple effects throughout society. Women may suffer isolation, inability to work, loss of wages, lack of participation in regular activities and limited ability to care for themselves and their children. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 51. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 52. Dr. Kishor Adhikari Assoc. Professor, SOPH, CMC HUMAN TRAFFICKING
- 53. Definition of Human Trafficking/Trafficking in Persons (TIP) “Trafficking in Persons as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.” - United Nations’ Office on Drugs and Crime Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 54. Human trafficking The action or practice of illegally transporting people from one country or area to another, typically for the purposes of forced labour or commercial sexual exploitation. Human trafficking is the fastest growing criminal industry in the world, second to drug dealing and tied with arms dealing. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 55. Elements of Human Trafficking Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 56. Human trafficking in Nepal It is a growing criminal industry affecting multiple other countries beyond Nepal, primarily across Asia and the Middle East. Nepal is mainly a source country for men, women and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 57. Destinations 1. Within Nepal Trafficking victims often are taken to locations within Nepal, often from rural areas to the urban centers. Mainly young girls and women are trafficked for sexual exploitation in places such as cabin/dance restaurants, massage parlors, and other places within tourism sectorDr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 58. 2. Cross-border to India The trafficking of girls from Nepal into India for forced prostitution is perhaps one of the busiest slave trafficking routes anywhere in the world, with estimated 5,000-10,000 Nepali women and girls trafficked to India each year. An estimated 100,000-200,000 Nepali trafficked persons are in India. Nepali girls are especially desirable as prostitutes in India because they are considered more attractive due to their lighter skin color, and because Nepali virgins are believed to be able to cure AIDS. The 1850 kilometers of open, porous border between Nepal and India make trafficking simple and difficult to catch.Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 59. Contd. In addition, there is no immigration control for Nepalese migrating to India or Indians coming in Nepal under the 1950 Peace and Friendship Treaty between India and Nepal. In addition to being a destination, India is also a transit country for Nepalese and Bangladeshi women trafficked to Pakistan, Western Asia, and the Middle East and for women trafficked from the Russian Federation to Thailand. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 60. 3. Cross-border (excluding India) Victims, especially girls and women, are trafficked to Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Russia, Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates and other Gulf states. Experts believe China is also becoming an emerging hub for Nepali victims. Many victims who end up overseas are passed through India first before their final destinations. For non-India foreign destinations, the victims are most commonly subjected to sex trafficking, especially to non- brothels. Also widespread is labor exploitation of victims in unorganized, informal sectors in Gulf states, such as domestic servitude.Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 61. Types of Trafficking Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 62. 1. Sex Trafficking/Girl Trafficking Sex trafficking is human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation, including sexual slavery. Sex trafficking has two aspects of supply and demand. The sex exploitation is based on the interaction between the trafficker selling a victim (the individual being trafficked and sexually exploited) to customers to perform sexual services. Sex trafficking crimes are defined in three ways: acquisition, movement, and exploitation, and includes child sex tourism (CST), domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) or commercial sexual exploitation of children, and prostitution. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 63. Sex trafficking……….Contd. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College Sex trafficking is one of the biggest criminal businesses and is "the fastest growing criminal industry in the world." The trafficking of women for sexual exploitation is an international, organized, criminal phenomenon that has grave consequences for the safety, welfare and human rights of its victims. Trafficking of women is a criminal phenomenon that violates basic human rights, and totally destroying victims' lives.
- 64. Sex trafficking……….Contd. Sex trafficking is when someone uses coercion, force, or fraud to cause a commercial sex act with an adult or causes a minor to commit a commercial sex act. A commercial sex act includes prostitution, pornography or sexual performance done in exchange for an item of value, such as money, shelter, food, drugs, or clothes. There are an estimated 150,000 to 200,000 Nepali women and girls who are trafficked to Indian brothels each year. Girls are sold to brothels at prices ranging from 50,000 to 70,000 Indian rupees. The younger the girl, the higher the price she will be sold for. Once sold, the girls are property of the brothel owner Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 65. Types of trafficking………Contd. 2. Forced labor Forced labor refers to "situations in which persons are coerced to work through the use of violence or intimidation, or by more subtle means such as accumulated debt, retention of identity papers, or threats of denunciation to immigrant authorities.“ Elements of forced labor include deception, exploitation and abuse, violating the International Labour Organization Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, adopted in 1998. In Nepal, slavery was one of the oldest forms of forced labor. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 66. Human trafficking risk factors Economic factors Cultural factors Humanitarian crises Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 67. Challenges after trafficking 1. Health consequences The psychological effects of trafficking are often more neglected than the social and physical consequences, despite its extremely large influence on personal quality of life and on society. Because of the prolonged abuse, victims often suffer from physical and emotional trauma such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD), depression, anxiety, and drug addiction. Female survivors of human trafficking are significantly more vulnerable to depression and anxiety compared to victims of other varieties of traumatic events.Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 68. Challenges …….Contd. Victims are also at a high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. According to the 2002 United Nationsdocument "Nepal's National HIV/AIDS Strategy," Nepal has a low HIV prevalence in its general adult population, however, it has a "concentrated epidemic" of HIV with much higher prevalence rates in sex workers. Over 50% of the HIV positive women in Nepal are women who were deported after working in the sex industry in India. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 69. 2. Reintegrating into society In addition, since many survivors do not have the citizenship status, they have very limited options for legal recourse, and are ineligible for most government poverty reduction programs. Even after being aided by NGOs, many women report continued stigma in the community and lack of opportunities for livelihood. Many have extreme difficulty reintegrating into society due to the strong stigma they face of being previous sex workers regardless of the fact they were forced into it. When survivors return to home villages, they are often throw out by family members and home communities. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 70. Situations of Trafficking in Person in Nepal (TIP National Report, Nepal;2015-16) Evidences of human smuggling have been reported widely in the FY 2015/16 to several countries including Macau, UAE, Oman, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Portugal, Dubai, Qatar, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and India. The numbers of trafficking cases registered in Nepal Police, however, is still low against the believed number of trafficking victims. In the FY 2015/16, a total of 212 cases of human trafficking were registered in which there were 352 numbers of victims. Four in 10 victims are children; more than 95 percent victims are females and 3 in four victims do not have education at all. Majority of victims are from Janajati (48%), followed by 29 percent for Brahman/Chhetri and 15 percent for Dalit and 8 percent for Madeshi groups.Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 71. Contd. Drawing on the NGOs interventions including the rescue efforts of metropolice Crime Investigation Division of Kathmandu, Nepal Police and Foreign Embassies to Nepal, the estimated number of trafficking victims comes out to be about 23,200 in the FY 2015/16 in Nepal. It provides an estimate of 6,100 persons as trafficked; 13,600 persons as victims of attempt trafficking; and 3,900 persons remained missing. The number of children reported missing in Balbalika Khoj Talash Kendra was 1,502 in the FY 2015/16. Among them, girls outpaced the boys (60% vs. 40%) and more than one-thirds were in the age range of 14- 16 years. Overall, untraced rate was estimated to be 73.5 percent (78% for girls and 66 percent for boys). Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 72. On Entertainment Sector and Nexus of Trafficking This study estimated that there are currently around 600 entertainment establishments in Kathmandu valley where more than 2,000 girls/women are working as dancers, waiters, massage parlors, and in others. Majority of entertainment establishments in Kathmandu valley located in Thamel area, Gongabu bus park area, Kalanki area, Koteshowar-Sinamangal-Gausala-Chabahil area and Sundhara and Durbar Marg area. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 73. References 1. Human Trafficking: a Global Perspective. 2. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i US State Department (2011). Trafficking in Persons Report 2011 Country Narratives -- Countries N Through Z. Retrieved March 5, 2012, from http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2011/164233.htm 3. Koirala A, Banskota HK, Khadka BR: Cross border interception – A strategy of prevention of trafficking women from Nepal. Int Conf AIDS :15. 2004, Jul 11–16 4. Thapa, G (1997). "Women trafficking: better policing measures needed, the Rising Nepal, 15 July, Gorkhapatra Corporation Publication, Nepal. In Girl-trafficking, HIV/AIDS, and the position of women in Nepal, 2000". Gender and Development. 8 (2): 74–79 5. Mukherji KK, Muherjee S. (2007): Girls and women in prostitution in India Department of Women and Child Development, New Delhi, India. 6. Jones, C (2010). "Nepal's "Cabin Restaurants"". Ms. 20 (4): 23. 7. Joffres, C.; Mills, E.; Joffres, M.; Khanna, T.; Walia, H.; Grund, D. (2008). "Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India". International Journal for Equity in Health. 7: 1–11. doi:10.1186/1475-9276-7-22. 8. "What is Sex Trafficking? - Shared Hope International". Shared Hope International. Retrieved 2016-03-24. 9. "Human Trafficking | 3 Angels Nepal". 3angelsnepal.com. Retrieved 2016-03-24. 10. Sanzero Eller, Lucille (April 23, 2004). "Psychological Factors in Nepali Former Commercial Sex Workers with HIV". Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 35: 53–60. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 74. LEVELS OF GENDER BASED VIOLENCE
- 77. Dr. Kishor Adhikari Assoc. Professor, SOPH, CMC LIFE CYCLE OF VIOLENCE
- 78. Lenore E. Walker interviewed 1,500 women who had been subject to domestic violence and found that there was a similar pattern of abuse, called the "cycle of abuse“. The cycle of abuse concept is widely used in domestic violence programs, particularly in the United States. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 79. The cycle usually goes in the following order, and will repeat until the conflict is stopped, usually by the survivor entirely abandoning the relationship or some form of intervention. The cycle can occur hundreds of times in an abusive relationship, the total cycle taking anywhere from a few hours, to a year or more to complete. However, the length of the cycle usually diminishes over time so that the "reconciliation" and "calm" stages mayDr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 80. Life Cycle of Violence By Lenore Walker Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 81. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 82. 1. Tension building phage Stress builds from the pressures of daily life, like conflict over children, marital issues, misunderstandings, or other family conflicts. It also builds as the result of illness, legal or financial problems, unemployment, or catastrophic events, like floods, rape or war. During this period, the abuser feels ignored, threatened, annoyed or wronged. The feeling lasts on average several minutes to hours, it may last as much as several months. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 83. Contd. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College To prevent violence, the victim may try to reduce the tension by becoming compliant and nurturing. Or, to get the abuse over with, prepare for the violence or lessen the degree of injury, the victim may provoke the batterer. "However, at no time is the batterer justified in engaging in violent or abusive behavior," said Scott Allen Johnson, author of Physical Abusers and Sexual Offenders.
- 84. 2. Acute violence (Incident) Characterized by outbursts of violent, abusive incidents which may be preceded by verbal abuse and include psychological abuse. During this stage the abuser attempts to dominate their partner (survivor) with the use of domestic violence. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 85. Contd. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College In intimate partner violence, children are negatively affected by having witnessed the violence and the partner's relationship degrades as well. The release of energy reduces the tension, and the abuser may feel or express that the victim "had it coming" to them.
- 86. 3. Reconciliation/honeymoon The perpetrator may begin to feel remorse, guilty feelings, or fear that their partner will leave or call the police. The victim feels pain, fear, humiliation, disrespect, confusion, and may mistakenly feel responsible. Characterized by affection, apology, or, alternatively, ignoring the incident, this phase marks an apparent end of violence, with assurances that it will never happen again, or that the abuser will do their best to change. During this stage the abuser may feel or claim to feel overwhelming regret and sadness.Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 87. 3. Reconciliation……..Contd. Some abusers walk away from the situation with little comment, but most will eventually shower the survivor with love and affection. The abuser may use self-harm or threats of suicide to gain sympathy and/or prevent the survivor from leaving the relationship. Abusers are frequently so convincing, and survivors so eager for the relationship to improve, that survivors (who are often worn down and confused by longstanding abuse) Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 88. 4. Calm During this phase (which is often considered an element of the honeymoon/reconciliation phase), the relationship is relatively calm and peaceable. During this period the abuser may agree to engage in counseling, ask for forgiveness, and create a normal atmosphere. In intimate partner relationships, the perpetrator may buy presents or the couple may engage in passionate sex. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 89. 4. Calm ……..Contd. Over time, the batterer's apologies and requests for forgiveness become less sincere and are generally stated to prevent separation or intervention. However, interpersonal difficulties will inevitably arise, leading again to the tension building phase. The effect of the continual cycle may include loss of love, contempt, distress, and/or physical disability. Intimate partners may separate, divorce or, at the extreme, someone may be killed. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 90. Critiques Walker's cycle of abuse theory was regarded as a revolutionary and important concept in the study of abuse and interpersonal violence, which is a useful model, but may be simplistic. Critics have also argued the theory is flawed as it does not apply as universally as Walker suggested, does not accurately or completely describe all abusive relationships, and may emphasize ideological presumptions rather than empirical data. Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 91. THANK YOU Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Associate Professor, SOPH, Chitwan Medical College
- 92. PUBLIC HEALTH RESPONSIBILITY FOR PREVENTING VIOLENCE PLEASE KEEP THE KEY NOTES DERIVED FROM THE CLASS DISCUSSION UNDER THIS TOPIC (NOTED BY MS. SAMITA) Dr. Kishor Adhikari, Assoc. Professor, SOPH, CMC