volcano case study iceland

Iceland battles a lava flow: Countries have built barriers and tried explosives in the past, but it’s hard to stop molten rock

volcano case study iceland

Associate Professor of Earth Science, Drexel University

Disclosure statement

Loÿc Vanderkluysen receives funding from the National Science Foundation

Drexel University provides funding as a member of The Conversation US.

View all partners

Fountains of lava erupted from the Sundhnúkur volcanic system in southwest Iceland on Jan. 14, 2024. As the world watched on webcams and social media , lava flows cut off roads and bubbled from a new fissure that invaded the outskirts of the coastal town of Grindavík, burning down at least three houses in their path.

Nearby, construction vehicles that had been working for weeks to build large earthen dams and berms in an attempt to divert the lava’s flow had to pull back.

The glow from lava lights up the sky with a town nearby in front of it.

Humans have tried many ways to stop lava in the past, from attempting to freeze it in place by cooling it with sea water, to using explosives to disrupt its supply, to building earthen barriers.

It’s too soon to say if Iceland’s earthworks will succeed in saving Grindavík, a town of about 3,500 residents , and a nearby geothermal power plant . As a volcanologist , I follow these methods. The most successful attempts to stop or reroute lava have involved diversions like Iceland’s.

Why lava is so hard to stop

Lava is a sluggish, viscous fluid that behaves somewhat like tar. It is subject to gravity, so like other fluids, it will flow downslope along a path of steepest descent.

With the temperature of its molten rock often well above 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit (1,000 Celsius), not much can stand in its way.

Freezing lava in its tracks

In 1973, Icelanders attempted the most famous “lava freezing” experiment . They used water hoses from a flotilla of small boats and fishing vessels to protect the small island community of Heimaey from the Eldfell volcano’s lava.

The lava flows were threatening to close off the harbor, which is critical to the region’s fishing industry and a lifeline to the Icelandic mainland. The eruption ended before the success of the strategy could be properly evaluated, but the harbor survived.

Fighting lava with explosives

Hawaiians used explosives dropped from planes in 1935 and 1942 to try to disrupt lava flows from Mauna Loa volcano that were threatening the town of Hilo on the Big Island.

The idea was to disrupt the channels or lava tubes in the volcano that were supplying lava to the surface. Neither attempt was successful. The explosions created new channels, but the newly formed lava flows soon rejoined the original lava channel .

Lava barriers and diversions

Most recent efforts have focused instead on a third strategy: building dams or ditches in an attempt to divert the lava’s flow toward a different path of steepest descent, into a different “lavashed,” a concept similar to a watershed but where lava would naturally flow.

Results have been mixed, but diversion can be successful if the lava flow can be clearly diverted into a distinct area where lava would naturally flow – without threatening a different community in the process.

An earthen berm with black lava along the one side of it. The lava broke through along a highway.

Many attempts to divert lava have failed, however. Barriers built in Italy to stop Mt. Etna’s lava flows in 1992 slowed the flow, but the lava eventually overtopped each one .

Iceland’s diversion efforts

Icelandic authorities evacuated Grindavík’s residents in November 2023 after swarms of earthquakes indicated a reactivation of the nearby volcanic system.

Shortly afterward, construction began on protective barriers for the town and some nearby critical infrastructure – notably, the Svartsengi geothermal power station. Construction had to be put on hold in mid-December, when a first volcanic eruption occurred about 2.5 miles northeast of Grindavík, but work resumed in January. Work was still underway when magma reached the surface again on Jan. 14.

Black lava engulfs the edge of a neighborhood, leaving homes in ruins.

Diverting lava in this region is difficult, in part because the land around Grindavík is relatively flat. That makes it harder to identify a clear alternative path of steepest descent for redirecting the lava.

Icelandic officials reported on Jan. 15 that most of the lava from the main fissure had flowed along the outside the barrier, however a new fissure had also opened inside the perimeter, sending lava into a neighborhood. Unfortunately, that implies that Grindavík remains at risk.

  • Natural disasters
  • Disaster management
  • Construction
  • Volcanology

volcano case study iceland

Events Officer

volcano case study iceland

Lecturer (Hindi-Urdu)

volcano case study iceland

Director, Defence and Security

volcano case study iceland

Opportunities with the new CIEHF

volcano case study iceland

School of Social Sciences – Public Policy and International Relations opportunities

volcano case study iceland

Search our site

Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption in 2010

Eyjafjallajökull 2010: How Icelandic volcano eruption closed European skies

Ten years ago the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökul erupted, sending a plume of volcanic ash over nine kilometers into the sky. 

The eruption was relatively small but its impact was massive. Europe experienced air travel chaos for almost one month as much of the continent ground to a standstill.

Eyjafjallajökul’s eruption remains one of the most memorable events of the twenty-first century and is also one of the defining moments for our aircraft research team, who played a key role in reopening European air space.

The Eyjafjallajökul eruption

The ice-capped volcano started to erupt in mid-March, following several months of increased seismic activity in Iceland. 

The first eruptions were isolated on the North-East flank, but problems started to arise in April when the eruptions spread to the centre of the volcano, a three kilometer-wide crater surrounded by ice.

As the ice started to melt, glacial water began flooding into the volcano where it met the bubbling magma at the centre of the eruptions. This rapid cooling caused the magma to shear into fine, jagged ash particles.  

Large plumes of volcanic ash quickly spread above the volcano, moving eastwards with the jetstream towards the Faroe Islands, Norway, and northern Scotland.

Iceland responded by declaring a state of emergency and European airspace was closed as a safety precaution. It is estimated that airlines lost an estimated £130m every day that airspace remained closed, while millions of passengers were left stranded. 

In order to reopen air space and reduce the economic impacts and disruption to travellers, the National Centre for Atmospheric Science was called in to map the volcanic plume. 

Mapping the plume from the air and the ground

The ash plume contained large amounts of microscopic particles of hard volcanic rock , which can cause serious damage to any aircraft flying through.

Scientists from the National Centre for Atmospheric Science worked closely with the Civil Aviation Authority and the Met Office to track the plume and its contents using scientific instruments fitted to two research aircraft, alongside a series of computer models. 

The FAAM Airborne Laboratory’s research aircraft was fitted with a special instrument that uses a laser to illuminate the ash particles from above. Another aircraft, a Dornier, flew below the plume to help map the ash.

The two aircraft were able to fly where commercial airlines could not, due to their ability to detect the volcanic plume via the research instruments on board. 

To sample different layers of the plume, the aircraft flew up and down at heights between two and six kilometers. Meanwhile, scientists on the ground used computer models to build a picture of how the plume was moving. 

“We used the NOAA HYSPLIT model to track the dispersion of the volcanic plume.” says Professor Stephen Mobbs, Executive Director of the National Centre for Atmospheric Science.

“This model tracks the trajectories of atmospheric pollutants from sources, using the observed wind fields as interpreted by global weather forecasting models.”

Dangers of volcanic ash to aircraft

Our response to the environmental emergency was pivotal in enabling passenger aircraft to return safely to the skies.

The volcanic ash was electrically conductive which meant it could cause thunder and lightning, or St Elmo’s Fire – an effect where metal parts of an aircraft start to glow. The airspeed indicator – which is essential for safe flight – can also be adversely affected making control of the aircraft very difficult. Dust is also likely to enter the aircraft, causing sulphurous smells and haze. Professor Guy Gratton, Cranfield University

Professor Guy Gratton, Associate Professor in Aviation and the Environment at Cranfield University, says that volcanic ash could cause plane engines to seize:

“As they touch the aircraft, and particularly the engines, the hard rock particles can wear away the skin of an aircraft, its windscreens, and engine components. At the high temperatures inside a jet engine the particles can potentially block fuel nozzles or even melt and then solidify in other parts of the engine causing mishandling or engine stoppage.”

Future environmental emergencies

After the Eyjafjallajökul eruption, Professor Stephen Mobbs and Dr Susan Loughlin, Head of Volcanology at the British Geological Survey, were appointed to advisory groups set up by the UK government to respond to similar environmental emergencies in future. 

Researchers continue to watch Iceland’s volcanoes, and have since returned on a mission to monitor gases – including carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide – over the potentially most active volcanoes. 

Recently, there have been peaks in these warning gases, which can indicate an eruption is on the way. There are several large volcanoes in Iceland, and when they erupt they are likely to have considerable effects across western Europe and beyond. One is Katla, which last erupted in 1918 and is widely considered to be overdue for an eruption.

25 responses to “ Eyjafjallajökull 2010: How Icelandic volcano eruption closed European skies ”

  • Pingback: South-West Iceland's Been Hit via 17,000 Earthquakes This Week. It May Be About to Erupt - Inspired Girls News Magazine
  • Pingback: Esta semana, o sudoeste da Islândia foi atingido por 17.000 terremotos. Pode estar prestes a explodir | Blog Ambiental
  • Pingback: South-West Iceland's Been Hit by 17,000 Earthquakes This Week. It May Be About to Erupt - PKNews10
  • Pingback: South-West Iceland's Been Hit by 17,000 Earthquakes This Week. It May Be About to Erupt - Digi Flash
  • Pingback: South-West Iceland's Been Hit by 17,000 Earthquakes This Week. It May Be About to Erupt - a news room
  • Pingback: South-West Iceland's Been Hit by 17,000 Earthquakes This Week. It May Be About to Erupt - extension 13
  • Pingback: South-West Iceland's Been Hit by 17,000 Earthquakes This Week. It Might Be About to Erupt | The Worldzz News
  • Pingback: South-West Iceland's Been Hit by 17,000 Earthquakes This Week. It May Be About to Erupt - Science Global News
  • Pingback: South-West Iceland’s Been Hit by 17,000 Earthquakes This Week. It Might Be About to Erupt – The News Point
  • Pingback: South-West Iceland's Been Hit by 17,000 Earthquakes This Week. It May Be About to Erupt »
  • Pingback: South-West Iceland’s Been Hit by 17,000 Earthquakes This Week. It May Be About to Erupt – bitarafhaber.net
  • Pingback: South-West Iceland's Been Hit by 17,000 Earthquakes This Week. It May Be About to Erupt - Science Daily Press
  • Pingback: South-west Iceland is shaking – and may be about to erupt | us19.co.in
  • Pingback: South-West Iceland's Been Hit by 17,000 Earthquakes This Week. It May Be About to Erupt - Xnn News Blog
  • Pingback: South-West Iceland's Been Hit by 17,000 Earthquakes This Week. It Might Be About to Erupt | Vale News
  • Pingback: Sudoeste da Islândia foi atingido por 17.000 terremotos esta semana e vulcão pode estar prestes a entrar em erupção – CLM Brasil
  • Pingback: Southwest Iceland is shaking – and may be about to erupt - Physics Everywhere
  • Pingback: Southwest Iceland is shaking – and may be about to erupt · Enzyme Time
  • Pingback: South-West Iceland's Been Hit by 17,000 Earthquakes This Week. It May Be About to Erupt - Newstimepaper
  • Pingback: This week 17,000 earthquakes struck southwestern Iceland. It can be about Arop | World News, today's news, latest news
  • Pingback: South-west Iceland is shaking and may be about to erupt - WeJan
  • Pingback: South-west Iceland is shaking and may be about to erupt | My Adivasi
  • Pingback: South-West Iceland's Been Hit by 17,000 Earthquakes This Week. It May Be About to Erupt - Tech and Science Post
  • Pingback: Iceland is having its own Meghan and Harry - it is about to erupt - Brighton Journal
  • Pingback: Southwest Iceland Is Shaking - Atlas Obscura

Screenshot 2019-07-14 at 16.51.47.png

Eyjafjallajokull 2010 volcanic eruption case study

Tectonic Hazards Community Insight

Provided in partnership with

volcano case study iceland

size_566_x_340[566x340]-rid_62b48434-b0f2-4099-a59a-bf1e89045d41

IGCSE Geography Success Masterclass

Book now to be inspired and boost your grade!

Log in or sign up to manage your videos and for new video alerts Log in Sign up

Course links: GCSE • IGCSE • A-level • IA-level • IB Geography

This award-winning geography case study video resource reflects on the eruption of Eyjafjallajokull in 2010 and looks ahead to potential volcanic eruptions in Iceland.

In this video, we cover:

- The causes and impacts of the eruption, with visits to some of the localities directly affected - Volcano monitoring and preparedness - The impacts associated with the future eruption of Katla - Positive impacts of the volcanic eruption on tourism in Iceland

This teaching resource uses narrative, incisive interviews of local people, stunning archive footage of the eruption itself and supportive maps and diagrams to show that, through detailed scientific knowledge and monitoring, the people in Iceland not only understand the threats posed by volcanic eruptions but also see the rich benefits of living in the ‘Land of Fire and Ice’.

Visit Discover the World Education to download the free teaching resources, which accompany this video: http://bit.ly/2xzJ8r5

  • Effects on Aircraft
  • Signs of an Encounter
  • Actions for Flight Crew
  • Global Mitigation
  • Eyjafjallajökull Impact
  • Resources & References

The 2010 eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano had a huge impact on air travel, changing the assessment of risk by the aviation sector and catalyzing new lines of scientific investigation. Ash advisories derived from dispersion-model output were issued by the London VAAC, depicting the presence of ash over large parts of Europe and the North Atlantic. Based on those advisories, over 300 airports in about two dozen countries, and a correspondingly large airspace, were closed in Europe during 15-21 April 2010. This resulted in massive impacts on air travel worldwide. Over 100,000 flights were cancelled over that week, affecting 7 million passengers, and resulting in $1.7 billion USD in lost revenue to airlines according to an analysis by Oxford Economics.

To reopen airspace, European aviation authorities endorsed the creation of a new type of concentration chart advisory product that delineated hazard zones based on dispersion model output of ash concentrations. So called 'low' ash concentrations were deemed to be defined as 3 . The concentration charts were adopted by air traffic management and airlines with the expectation that zones of low density ash could be transited with no or minimal risk of immediate aircraft damage providing a regime of enhanced risk assessment by airlines, including more frequent aircraft inspections, was adopted. Currently, concentration charts have only been adopted for operational use in Europe and the North Atlantic region, as outlined in Volcanic Ash Contingency Plan EUR and NAT Regions . The scientific validity and operational utility of the ash concentration charts have been questioned by international experts and therefore have not been implemented outside Europe.

Also in response to Eyjafjallajökull's impact on air travel, ICAO formed the International Volcanic Ash Task Force (IVATF) in May 2010, charging it to examine how best to define hazardous airspace and manage aviation risk. The IVATF included representatives from government and industry groups involved in aviation regulation, operations, and scientific investigations. The IVATF finished its work in June 2012, and a record of its results is available.

On the scientific front, there has been a notable increase in volcanic-cloud research since Eyjafjallajökull and the Cordon Caulle long-lived ash plume of 2011. A burst of scientific articles has been published, including in special journal issues (Hasager et al, 2010; Langmann et al., 2012). Overall, these eruptions have prompted the aviation industry, regulators, and scientists to work more closely together to improve the manner in which hazardous airspace is defined, forecast, and communicated.

Hodder Education Magazines logo

  • Geography Review
  • Volcanoes and ice caps: case study of Iceland

volcano case study iceland

Ecclesfield: case study of a changing place

Volcanoes and ice caps, case study of iceland.

Iceland lies on a mid-oceanic ridge at the edge of the Arctic circle. It therefore shows us the way that volcanoes and glaciers interact, giving powerful indications of how ice-age volcanic activity operated. This article explains the processes at work and looks in detail at the dramatic events of the last 5 years

  • Volume 30, 2016/ 2017
  • Glaciated landscapes
  • Hazards (AQA spec only)
  • Tectonic hazards

Chris Davies

volcano case study iceland

For more on Iceland go to: www.hoddereducation.co.uk/geographyreviewextras  

Iceland is unlike any other country (see Box 1). Uniquely positioned atop one of the Earth’s 40,000 km of mid-oceanic ridges, it allows us to see on dry land a process usually hidden under thousands of metres of ocean — sea-floor spreading. Its location on the edge of the Arctic circle also offers the opportunity to study the interaction between volcanoes and glaciers at first hand.

Your organisation does not have access to this article.

Sign up today to give your students the edge they need to achieve their best grades with subject expertise

Related articles:

volcano case study iceland

Chemistry crossword

Chemistry Review

volcano case study iceland

Intermolecular forces

volcano case study iceland

Magnifying problems in biology

Biological Sciences Review

volcano case study iceland

Volcano case studies

Volcano case studies You should make sure you are familiar with 2 case studies: Either: Nyiragongo, Democratic Republic of Congo – Poor Country or Montserrat, Caribbean – Poor Country AND Either: Mount St. Helens, USA – Rich Country or Iceland – Rich Country

Key terms: Primary effects: the immediate effects of the eruption, caused directly by it Secondary effects: the after-effects that occur as an indirect effect of the eruption on a longer timescale Immediate responses: how people react as the disaster happens and in the immediate aftermath Long-term responses: later reactions that occur in the weeks, months and years after the event Nyiragongo Picture The video below contains more information on the primary and secondary effects of a volcano

On 17th January 2002 Nyiragongo volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) was disturbed by the movement of plates along the East African Rift Valley. This led to lava spilling southwards in three streams.

The primary effects – The speed of the lava reached 60kph which is especially fast. The lava flowed across the runway at Goma airport and through the town splitting it in half. The lava destroyed many homes as well as roads and water pipes, set off explosions in fuel stores and powerplants and killed 45 people

The secondary effects – Half a million people fled from Goma into neighbouring Rwanda to escape the lava. They spent the nights sleeping on the streets of Gisenyi. Here, there was no shelter, electricity or clean water as the area could not cope with the influx. Diseases such as cholera were a real risk. People were frightened of going back. However, looting was a problem in Goma and many residents returned within a week in hope of receiving aid.

Responses – In the aftermath of the eruption, water had to be supplied in tankers. Aid agencies, including Christian Aid and Oxfam, were involved in the distribution of food, medicine and blankets.

Montserrat – Poor country case study

Montserrat – Ledc Case Study from donotreply16 Mount St Helens – Rich country case study Picture Mount St. Helens is one of five volcanoes in the Cascade Range in Washington State, USA. The volcano erupted at 8:32am on 18th May 1980.

Effects – An earthquake caused the biggest landslide ever recorded and the sideways blast of pulverised rock, glacier ice and ash wiped out all living things up to 27km north of the volcano. Trees were uprooted and 57 people died.

Immediate responses – helicopters were mobilised to search and rescue those in the vicinity of the catastrophic blast. Rescuing survivors was a priority, followed by emergency treatment in nearby towns. Air conditioning systems were cleaned after by clogged with ash and blocked roads were cleared. Two million masks were ordered to protect peoples lungs.

Long-term responses – Buildings and bridges were rebuilt. Drains had to be cleared to prevent flooding. The forest which was damaged had to be replanted by the forest service. Roads were rebuilt to allow tourists to visit. Mount St. Helens is now a major tourist attraction with many visitor centres.

Iceland – Rich country case study Picture Location: Iceland lies on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a constructive plate margin separating the Eurasian plate from the North American plate. As the plates move apart magma rises to the surface to form several active volcanoes located in a belt running roughly SW-NE through the centre of Iceland. Eyjafjallajokull (1,666m high) is located beneath an ice cap in southern Iceland 125km south east of the capital Reykjavik

The Eruption: In March 2010, magma broke through the crust beneath Eyjafjallajokull glacier. This was the start of two months of dramatic and powerful eruptions that would have an impact on people across the globe. The eruptions in March were mostly lava eruptions. Whilst they were spectacular and fiery they represented very little threat to local communities, However, on 14th April a new phase began which was much more explosive. Over a period of several days in mid-April violent eruptions belched huge quantities of ash in the atmosphere.

Local impacts and responses: The heavier particles of ash (such as black gritty sand) fell to the ground close to the volcano, forcing hundreds of people to be evacuated (immediate response) from their farms and villages. As day turned to night, rescuers wore face masks to prevent them choking on the dense cloud of ash. These ash falls, which coated agricultural land with a thick layer of ash, were the main primary effects of the eruption. One of the most damaging secondary effects of the eruption was flooding. As the eruption occurred beneath a glacier, a huge amount of meltwater was produced. Vast torrents of water flowed out from under the ice. Sections of embankment that supported the main highway in Southern Iceland were deliberately breached by the authorities to allow floodwaters to pass through to the sea. This action successfully prevented expensive bridges being destroyed. After the eruption, bulldozers were quickly able to rebuild the embankments and within a few weeks the highway was reconstructed.

Local impacts: 800 people evacuated Homes and roads were damaged and services (electricity & water) disrupted Local flood defences had to be constructed Crops were damaged by heavy falls of ash Local water supplies were contaminated with fluoride from the ash

National impacts: Drop in tourist numbers – affected Iceland’s economy as well as local people’s jobs and incomes Road transport was disrupted as roads were washed away by floods Agricultural production was affected as crops were smothered by a thick layer of ash Reconstruction of roads and services was expensive

International impacts: Over 8 days – some 100,000 flights were cancelled 10 million air passengers affected Losses estimated to be £80 million Industrial production halted due to a lack of raw materials Fresh food could not be imported Sporting events such as the Japanese Motorcycle grand prix, Rugby leagues challenge cup and the Boston Marathon were affected

International impacts and responses: The eruption of Eyjafjallajokull became an international event in mid-April 2010 as the cloud of fine ash spread south-eastwards toward the rest of Europe. Concerned about the possible harmful effects of ash on aeroplane jet engines, large sections of European airspace closed down. Passenger and freight traffic throughout much of Europe ground to a halt. The knock-on effects were extensive and were felt across the world. Business people and tourists were stranded unable to travel in to or out of Western Europe. Industrial production was affected as raw materials could be flown in and products could not be exported by air. As far away as Kenya, farm workers lost their jobs or suffered pay cuts as fresh produce such as flowers and bean perished, unable to be flown to European supermarkets. The airline companies and airport operators lost huge amounts of money. Some people felt that the closures were an over-reaction and that aeroplanes could fly safely through low concentrations of ash. However, a scientific review conducted after the eruption concluded that under the circumstances it had been right to close the airspace. Further research will be carried out as a long-term response to find better ways of monitoring ash concentrations and improving forecast methods.

  • 0 Shopping Cart

Internet Geography

Fagradalsfjall Eruption

On Friday 19 th March 2021, a volcanic eruption began in south-west Iceland, near the capital, Reykjavik. The eruption near Mount Fagradalsfjall, about 20 miles southwest of Reykjavik, took place at 8:45 pm local time. Molten rock breached the surface in a valley near a flat-topped mountain named Fagradalsfjall (beautiful valley mountain), in the region of Geldingadalur (Dale of the Geldings), six miles from the nearest town.

Immediately following the eruption, Iceland’s prime minister Katrín Jakobsdóttir announced on Twitter, “A volcanic eruption has begun in Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes peninsula. We are monitoring the situation closely, and as of now, it is not considered a threat to surrounding towns. We ask people to keep away from the immediate area and stay safe”.

In the four weeks leading to the eruption, more than 50,000 earthquakes occurred on the peninsula, a huge jump from the 1,000-3,000 registered each year since 2014. Several of these earthquakes exceeded magnitude 5.

The eruption occurred on the Reykjanes Peninsula in Gledingadalur valley, close to Fagradalsfjall, a mountain 20 miles south-west from the capital, Reykjavik. Sitting on a landward portion of the continuously spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge is no stranger to earthquakes. But since late 2019, they have become more frequent and more energetic. Icelanders on the peninsula, particularly those in the coastal town of Grindavík, have had trouble sleeping lately due to the constant shaking.

A map to show the location of Fagradalsfjalli

  • Click to share
  • Print Friendly

A fissure (crack in the Earth’s surface), approximately 200 m long, opened, releasing lava. Though considered small, the eruption spewed more than 10 million square feet of lava, sometimes in fountains reaching heights of more than 90 m.

Close up view on the fracture tip from where the magma is erupting #Reykjanes pic.twitter.com/NGXASVjfK2 — Joël Ruch (@VTLAB_Joel) March 20, 2021

Local people were alerted to the eruption when a series of small lava fountains turned the night sky red.

‘Volcanic Eruption and Northern Lights, could it get more Icelandic?’ 📷 Piotr Slawomir Latkowski #Iceland #volcano pic.twitter.com/QweGQrLnJc — Zirr (@ItsAzirr) March 20, 2021

Meteorologists said the eruption was small. The area is uninhabited, so the eruption is not expected to present any danger. Lava is trapped within the Geldingadalur valley, which needs to fill with lava at least 25 to 30 metres thick before it pours out of the valley.

Annotated eruption map Source: Volcano Cafe - https://www.volcanocafe.org/reykjanes-the-second-day/

Annotated eruption map Source: Volcano Cafe – https://www.volcanocafe.org/reykjanes-the-second-day/

The main hazard from the eruption is the potential danger of sulphur dioxide gas.

One image was taken every 10 minutes over a 4 hour period on the afternoon of Sunday 21st March 2021. Source images from www.ruv.is

The eruption is the first in this part of Iceland — the Reykjanes Peninsula, home to Reykjavik, where most of the country’s residents live, in 781 years. And it was the first time this particular volcano had erupted in about 6,000 years.

Experts say around 300,000 cubic metres (10.5 million cubic feet) of lava have poured out, but the eruption is deemed to be relatively small and controlled.

Eldgos í Geldingadölum á Reykjanesskaga by EFLA Engineering on Sketchfab

Lava first poured out of a meandering fissure, however over the weekend, the eruption focused its output on a single spot, building a steep, towering cauldron of freshly cooled rock. Smooth rivers of lava crept around blockier, rubble-like lava. Lava flowing at a steady pace caused the cone to suffer a few partial collapses as it flung blobs of lava across the scorched earth.

Ejected molten lava lands on the sides of the vent and solidifies, and over time builds a cone around the vent. This is typical of effusive fissure eruptions of basaltic lava. The spatter cone is relatively weak and is susceptible to collapse. When this occurs, large volumes of lava flow out of the vent rapidly as now unconfined lava. These events are unpredictable and can immediately change the direction and speed of a lava flow, as shown. The video below features the partial collapse of the spatter cone.

The tourists below put themselves at risk by getting so close to the spatter cone.

volcano case study iceland

Tourists close to the spatter cone.

The site was initially blocked off, but from the afternoon of Saturday 20th, March 2021, people were allowed to make the trek. People hiked to the area over the weekend to witness the eruption up close, and local helicopter companies are offering tours from Reykjavik.

Crowds flock to Fagradalsfjall - image courtesy of Guðni Oddgeirsson

Crowds flock to Fagradalsfjall – image courtesy of Guðni Oddgeirsson

By Monday, the site was blocked again due to high gas pollution levels and poor weather conditions. Emergency services had to rescue several people from the area on Sunday evening.

Now that magma has reached the surface, the earthquakes have mostly subsided.

On Wednesday, 24th April, the main cone was joined by another large cone, formed when two smaller ones merged.

Two large cones on Wednesday 24th March

Two large cones on Wednesday 24th March

Iceland frequently experiences earthquakes and volcanic eruptions because it sits between two tectonic plates (the North American and Eurasian plate), moving in opposite directions, forming a constructive plate margin .

Geologists describe the eruption as “effusive”, in which lava flows out of the volcano onto the ground, as opposed to “explosive”, wherein magma is violently fragmented and rapidly expelled from a volcano.

Scientists suggest the heightened volcanic activity represents a transition from a gradual opening of the Mid-Atlantic rift to a considerably more dramatic phase when both sides of the Reykjanes Peninsula are rapidly pulled apart. When a geologic rift quickly pulls the land apart like this, it creates a space, and magma rushes up to fill it in.

Scientists on site made use of nature to cook up a meal!

Unlike the eruption in 2010 of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano , which halted approximately 900,000 flights and forced hundreds of Icelanders from their homes, this eruption is not expected to spew much ash or smoke into the atmosphere.

Below are resources covering the current eruption of Fagradalsfjall, Iceland.

Geography in the News

Download our Geography in the News resource covering the eruption of Fagradalsfjall

Pre eruption

Iceland shaken by more than 50,000 earthquakes in three weeks

A great video introduction to the eruption, featuring monitoring before the eruption – BBC News

Scientists in Iceland say ‘strong signs’ volcanic eruption is imminent

Several days of tremors near Mount Keilir indicate it is ‘more likely than not’ an eruption is about to begin – The Guardian

Icelandic volcano erupts near Reykjavik

Nighttime aerial video – BBC News

Iceland volcano: eruption underway on mountain near Reykjavik

A video report overview – The Guardian

Take a look at this 360° image of the volcano, which clearly puts its site in context.

Drone Footage

Close-up footage of the eruption.

Iceland, yesterday. A peek into the inferno of our Earth. (video Chris Burkard https://t.co/Ba8Eh0SJbX ) pic.twitter.com/QEMOv8X6ug — Chris Hadfield (@Cmdr_Hadfield) March 20, 2021
  View this post on Instagram   A post shared by Bjorn Steinbekk (@bsteinbekk)

Live webcam

A webcam is now broadcasting live from Fagradalsfjall, facing Geldingadalur – RUV

The webcam is broadcasting on YouTube .

The Fracture Tip

A wonderful video produced by Gudmann & Gyda

Stunning night time footage of the eruption

Iceland volcano: Lava-spewing Fagradalsfjall ‘subsiding.’

The eruption that started on Friday 19th March 2021 near Iceland’s capital Reykjavik seems to be subsiding, scientists say. – BBC News  – update: they clearly got this wrong!

Share this:

  • Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)
  • Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
  • Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window)
  • Click to email a link to a friend (Opens in new window)
  • Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)
  • Click to print (Opens in new window)

Leave a Reply

Leave a reply cancel reply.

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

I agree to the terms and conditions laid out in the Privacy Policy

Notify me of follow-up comments by email.

Notify me of new posts by email.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed .

Please Support Internet Geography

If you've found the resources on this site useful please consider making a secure donation via PayPal to support the development of the site. The site is self-funded and your support is really appreciated.

Search Internet Geography

Top posts and pages.

Geography Case Studies

Latest Blog Entries

AQA GCSE Geography Pre-release Resources 2024

Pin It on Pinterest

volcano case study iceland

Eruption in Iceland Going Strong After Almost Two Weeks

T he funny thing about volcanic eruptions is that people (broadly speaking) pay attention when (1) a volcano that hasn't erupted recently erupts; (2) a volcano near people erupts and (3) a new eruption begins where a famous previous eruption occurred. The media descends and you can find volcanologists (like me!) being interviewed about the ramifications of this, that and the other volcanic thing.

That's great (at first), because awareness of the volcanic activity on Earth means that people may be less prone to think every eruption means global doom and that maybe they will decide to be prepared if they live near a volcano.

Case in point: Iceland. The eruptions near Grindavík over the last six months have continued to threaten the town, the Blue Lagoon and the geothermal plant on the Reykjanes Peninsula. However, with each new salvo, the attention it gets from the global media goes down. "It's just another eruption in Iceland" seems to be the attitude.

What's Up (and Not Up) Right Now?

The latest eruption near Grindavík started on March 16 and if it was like the previous ones, we should have expected a few days of eruption that created lava fountaining, some lava flows and then a slow petering out of the activity. Yet, here we are, ~10 days later and this is what it looks like right now:

The cone formed during the current Sundhnúksgíga eruption near Grindavík in Iceland seen on March 27, 2024. Credit: MBL.is webcam still.

That's ... different! Instead of the same pattern of inflation on the land surface, a new (and brief) eruption and repeat, this eruption north of the city has been going strong for days. What's changed?

Maybe not much. The Icelandic Meteorological Office reports that the rates of lava coming out of the ground at Sundhnúksgíga aren't too different than past eruptions in the area. However, what has changed is that magma rising up into the crust does not appear to be stalling on the way to the surface. The IMO has noted that there is little to no earthquake activity in the dike or its vicinity and uplift in the area around Svartsengi has been very slight since the eruption began on March 16.

To paraphrase the IMO's assessment, this suggests that less magma is accumulating and is instead "flowing more directly out of the reservoir through the eruptive fissures". This means we are getting a constant flow of liquid rock from its sources tens of kilometers down to the surface.

Why it has changed is a more difficult to pinpoint. Maybe the conduits that bring magma to the surface have become "primed" by previous eruptions so there are no longer impediments to it making a straight shot. Maybe the feature that the magma is using to reach the surface offers less resistance to eruption. Maybe none of these things.

The line of eruptive vents along the fissure at Sundhnúksgíga that formed starting March 16, 2024. This photo was taken on March 20, 2024. Credit: IMO.

Now, instead of a fissure erupting lava flows we have a series of cones (above) that are building as the lava spurts out of the ground like a hose. The debris from this spattering piles up around the vent to make what could eventually become cinder cone that line up along what was the fissure. If you look at a topographic map of the Reykjanes Peninsula, you can find lots of examples of these clusters related to eruptions just like these in the past.

New Eruption by the Numbers

Mapping of the current activity has lava flows as thick as 16 meters (50 feet) near the vents at Sundhnúkar. Since this eruption started on March 16, the IMO estimates the eruption rate at ~14.5 cubic meters (~500 cubic feet) per second -- a rate that is right in line with other eruptions in this sequence and earlier eruptions at Fagradalsfjall since 2021. This new eruption has dumped over 20 million cubic meters (700 million cubic feet) of basaltic lava onto the surface ... that's roughly 350 large oil tanker ships!

The hazard for people around Grindavík hasn't changed that much. The lava flows could destroy homes and infrastructure. However, Iceland has build lava flow levees to help divert the flows from the city as best as they can (sometimes using the new lava itself to build the levees!) Maps of the lava flows from March 20-26 show how they have mostly been diverted by the walls and levees built to the north and west of Grindavík.

Lava flow map of the current activity near Grindavík in Iceland showing the thickness of lava measured on March 20, 2024. Credit: IMO.

However, with the constant eruption of sulfur-rich basaltic lava from these vents, the volcanic gas hazard has increased . Sulfur and water make sulfuric acid, so when the fumes from the eruption blow into a populated area, breathing can become ... unpleasant. It can be downright hazardous to people with respiratory conditions. The IMO maps where the volcanic gases are headed based on the weather to give people a "heads up" for potential volcanic fog (vog) or other breathing hazards.

It is important to remember that an eruption might has drifted from the headlines, but as activity like this continues, people's lives are still highly disrupted. The eruption so far has not damaged much of Grindavík, but the volcanic gases and constant threat of new activity has likely made life a challenge. It is easy to think of volcanic disasters as points in time, but eruptions like these are better thought of as marathons, not sprints.

Eruption in Iceland Going Strong After Almost Two Weeks

Premium Content

The island of Santorini is hiding an explosive secret

Over three thousand years ago, a volcanic eruption ended an ancient civilization. A new study offers clues about what the next major eruption could look like.

A church overlooks an island over a bright sun.

The Greek island of Santorini is an undeniable aesthetic marvel, with its iconic white-and-blue houses perched high above an azure bay. But this paradisical locale has a spectacularly violent origin story.

Santorini is arc-shaped and has a flooded interior because, in the distant past, colossal eruptions have rapidly excavated a hole out of the center of the island. After each eruption, the Santorini volcano starts to recharge its magma supply, readying itself for another gigantic blast. The most infamous of these outbursts took place in the year 1560 B.C. One of the most powerful eruptions in the past 10,000 years, this explosion and the resulting debris and tsunamis arguably marked the beginning of the end of seafaring Minoan civilization.

A crew stands on deck wearing orange gear.

The island is currently somewhere in the middle of this cataclysmic cycle, and volcanologists are presently most concerned with the island’s Kameni volcano. Effectively a rooftop extension of the considerably larger Santorini volcano, it’s a small mostly underwater edifice at the heart of Santorini with two peaks, Palea and Nea Kameni, poking above the water.

In the year 726, one of Kameni’s eruptions generated significant explosions and threw out myriad molten matter. Based on volcanic rocks recovered from the eruption, this was thought to be the worst-case scenario that Kameni could produce.

Now, a new study, published in Nature Geoscience , reveals that the actual eruption was one to two orders of magnitude more powerful.

They estimate that at least 100 billion cubic feet of lava, ash, and scorching-hot rocks were expelled from Kameni, making it comparable to the formidable 2022 detonation of the submarine Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha‘apai volcano in the Pacific. “Such an eruption happening today would have major implications,” says Jonas Preine , a geophysicist at the University of Hamburg in Germany, and the study’s lead author.

This is unwelcome news, both for the 15,000 people who live on Santorini, and for the two million tourists who visit it every single year. “It raises the possibility that moderate to large explosive eruptions may be more likely than previously thought,” says David Pyle , a volcanologist at the University of Oxford who was not involved with the new work.

But “this is not a reason for the people of the Aegean to be panicking right now,” says Preine. The risk of a major eruption in the near future at Santorini is low, and there are no signs that one is on its way soon. And this study boosts volcanologists’ understanding of the island and its eruptive risks, allowing scientists to better shield people from future dangers.

“Submarine volcanoes are expensive to study,” says Preine. “But it’s worth it. There’s a whole zoo of hazards that could be associated with them.”

Investigating Santorini’s volcanic history

Santorini is one of many caldera-forming volcanoes around the world—those that seem to operate on cycles culminating in massive explosions that form a cauldron-shaped depression (the ‘caldera’). The island’s volcanic activity dates back around 650,000 years, and in that time, it has produced at least five of these catastrophic blasts, including that civilization-crippling one in 1560 B.C.

Since then, the island’s volcanic story has been written by the two-peaked Kameni volcano. Producing both effusive, lava-spewing eruptions and decently explosive ones, it last erupted in 1950, and has been quiet aside from some seismic unrest between 2011 and 2012. But that doesn’t mean it’s sleeping.

“The volcano is still fairly active, so there is, of course, always some risk,” says Isobel Yeo , a submarine volcanologist at the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, England who was not involved with the new work. And when it comes to submarine volcanoes, scientists are acutely aware that they “are capable of taking us by surprise.”

The 726 eruption has been a focus for those hoping to understand how hazardous Kameni might be in the future. Historical accounts sound frightening: it was said that the waters of the bay began to boil, before “the entire sea was on fire,” says Preine—after which, deafening explosions blanketed the sky with ash and the land with pumice stones.

You May Also Like

volcano case study iceland

Canary Islands volcano roars to life for first time in 50 years

volcano case study iceland

Did anyone survive Pompeii?

volcano case study iceland

Startling volcanic activity has town in Iceland bracing for crisis

But the volcanic evidence found by scientists didn’t seem to quite match up to those apocalyptic descriptions. “Pumice only forms and is distributed in explosive eruptions,” says Rebecca Williams , a volcanologist at the University of Hull who was not involved with the new work. But “a significant challenge to fully understanding the eruptive history of an island volcano is that most of the rock record is lost to the sea.”

The 726 eruption was no exception: only small traces of it were left on land. As a result, even though this was known to be a dangerous event, “the impact of this eruption was never really taken seriously,” says Preine.

What will Santorini’s next eruption look like?    

Hoping to decode more of Kameni’s obfuscated volcanic past, members of the International Ocean Discovery Program drilled into the marine basins of the caldera at various sites, extracting sediment cores each time.

In doing so, they found a considerable volume of ash and pumice that they traced back to the 726 eruption. It quickly became clear that this eruption really was as significant and severe as the historic accounts had portrayed it, one that likely involved thunderous underwater booms giving way to towering columns of ash and pumice.

An explosive eruption throwing out 100 billion cubic feet of erupted matter is certainly a frightening thought. But the reality was likely more nightmarish.

“The estimate they provide is at the lower end, because they are using only the volume of material deposited within the caldera,” says Yeo. “Lots of material was likely transported and deposited away from the volcano during the eruption.”

This study raises the possibility that Kameni is capable of greater harm than anyone suspected. A similarly explosive eruption today “raises the possibility not only of substantial ash and pumice fall, but also tsunamis generated by possible ’sector’ collapse of the island, which is built on unstable pumice deposits,” says Kathy Cashman , a volcanologist at the University of Oregon not involved with the work.

The team’s discovery also means that Kameni’s worst-case scenario is, well, worse than previously thought. Fortunately, scientists have long taken the island’s volcanic risks into consideration.

“Santorini should be taken seriously given the volcano’s tsunamigenic potential and the large number of people that could be affected,” says Amy Donovan , a volcanologist at the University of Cambridge who wasn’t involved with the work. “While this paper does say that 726 was bigger than we thought, it doesn’t significantly increase my concern about what was already a concerning volcano for multiple reasons.”

Unsurprisingly, the volcano is also vigilantly monitored around the clock. “Any signs of unrest are likely to be detected in their earliest phases and warnings issued,” says Yeo.

The implications of this research won’t remain local to the island. Santorini is widely considered to be one of the key sites whose study led to the modern science of volcanology. It’s been extensively examined, its every accessible detail forensically analyzed countless times. “And still, it gives us large surprises,” says Preine. “This volcano that you’re looking at every day has some secrets that we’re still discovering.”

What, then, does that say about other caldera-forming volcanoes around the world, especially those submerged beneath the ocean? “If we’ve been unaware of this at Santorini, we’re surely unaware of similar eruptions at other volcanoes,” says Preine. “This is a huge blind spot for the volcanology community.”

The clock is ticking. “Almost no submerged volcanoes are monitored,” says Yeo, “and this needs to change.”

Related Topics

  • VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
  • ANCIENT HISTORY
  • NATURAL DISASTERS AND HAZARDS

volcano case study iceland

A huge volcano near Naples has been convulsing. What does it mean?

volcano case study iceland

AI just deciphered part of an ‘unreadable’ ancient scroll. Here’s what it says.

volcano case study iceland

These crystal lava shards are ‘four dimensional videos’ of a volcano’s underworld

volcano case study iceland

Volcanoes don’t just erupt on schedule—but they have been in Iceland

volcano case study iceland

3,600-year-old tsunami ‘time capsule’ sheds light on one of humanity’s greatest disasters

  • History & Culture
  • Photography
  • Environment
  • Paid Content

History & Culture

  • Mind, Body, Wonder
  • Terms of Use
  • Privacy Policy
  • Your US State Privacy Rights
  • Children's Online Privacy Policy
  • Interest-Based Ads
  • About Nielsen Measurement
  • Do Not Sell or Share My Personal Information
  • Nat Geo Home
  • Attend a Live Event
  • Book a Trip
  • Inspire Your Kids
  • Shop Nat Geo
  • Visit the D.C. Museum
  • Learn About Our Impact
  • Support Our Mission
  • Advertise With Us
  • Customer Service
  • Renew Subscription
  • Manage Your Subscription
  • Work at Nat Geo
  • Sign Up for Our Newsletters
  • Contribute to Protect the Planet

Copyright © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society Copyright © 2015-2024 National Geographic Partners, LLC. All rights reserved

  • Strategic Intelligence
  • Strategic Planning
  • Risk Mitigation
  • Our approach
  • Storyful enables brand stewards to identify and manage reputational risks and opportunities, while monitoring the industry trends that matter
  • News and Video
  • Social Video
  • Case Studies
  • Storyful empowers reporters and publishers to enhance their stories with verified eyewitness news footage and viral video

Storyful Spring 2024 UGC: Drone and Timelapse Moments to Remember

In digital storytelling, user-generated content (UGC) continues to enrich narratives, delivering deeper insights beyond the headlines. This is where Storyful excels; curating and verifying compelling content that captures moments of significance from around the world. 

From sweeping drone panoramas to meticulously crafted time-lapse compilations, here’s a roundup of the most captivating and commonly-used footage on Storyful’s Newswire from the months of March and April 2024.

Drone & Timelapse UGC: Spring 2024 Highlights

Cliff collapses into sea near people walking along the beach in dorset.

Part of a cliff collapsed into the sea in West Bay, England, just steps away from people walking along the beach. Drone footage filmed by Omar El-Haj shows the rockfall as people and dogs stroll along the beach.

“As soon as I zoomed in, the cliff began to collapse,” El-Haj told Storyful. “People were mere meters away as several tons of rock came crashing down into the sea.”

Following the incident, the Dorset Council warned of a “greater risk of landslides and rockfalls” following severe weather in the area.

Spectacular Rainbows Shine Over San Francisco After Storm

Vibrant rainbows soared across the sky in San Francisco, California, after thunderstorms moved through the city on March 23. Photographer Shreenivasan Manievannan captured this spectacular timelapse footage, showing storm clouds rolling over the Golden Gate Bridge and multiple rainbows shining over the city skyline.

Aerial Footage Captures Volcano Eruption and Aftermath in Iceland

Footage captured the aftermath of the volcanic eruptions on Iceland’s Reykjanes peninsula on March 18.

Mini Sand Pillars Form on Beach as Arctic Blast Moves Through Region

Mini sand pillars took over the shores of Lake Michigan as freezing temperatures hit the region. Drone photographer Nathan Voytovick posted this footage to his Nate’s Dronography page , showing the mini sand pillars and the frozen St Joseph North Pier Inner Lighthouse in Saint Joseph, Michigan.

Clouds Swirl Over Mauna Kea Observatory

Drone footage captured mesmerizing cloud cover at an observatory on Hawaii’s Big Island in late February.

Beautiful Green Aurora Glimmers in Manitoba Night Sky

A Manitoba-based photographer captured the green glow of the aurora borealis over South Indian Lake on March 7.

This timelapse, recorded by local resident Reynald John Roldan, shows the beautiful aurora dancing in the clear night sky. Roldan said the aurora manifested some “pink explosions” as well as its green color.

Case studies

Learn more about how Storyful maximized ROI for some of the world’s leading brands

Explore Storyful’s suite of industry leading insight briefings designed for News, Video and MarComms professionals

Discover how Storyful brings trusted context, verification and unbiased reporting to broadcast and digital publishers globally

Related posts

Christmas content: a share-worthy seasonal roundup, prepping new year’s resolutions, the download: taylor swift fan gets tattoo as....

IMAGES

  1. Eyjafjallajokull Case Study

    volcano case study iceland

  2. Iceland volcano case study- Eyjafjallajokull 2010 by Humanities Zone

    volcano case study iceland

  3. Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland 2010 (Volcano Case Study)

    volcano case study iceland

  4. Eyjafjallajökull

    volcano case study iceland

  5. Eyjafjallajökull volcano Facts

    volcano case study iceland

  6. Geography Lesson- Eyjafjallajökull Volcano Case Study

    volcano case study iceland

COMMENTS

  1. Eyjafjallajokull Case Study

    Eyjafjallajokull is located below a glacier. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted in 920, 1612 and again from 1821 to 1823 when it caused a glacial lake outburst flood (or jökulhlaup). It erupted three times in 2010—on 20 March, April-May, and June. The March event forced a brief evacuation of around 500 local people.

  2. Iceland battles a lava flow: Countries have built barriers and tried

    Fountains of lava erupted from the Sundhnúkur volcanic system in southwest Iceland on Jan. 14, 2024. As the world watched on webcams and social media, lava flows cut off roads and bubbled from a ...

  3. PDF Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland - 2010 Type of Plate Boundary The volcano is situated on a constructive plate boundary between the North American and Eurasian plate . Eyjafjallajökull is a 500m long fissure volcano , that erupts basalt. Basaltic lava is fluid in nature. There is a glacier above the volcano. Hazards

  4. PDF IB Geography Hazards & Disasters Case Study Summary Sheet for

    Case Study Summary Sheet for Eyjafjallajökull Eruption 2010 (HIC) Where did it happen? Eyjafjallajökull is one of Iceland's smaller ice caps located in the far south of the island of Iceland. Situated to ... Eyjafjallajökull covers the caldera of a volcano 1,666 m high, which has erupted relatively frequently since the last ice age. The ...

  5. PDF extinct volcanic centers: A case study from the East Fjords of Iceland

    The most extensively investigated volcanic systems in Iceland are those that have recently erupted. Among these active volcanic systems, Torfajökull in southern Iceland (Fig. 1) has the largest areal exposure of silicic rock of any center (active or extinct) in Iceland, and it is the only one that is dominantly

  6. Eyjafjallajökull 2010: How an Icelandic volcano eruption closed ...

    Eyjafjallajökull 2010: How Icelandic volcano eruption closed European skies. Ten years ago the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökul erupted, sending a plume of volcanic ash over nine kilometers into the sky. The eruption was relatively small but its impact was massive. Europe experienced air travel chaos for almost one month as much of the ...

  7. Eyjafjallajokull 2010 volcanic eruption case study

    This award-winning geography case study video resource reflects on the eruption of Eyjafjallajokull in 2010 and looks ahead to potential volcanic eruptions in Iceland. In this video, we cover: - The causes and impacts of the eruption, with visits to some of the localities directly affected. - Volcano monitoring and preparedness.

  8. Impacts & Mitigation

    Aviation. The 2010 eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano had a huge impact on air travel, changing the assessment of risk by the aviation sector and catalyzing new lines of scientific investigation. Ash advisories derived from dispersion-model output were issued by the London VAAC, depicting the presence of ash over large parts of ...

  9. Volcanoes case study

    Volcanoes case study 1 -Eyjafjallajökull. Tectonic setting of the hazard. The nature of the hazard (type, magnitude, frequency) Vulnerability. Capacity to cope (prediction, prevention, preparation) Institutional capacity. The impact of the event (social, economic, environmental), in the short and longer term.

  10. PDF Volcanic Hazard Case Study: Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland 2010

    Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland 2010: Suggested Answers Describe the location 5 of the case study. Eyjafjallajökull is a small ice-cap in southern Iceland. The name means 'island mountain glacier'. Below the toxic gas emissions, etc. ice is a volcano. Iceland is in the Atlantic Ocean. Identify two primary impacts of the eruption.

  11. Volcanoes and ice caps: case study of Iceland

    Case study of Iceland. Iceland lies on a mid-oceanic ridge at the edge of the Arctic circle. It therefore shows us the way that volcanoes and glaciers interact, giving powerful indications of how ice-age volcanic activity operated. This article explains the processes at work and looks in detail at the dramatic events of the last 5 years.

  12. PDF Volcano case studies presentation

    Recall volcanic eruption case studies in high and low income countries Presenter notes Some suggested notes for each slide and information for the presenter. Questions the presenter could ask students are highlighted in bold. The Geological Society gives permission for presentations and notes to be adapted to suit the presenters needs. Iceland

  13. Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland 2010 (Volcano Case Study)

    Case study of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland in 2010. This is the ninth video for the AQA GCSE 9-1 Geography course, and the ninth video of the Cha...

  14. The 1973 eruption on Heimaey island, Iceland

    The 1973 eruption. summit elevation: 225 m (Helgafell cone) location: 63.43°N, 20.28°W. Heimaey is the largest island of the Vestmannaeyjar ("Westman Islands") archipelago, south of the SSW coast of Iceland. The distance of Heimaey from the nearest spot on the "mainland" is about 10 km. The archipelago is made up of 15 larger islands and at ...

  15. Volcano case studies

    Iceland - Rich country case study Picture Location: Iceland lies on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a constructive plate margin separating the Eurasian plate from the North American plate. As the plates move apart magma rises to the surface to form several active volcanoes located in a belt running roughly SW-NE through the centre of Iceland.

  16. Fagradalsfjall Eruption

    On Friday 19 th March 2021, a volcanic eruption began in south-west Iceland, near the capital, Reykjavik. The eruption near Mount Fagradalsfjall, about 20 miles southwest of Reykjavik, took place at 8:45 pm local time. Molten rock breached the surface in a valley near a flat-topped mountain named Fagradalsfjall (beautiful valley mountain), in ...

  17. A Level Geography Volcanoes- Eyjafjallajökull Eruption 2010 Case Study

    Eyjafjallajökull volcano, South Iceland in the East Volcanic Zone. Click the card to flip 👆 ... The Holderness Coast (A-level Geography Case Study) 62 terms. naomiv7778. Preview. ap human geo unit 3. 39 terms. car6885. Preview. test . 30 terms. grahamaxb00. Preview. Hazards theory. 137 terms. ngoodacre.

  18. Volcano case study- Iceland Cartes

    This is a constructive boundary, so magma will rise up through underwater volcanoes. These have formed an underwater mountain range called the Mid Atlantic ridge. Iceland is one of the places where the ridge sticks out. Iceland has grown bigger because it is fed by a current of extra magma called a plume.

  19. Eruption in Iceland Going Strong After Almost Two Weeks

    Case in point: Iceland. The eruptions near Grindavík over the last six months have continued to threaten the town, the Blue Lagoon and the geothermal plant on the Reykjanes Peninsula.

  20. Volcano Case Study- Iceland Flashcards

    water supplies contaminated with fluoride from ash livestock poisoned and crops damaged due to ash falls major flooding due to melted ice cap- 700 evacuated main road damaged due to flooding homes and building damaged

  21. Iceland Volcano Case Study Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like How do you spell the name of the volcano that erupted?, What plates is Iceland situated between?, What type of boundary is Iceland across? and more.

  22. The island of Santorini is hiding an explosive secret

    March 25, 2024. The Greek island of Santorini is an undeniable aesthetic marvel, with its iconic white-and-blue houses perched high above an azure bay. But this paradisical locale has a ...

  23. Storyful Spring 2024 UGC: Drone and Timelapse Moments to Remember

    Watch on. Part of a cliff collapsed into the sea in West Bay, England, just steps away from people walking along the beach. Drone footage filmed by Omar El-Haj shows the rockfall as people and dogs stroll along the beach. "As soon as I zoomed in, the cliff began to collapse," El-Haj told Storyful. "People were mere meters away as several ...

  24. Iceland Volcano Case Study Flashcards

    Terms in this set (25) Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like What is icelands population, What percentage of Iceland is covered in Tundra, Where are the volcanoes in Iceland found and more.

  25. Iceland Volcano Case study Flashcards

    VEI 4, ash plume 10km into air, 500m long fissure which spewed 1000d lava 150 m into air, 0 deaths, 20 farms gone, 2.6 billion, 11.7% drop in air flight passengers, 107000 flights cancelled, 700 evacuated