what is citation atlas

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Easily find, update or download your documents within your tailored, process-based management system. Add commentary, view audit reports and contracts, manage version control, and electronically add your signature to approved documents, for total visibility and control.

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what is citation atlas

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Atlas - The Citation Platform

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  • Citation Quick Guides and Style Manuals
  • Citing Maps

Citation Quick Guides and Style Manuals: Citing Maps

  • APA Style Quick Guide (7th Edition)
  • MLA Style Quick Guide (8th Edition)
  • Chicago Manual of Style Quick Guide (17th Edition)
  • What Do You Need to Cite?
  • Paraphrasing
  • Other Citation Styles (By Discipline)

General Guidelines for Citing Maps

  • Create an in-text citation that refers to a complete citation in an alphabetized r eference list at the end of the work.  MLA uses author/page (Jones 3) and APA uses author/date (Jones, 2009) citations.  For more examples and variations see the general citation guides .
  • If the map does not have an author or corporate author, bring the title to the first position in the reference list citation and use key words from the title in the in-text citation.
  • If the map has not been given a formal title, create your own logical title and place it in [brackets] to indicate such.
  •   Indicate that the cited item is a map, aerial photograph, etc. with the appropriate format placed after the title.  Example:  [map]
  • Document the scale if known; if unavailable use the phrase "scale not given."

Sheet Map Elements to Include Author. Title [format]. Edition. Scale. No. Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

MLA Style Metsker Maps. Metsker's Map of Island County, Washington . Map. [ca. 1:70,000]. Tacoma, WA:        Metsker Maps, 1979. Print.

APA Style Metsker Maps. (1979). Metsker's map of Island county, Washington [map]. (ca. 1:70,000.) Tacoma,        WA: Metsker Maps.

Note: The abbreviation ca. stands for "approximately" and is used when a date, or in this instance a scale,   is not known exactly.

Sheet Map/Series

Elements to Include Author. Title [format]. Edition. Scale. Series, Number.  Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

MLA Style Easterbrook, Don J. Geologic Map of Western Whatcom County , Washington . Map . 1:62,500.        Miscellaneous Investigations Series, map 1-854-B. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey, 1976.        Print. APA Style Easterbrook, D. J. (1976). Geologic map of western Whatcom County, Washington [map]. 1:62,500.        Miscellaneous investigations series, map 1-854-B. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.

Map from an Atlas/Book

Elements to Include Map author. Map title [format] . Scale. In: Atlas Author. Atlas Title. Edition. Place of publication:       Publisher, Date, page.

MLA Style Magocsi, Paul Robert. Population Movements, 1944-1948. Map. 1:8 890 000. In Historical Atlas of        Central Europe . Paul Robert Magocsi. Rev. & ex. ed. Seattle:  U of Washington P, 2003. 53. Print.

APA Style Magocsi, P. R. (2003). Population movements, 1944-1948 [map]. 1:8 890 000. In P. R. Magocsi,        Historical atlas of central Europe . (Rev. & ex. ed.) Seattle: University of Washington        Press. (p. 53).

Map from a Periodical

Elements to include Map Author if known. Map Title [format]. Scale if known. In: Article Author. "Article Title," Journal        Title volume (year): page.

MLA Style Clout, Hugh. "Figure 2: France: Types of Countryside." Map. Scale not given. Hugh Clout. "Rural        France in the New M illennium: Change and Challenge." Geography, 91 (2006): 207. Print.

APA Style Clout H. (2006). Figure 2: France: Types of countryside [map].Scale not given. In H. Clout. Rural         France in the new millennium: Change and challenge.   Geography, 91 , 207.

Online Maps

Single Online Map Elements to Include Author. "Map title" [format]. Scale. "Title of the complete document or site". Information date. URL, including the path and any directories necessary to access the document. (The date viewed)  

MLA U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Cartographer. Cahaba River Natural Refuge . Map. 1:24,000.       2009. Web. 5 May 2010.

APA (p. 210, no. 53) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [cartographer]. (2009). Cahaba River Natural Refuge [map]. 1:24,000.        Retrieved from http://permanent.access.gpo.gov/lps109506/

Map in an Online Periodical Elements to Include Map author. "Map title" [format]. In: Article author. "Article title", Journal title , Volume (Date):       page. "The Distribution of Canadian Multinational Headquarters in Ontario, 1992" [map]. 3.5       cm=50km. In: Stephen P. Meyer. "Canadian Multinational Headquarters: The Importance of       Toronto's Inner City", The Great Lakes Geographer 3#1 (1996): 7.

MLA Thom, Brian. "Hul'qumi'num Traditional Territory Statement of Intent." Map. Scale not given. Brian       Thom, "The Paradox of Boundaries in Coast Salish Territories," Cultural Geographies, 16 (2009):       193 .  Web. 25 Apr. 2010.

APA (With DOI No.) Thom, B. Hul'qumi'num traditional territory statement of intent [map]. (2009). Scale not given. In        Thom, B., The paradcox of boundaries in coast Salish territories. Cultural Geographies, 16 :193.        doi: 10.1177/1474474008101516

Citing a Google Map

Elements to Include “City, State Abbreviation.” Map . Google Maps . Google, 15 May 2008. Web. 15 May 2008. 

MLA "Nooksack, WA." Map. Google Maps . Google, 22 Apr. 2010. Web. 22 Apr. 2010.

APA Nooksack, WA. (22 Apr. 2010). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved from http://maps.google.com        /maps?f=q&source=s_q&hl=en&geocode=&q=Nooksack,+WA&sll=37.09024,-95.712891&        sspn=51.974572,79.013672&ie=UTF8&hq=&hnear=Nooksack,+Whatcom,+Washington&        ll=48.902502,-122.279034&spn=0.020452,0.038581&z=15

Citing an Online Aerial Photograph

Elements to Include Author. Title/frame no. [format]. Scale. Line/roll number. Flight Title. Place of publication: Publisher,        Date (of image collection not of reproduction).

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Useful Cartigraphical Citation Websites

  • Citing Maps (Ohio Weslayan University) This style guide provides examples in the Chicago Style.
  • Guide to Citing Maps and Atlases (McMaster University)
  • Citing Maps (North Carolina State University, NCSU Libraries)
  • Citing Maps (Boise State University, Albertsons Library Basic MLA and APA examples.
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  • Last Updated: Jan 26, 2024 1:36 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.wwu.edu/citation_style

What Is an Atlas?

  • Physical Geography
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  • Country Information
  • Key Figures & Milestones
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  • M.A., Geography, California State University - East Bay
  • B.A., English and Geography, California State University - Sacramento

An atlas is a collection of various maps of the earth or a specific region of the earth, such as the U.S. or Europe . The maps in atlases show geographic features, the topography of an area's landscape and political boundaries. They also show climatic, social, religious and economic statistics of an area.

Maps that make up atlases are traditionally bound as books. These are either hardcover for reference atlases or softcover for atlases that are meant to serve as travel guides. There are also countless multimedia options for atlases, and many publishers are making their maps available for personal computers and the Internet.

The History of the Atlas

The use of maps and cartography to understand the world has a very long history. It is believed that the name "atlas," meaning a collection of maps, came from the mythological Greek figure Atlas . Legend says that Atlas was forced to hold the earth and the heavens on his shoulders as a punishment from the gods. His image was often printed on books with maps and they eventually became known as atlases.

Early Atlases

The earliest known atlas is associated with the Greco-Roman geographer Claudius Ptolemy . His work,  Geographia,  was the first published book of cartography, consisting of the knowledge of the world's geography that was known around the time of the second century. Maps and manuscripts were written by hand at the time. Geographia's earliest surviving publications date back to 1475. 

The voyages of Christopher Columbus, John Cabot, and Amerigo Vespucci increased knowledge of the world's geography in the late 1400s. Johannes Ruysch, a European cartographer and explorer, created a new map of the world in 1507 that became very popular. It was reprinted in a Roman edition of Geographia that year. Another edition of Geographia was published in 1513 and it connected North and South America. 

Modern Atlases

The first modern atlas was printed in 1570 by Abraham Ortelius, a Flemish cartographer and geographer. It was called Theatrum Orbis Terrarum,  or Theater of the World. It was the first book of maps with images that were uniform in size and design. The first edition consisted of 70 different maps. Like Geographia , Theater of the World was extremely popular and it was printed in numerous editions from 1570 to 1724.

In 1633, a Dutch cartographer and publisher named Henricus Hondius designed an ornately decorated world map that appeared in an edition of Flemish geographer Gerard Mercator's atlas, originally published in 1595. 

The works by Ortelius and Mercator are said to represent the beginning of the Golden Age of Dutch cartography. This is the period when atlases grew in popularity and became more modern. The Dutch continued to produce many volumes of atlases throughout the 18th century, while cartographers in other parts of Europe also began to print their works. The French and British began to produce more maps in the late 18th century, as well as sea atlases because of their increased maritime and trade activities.

By the 19th century, atlases began to get very detailed. They looked at specific areas such as cities instead of whole countries and/or regions of the world. With the advent of modern printing techniques, the number of atlases published also began to increase. Technological advances such as Geographic Information Systems ( GIS ) have allowed modern atlases to include thematic maps that show various statistics of an area.

Types of Atlases

Because of the wide variety of data and technologies available today, there are many different types of atlases. The most common are desk or reference atlases, and travel atlases or roadmaps. Desk atlases are hardcover or paperback, but they're made like reference books and they include a variety of information about the areas they cover. 

Reference Atlases

Reference atlases are generally large and include maps, tables, graphs and other images and text to describe an area. They can be made to show the world, specific countries, states or even specific locations such as a national park. The National Geographic Atlas of the World includes information about the entire globe, broken down into sections that discuss the human world and the natural world. These sections include the topics of geology, plate tectonics, biogeography , and political and economic geography. The atlas then breaks the world down into continents, oceans and major cities to show political and physical maps of the continents as a whole and the countries within them. This is a very large and detailed atlas, but it serves as a perfect reference for the world with its many detailed maps as well as images, tables, graphs, and text.

The Atlas of Yellowstone is similar to the National Geographic Atlas of the World but it's less extensive. This, too, is a reference atlas, but instead of examining the entire world, it looks at a very specific area. Like the larger world atlas, it includes information on the human, physical and biogeography of the Yellowstone region. It offers a variety of maps that show areas within and outside of Yellowstone National Park.

Travel Atlases or Roadmaps

Travel atlases and roadmaps are usually paperback and are sometimes spiral bound to make them easier to handle while traveling. They often do not include all the information that a reference atlas would, but instead focus on information that may be useful to travelers, such as specific road or highway networks, the locations of parks or other tourist spots, and, in some cases, the locations of specific stores and/or hotels.

The many different types of multimedia atlases available can be used for reference and/or travel. They contain the same types of information you'd find in book format.

Popular Atlases

The National Geographic Atlas of the World is a very popular reference atlas for the wide variety of information it contains. Other popular reference atlases include Goode's World Atlas, developed by John Paul Goode and published by Rand McNally, and the National Geographic Concise Atlas of the World. Goode's World Atlas is popular in college geography classes because it includes a variety of world and regional maps that show topography and political boundaries. It also includes detailed information about the climatic, social, religious and economic statistics of the world's countries.

Popular travel atlases include Rand McNally road atlases and Thomas Guide road atlases. These are very specific to areas such as the U.S., or even to states and cities. They include detailed road maps that also show points of interest to aid in travel and navigation.

Visit National Geographic's MapMaker Interactive  website to view an interesting and interactive online atlas. 

  • The History of Cartography
  • Ptolemy's Contributions to Geography
  • What Is a Map Projection?
  • Gerardus Mercator
  • Historic Land Ownership Maps and Atlases Online
  • The Peters Projection and Mercator Map
  • Biography of Abraham Ortelius, Flemish Cartographer
  • Medical Geography
  • Uses of Thematic Maps in Geography
  • Historical Map Overlays for Google Maps and Google Earth
  • Preparing for the Geography Bee
  • Ancient Near East Maps
  • The Role of Colors on Maps
  • Types of Maps: Topographic, Political, Climate, and More
  • What Is a Map?
  • Topographic Maps

what is citation atlas

Handle Citations with Reference Data Management

what is citation atlas

Introduction

What is the need for reference management, how do you manage references.

  • What is reference management software?

Using ATLAS.ti as research management software

For many researchers, a citation manager or reference management tool is an important component of the research process. Whether you are compiling research papers , book chapters, web pages, and other scholarship for a literature review or adding citations to your written research reports, consider using reference management tools to build your reference library. This kind of personal research assistant can save you time in the research process.

This article looks at the role of reference management software in qualitative research and how ATLAS.ti can help you collect references and organize research for a meaningful and robust research inquiry.

what is citation atlas

Reference management brings order to the potential chaos of handling numerous sources. For scholars, the ability to quickly access, cross-reference, and accurately cite information is crucial. It's not just about keeping a tidy library of resources; it's about upholding academic rigor and integrity .

A robust reference management system streamlines the research process by keeping track of all sources, thus preventing plagiarism and ensuring that proper acknowledgments are made in scholarly work. It's also vital for teamwork, allowing for shared access to reference materials, which is increasingly important in collaborative research environments.

At the core, reference management supports the researcher’s credibility. Proper citation practices, facilitated by these tools, respect intellectual property and anchor research in a trustworthy context. In essence, an organized reference database is not a mere convenience; it's a fundamental aspect of responsible research practice.

Managing references effectively is crucial in maintaining the integrity and quality of research. Citation managers and reference managers can organize large libraries of journal articles, book chapters, and other sources of scholarly information in order to give researchers access to the most relevant materials quickly and easily.

what is citation atlas

But what is a reference? The rest of this section will outline what a reference looks like so we can discuss how references are managed.

What are the characteristics of reference data?

Reference data must be comprehensive and precise to enable clear identification and retrieval of sources. This includes the author(s), title, publication year, publisher, volume and issue number, page numbers, and digital identifiers such as DOIs or URLs. The details must be accurate to ensure proper attribution and to help other researchers locate the original sources.

What is an example of reference data?

Consider a journal article by Jane Doe on climate change. The reference data might look like this:

Doe, J. (2023). "Climate Change Impact on Coastal Ecosystems." Environmental Research Journal , 57 (2), 200-220. doi:10.XXXX/ERJ.20XX.11223344.

In this example, every element serves to uniquely identify the source: Doe’s name as the author, the article title, the journal in which it was published, the volume and issue where it can be found, the page range, and the DOI, which provides a link to the content.

Managing references involves cataloging such details for all sources relevant to your research. By maintaining a structured and detailed repository of reference data, researchers ensure that they can always support their findings with the appropriate sources and that these sources can be shared and verified within the academic community.

How are references used?

First and foremost, references are the foundation from which literature reviews are conducted so that the state of art of knowledge in the field can be developed. In addition, managing references provides an organized database with the necessary details to write reference information.

When citing published studies, writers of research need to reference the authors who published their research and the year in which they published it. Research reports also come with a bibliography or list of references, which should list the titles of each referenced article, the journals they belong to, and the DOI numbers that readers can use to gain access to the references.

Reference management software is essential in the world of research and academic writing. It is a specialized tool designed to organize and manage references, which are the backbone of scholarly work.

what is citation atlas

In the digital age, where information is abundant and sources are vast, such software becomes an invaluable asset in a researcher's toolkit.

Should I use a reference manager?

The decision to use reference management software hinges on the volume and complexity of research one engages with. For students and professionals who handle multiple papers, projects, or publications, a reference manager is a necessity for effectively managing all that information to demonstrate expertise or at least a comprehensive knowledge of a given research inquiry.

It helps in compiling and organizing research materials, providing quick access to sources, and ensuring that the referencing in manuscripts is accurate and consistent. Reference managers can often be linked with writing software (such as Microsoft Word) to automatically insert and format references according to whichever style the researcher specifies (e.g., reference formats such as APA, Harvard, or Chicago style). In a collaborative research setting, it becomes even more critical as it ensures that all team members are synchronized in their use of references and citations.

What's the best reference manager?

Selecting the best reference management software is not a simple choice. There are many tools to choose from, including Zotero, EndNote, and Mendeley.

Zotero has a user-friendly interface and web-based browser integration, making the collection of references as simple as clicking a button. Users can view their Zotero library in desktop software or in the web interface through their online account seamlessly.

EndNote for desktops and EndNote Web allow for complex document creation, widely adopted for their powerful features and integration with databases and library catalogs. Like with other platforms, EndNote can produce references in a variety of output styles depending on the needs of the researcher.

Mendeley doubles as a social network for researchers, facilitating collaboration and discovery of research trends. Mendeley allows users to import records, create bibliographies, and share references with other researchers.

The ideal choice balances factors such as the capability to import references directly from other platforms, citation style flexibility, database connectivity, and collaborative functionality. Other considerations such as operating system support, attachment of associated files, and the ability to export references can be valuable to researchers who need such capabilities.

what is citation atlas

What's the difference between a reference manager and a citation manager?

The terms "reference manager" and "citation manager" often converge in their functionality, but they originated with distinct purposes. A reference manager is a comprehensive system that stores bibliographic information, allowing for the organization, annotation, and retrieval of references.

Citation managers, on the other hand, focus on inserting citations into written work and formatting bibliographies according to various style guides. Modern reference management software, however, tends to encapsulate both functions, presenting an all-in-one solution that assists researchers from the point of gathering sources to the final citation process in a document.

The software streamlines the meticulous task of citation formatting, adapting to numerous citation styles such as APA, MLA, or Chicago, often with just a few clicks. Integration with word processors enhances its utility, enabling the "cite-while-you-write" feature, which automatically inserts in-text citations and updates bibliographies in real time.

For researchers juggling a plethora of articles, books, and digital content, reference management software becomes a central hub for all things citation-related. It can dramatically cut down the time spent on formatting and re-formatting references, which allows researchers to invest more time in the actual research and analysis. Whether managing a small project or a comprehensive systematic review, the software provides a structured and reliable method for handling the scholarly information essential for academic success.

what is citation atlas

Make the most of your research with ATLAS.ti

Use our powerful tools to turn literature and data into critical insights. Start with a free trial of ATLAS.ti today.

ATLAS.ti serves as a comprehensive research management software , particularly beneficial in the realm of qualitative analysis . Its utility extends into the domain of reference management, where it can be used to import, organize, and analyze bibliographic data. This comprehensive approach allows for an in-depth engagement with the literature that underpins a research project.

Collecting references

In the initial phase of research, ATLAS.ti helps in systematically organizing collected references. Literature and other sources of information , including audiovisual files , can be imported and managed in ATLAS.ti.

The software can be used to organize these references in a way that aligns with the overarching themes and categories of the research project. Researchers can tag and annotate entries, enriching the bibliographic data with insights and notes pertinent to their analysis.

Importing references

The process of importing references into ATLAS.ti is designed to be intuitive and accommodates data from various reference managers. Researchers often begin with references organized in software like Zotero or EndNote. ATLAS.ti can import data from these programs, through EndNote XML files or bibtex files, which permits researchers to import references from just about any reference manager software.

what is citation atlas

Once the data is imported, ATLAS.ti allows for the integration of these references into the qualitative data analysis workflow. This integration enables researchers to draw direct connections between their source materials and the evolving themes and patterns in their data. If you have already highlighted or written comments on the PDFs of your literature sources, these will also be automatically imported and conveniently converted into quotations and comments so you can pick up right where you left off.

Analyzing references

ATLAS.ti facilitates a deeper analysis of references. It goes beyond mere cataloging by allowing researchers to interact with the content of their sources. The literature can be read and manually analyzed, and researchers can also harness of a range of AI-powered tools to automatically analyze aspects of their literature. Data analysis tools can also be used to create visual displays of the literature.

References can be coded, and annotations can be added, making it possible to integrate the literature review directly with the data analysis. This creates a dynamic library where references are not static but are active components of the research process.

what is citation atlas

Citing references

ATLAS.ti can prepare researchers for the citation process by organizing references in conjunction with their qualitative data . The insights garnered from the integration of reference management and data analysis within ATLAS.ti can then be translated into academic writing.

For the actual citation, researchers can export a list of references from ATLAS.ti for use in papers and presentations. Comments can be written on documents to include supplementary information such as citations and then exported as a spreadsheet or text document.

what is citation atlas

Make reference organization easy with ATLAS.ti

Manage documents, codes, and insights in one easy-to-use package. Download ATLAS.ti today.

what is citation atlas

what is citation atlas

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Citing Maps

Maps are available in a variety of formats and materials: as individual paper sheet maps; as plates or illustrations in atlases, books or journals; as digital image maps in CD-ROMs or on web pages; or as generated by users through online mapping services or GIS software.

As with all scholarly work, use of maps should be cited. A map should be referenced in two places:

  • Complete bibliographic citation at the end of your work, providing the map's author and publisher.
  • Brief inline citation providing a descriptive title. This helps readers to locate the full citation in the bibliography or reference list.

Choose from the examples* listed below to see citation styles closest to your situation:

Single Sheet Map

Format:  Author. Title [map]. Edition. Scale. Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

Example:  U.S. Department of the Air Force. U.S. Army Forces in WWII, 1941-1945 . [map]. Scale not given. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Air Force, 1993.

Atlas Citation

Format:  Author. Title . Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

Example:  Orr, Douglas M. The North Carolina Atlas: Portrait for a New Century . Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 2000.

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Map from an Atlas

Format:  Map Author. Map title [format]. Scale. In: Atlas Author. Atlas title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Date. page.

Example:  Hillsborough [map]. Scale not given. In: Universal Map (Firm). Street Atlas of Raleigh, Durham, Chapel Hill & Vicinity: North Carolina. Williamston, MI: Universal Map, 1995. page 26.

Map in a Topographic Series

Format:  Author. Sheet title , Number [format]. Edition. Scale. Series title. Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

Example:  U.S. Geological Survey. Raleigh West quadrangle, North Carolina [map]. Photorevised 1993. 1:24,000. 7.5 Minute Series. Reston, Va: United States Department of the Interior, USGS, 1999.

Map in a Series

Example:  U.S. Geological Survey. The North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain [map]. Version 1. 1:8,000,000. Geologic Investigations Series; I-2781. Reston, Va: U.S. Department of the Interior, USGS, 2003.

Map from a Book

Format:  Map Author. Map title [format]. Scale. Place of publication: Publisher, Date (if known). In: Book Author. Book title. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date, page.

Example:  Griffler, Keith P. Underground Railroad [map]. Scale not given. In: Front line of freedom: African Americans and the Forging of the Underground Railroad in the Ohio Valley. Lexington, Ky: University Press of Kentucky, 2004, page 30

Map from the Web

Format:  Author if known. Map Title [map]. Date of map creation if known. Scale. “Title of the Complete Document or Site”. Date posted if known. <URL> (date accessed).

Example:  North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture. Agriculture Overview [map]. "North Carolina Department of Agriculutre and Consumer Services."  Last updated September 2003. < https://www.ncagr.com/stats/general/general1.htm> (accessed December 20, 2004).

Map from a Periodical

Format:  Map Author if known. Map Title [format]. Scale if known. In: Article Author. "Article Title," Journal Title volume (year): page.

Example:  Smithers, Jane.  Regional Cuisine of Spain [map].  Scale unknown.  In: Smithers, Jane. "Fabulous Flavors," Excellent Eating 11 (1999): 57.

Map Generators

Format:  Author or statement of responsibility. Map Title [map]. Data date if known. Scale; Name of person who generated map; Name of software used to generate the map or “Title of the Complete Document or Site”. <URL> (date generated).

Example:  United States Census Bureau.  Median Age: 2000, Wake County, NC by County Subdivision [map].2000. Scale undetermined; generated by George McAllister; using “American FactFinder”. <https://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en> (22 December 2002).

CD-ROM or DVD Maps

Format:  Author. Title . [format]. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

Example:  ESRI Ltd. ArcCanada [CD-ROM]. Version 2.0. North York, Ontario: Environmental Systems Research Institute, 1999.

Facsimile or Reproduction Maps

Format:  Author. Title . [format]. Scale. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date. As reproduced by: Publisher, Date.

Example:  Popple, Henry. 18th Century North America [facsimile]. 1 inch to 50 miles. London, England: 1733. As reproduced by: Harry Margary, 2004.

Real Time Maps

Format:  Author. Title [format]. Date produced and time if known. Scale. "Title of document or site". <URL> (date accessed).

Example:  North Carolina Department of Transportation. Current Wake County Traffic Conditions [map]. 03/10/04, 15:07:20. Scale not given. "North Carolina Department of Transportation". <https://apps.dot.state.nc.us/tims/> (10 March 2004).

Aerial Photos

Format:  Source. Title [format]. Scale. Line/roll number. Photo number. Place of publication. Date.

Example:  UCLA Department of Geography. Malibu [air photo]. 1:30,000. Photo #17a. L.A., Calif. 1947.

GIS-Produced Map

Format:  Map Title. [format]. Scale. Database name [type of medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Using GIS software: Title [type of software].

Example:  Virginia Railway Network. [computer map]. 1:25000. National Transportation Atlas Databases. Washington, D.C.: US Department of Transportation, 2000. Using ArcGIS [GIS software]. Version 8.3. Redlands, CA: Environmental Systems Research Institute, 1992-2004.

CIA Outline Map Series

Format:  Title [physical/political] [format]. Base number. Scale. Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

Example:  India [Physical] [map]. Base 802510 (R00903) 12-96. [ca. 1:16,666,666]. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 1996.

*The citation examples above are adapted from:

Clark, Suzanne M., Mary Lynette Larsgaard, and Cynthia M. Teague. Cartographic Citations: A Style Guide , MAGERT Circular No. 1. Chicago: American Library Association, 1992.

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what is citation atlas

Robinson Map Library

Guide to citing geospatial data, maps, or atlases

Geospatial Data:

Washburn County. Addresses and Driveways Washburn County, WI (2021). University of Wisconsin-Madison. Available via GeoData@Wisconsin: https://geodata.wisc.edu/catalog/FDF1DDF4-A025-44F2-8BFD-E6DE3E1BBEA7

U.S. Geological Survey. LiDAR-Derived Classified LAS for Sawyer County, WI (2017). University of Wisconsin-Madison. Available via BTAA Geoportal: https://geo.btaa.org/catalog/e0be6f37-4050-47a6-a3dd-c958740cd0a1

Map on a Single Sheet:

Author. Title [format]. Edition. Scale. Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

National Geographic Society. Africa and the Arabian Peninsula [map]. 1:12,000,000, 1″=189.4 miles. Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1950.

Attig, John W. Geology of Sauk County, Wisconsin [map]. 1:100,000. [Madison]: University of Wisconsin-Extension, Geological and Natural History Survey, 1990.

Map in a Topographic Series:

Author. Sheet title [format]. Edition. Scale. Series, sheet number. Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

United States Geological Survey . Madison West quadrangle [map] 1:24,000. 7.5 Minute Series (Topographic), sheet 43089-A4-TF-024. Reston, VA: The Survey, 1983.

Map in a Series (Not Topographic):

Author. Sheet title [format]. Edition. Scale. Series title and/or number. Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

Minnesota Geological Survey. Aeromagnetic Map of Minnesota [map]. 1:250,000. Minnesota Geological Survey Map A2. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, 1983.

Facsimile or Reproduction Map:

Author. Title [format]. Scale. Original place of publication: Original publisher, Original date of publication. As reproduced by, Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

Great Britain. Admiralty. Scotland–west coast, Stanton Banks to Passage of Tiree [facsimile]. 1:100,000. December 6, 1977. As reproduced by, Washington, D.C.: Defense Mapping Agency Hydrographic/Topographic Center, 1986.

Map in a Book:

Map author. Map title [format]. Scale. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date. In: Book author. Book title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Date, page.

Hulbert, Archer Butler. Map of French Forts in America, 1750-60 [map]. In: Archer Butler Hulbert. History of the Niagara River . Harrison, N.Y.: Harbor Hill Books, 1978, p.165.

Map in a Journal:

Map author. Map title [format]. In: Article author. “Article title”, Journal title , Volume (Date): page.

The Distribution of Canadian Multinational Headquarters in Ontario, 1992 [map]. 3.5 cm=50km. In: Stephen P. Meyer. “Canadian Multinational Headquarters: The Importance of Toronto’s Inner City”, The Great Lakes Geographer 3#1 (1996): 7.

Author. Title . Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

Fletcher, Charles H. III (et al.). Atlas of Natural Hazards in the Hawaiian Coastal Zone . Reston, VA: The Survey; Denver, CO: USGS Information Services, 2002.

Map or Plate in Atlas:

Map author. Map title [format]. Scale. In: Atlas author. Atlas title . Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date, page.

Military Service [map]. In: Joni Seeger and Ann Olson. Women in the World: An International Atlas . London: Pluto Press Ltd., 1986, plate 32.

Map in a Digital Atlas:

Author. Map title [format]. Scale. Computer software title [format]. Edition. Place of production: Producer, Date of copyright or production.

Map of Prussia in 1791 [map]. Centennia [computer atlas]. Version 1995.5. Chicago: Clockwork Software Inc., 1995.

Map Produced Using GIS Software:

Author. Map title [format]. Scale. Computer database title [format]. Edition. Place of production: Producer, Date of copyright or production. Using: Author. Computer software title [format]. Edition. Place of production: Producer, Date of copyright or production.

Smith, John. Population Distribution in Wisconsin, by County, 2000 [map]. 1″=15 miles approx. United States Decennial Census 2000, Wisconsin Counties TIGER Boundary File (55000c.zip) and Decennial Census 2000 Summary File 1 demographic data [computer files]. Madison: Robinson Map Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2005. Using: ArcGIS [GIS software]. Version 9.1. Redlands, CA: Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., 2005.

Map on the Web:

Author. Map title [format]. Scale. “Title of the complete document or site”. Information date. URL, including the path and any directories necessary to access the document. (The date viewed)

Anarctic Region [map]. 1:68,000,000. “The CIA World FactBook”. March, 2005. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/reference_maps/antarctic.html. (August 23, 2006)

Aerial Photograph:

Author. Title or frame number(s) [format]. Scale. Flight title. Place of publication: Publisher, Date of image collection (NOT date of reproduction).

United States Department of Agriculture. Dane County Wisconsin 1955, WU-4P-101 [aerial photograph]. 1:20,000. Salt Lake City, UT: Aerial Photography Field Office, 1955.

Dynamically Generated Map or Table:

Data Producer. Name of database or source. Title of map or table. [format]. Person who generated map or table; Software package used to generate map or table; <URL of main or first site page>. (Date map or table was generated).

United States Bureau of the Census. 2000 Decennial Census of Population and Housing. AGGREGATE FAMILY INCOME IN 1999 (DOLLARS) BY FAMILY TYPE BY AGE OF HOUSEHOLDER . [map]. Generated by John Smith; using WisStat; <http://www.wisstat.wisc.edu/>. (August 23, 2006).

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How to Format a Citation

Examples of apa, mla, and chicago manual of style, citation styles: american psychological association (apa), citation styles: chicago, citation styles: modern language association (mla), example: direct quote cited in a book, example: reference within a journal article.

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There are two basic approaches to citation:

  • In-text citations + a list of references at the end of the paper
  • Endnotes or footnotes +/- a bibliography at the end of the paper

Scholars writing in the sciences and social sciences typically use in-text citations, while humanities scholars utilize endnotes/footnotes.

While the two basic approaches to citations are simple, there are many different citation styles.

What is a citation style?

The way that citations appear (format) depends on the citation style, which is a set of established rules and conventions for documenting sources.

Citation styles can be defined by an association, such as the Modern Language Association (MLA), publisher, such as the University of Chicago Press, or journal, such as The New England Journal of Medicine .

What citation style should I use?

The citation style that you use depends on the discipline in which you are writing, and where, or by whom, your work will be published or read.

When in doubt, ask your professor if there is a particular style that he/she would like you to use. 

Where can I find more information on how to cite a specific type of source in a particular style?

The library has style manuals in print and online for several commonly used styles such as American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association (MLA) and Chicago.  In addition, there are several excellent citation style guides on the web. (See below)

For examples of APA and MLA and Chicago Manual of Style, visit Purdue's OWL (Online Writing Lab) site.

Frank, H. (2011). Wolves, Dogs, Rearing and Reinforcement: Complex Interactions Underlying Species Differences in Training and Problem-Solving Performance.  Behavior Genetics ,  41 (6), 830-839. 

  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association Print manual for the APA style, available in the Sciences and Rockefeller libraries.
  • Purdue University Online Writing Lab Well-organized, easy-to-follow guide, with numerous examples.
  • APA Style American Psychological Association website for the APA Style. Provides tutorials, answers to frequently asked questions, and more.

Frank, H. 2011. "Wolves, Dogs, Rearing and Reinforcement: Complex Interactions Underlying Species Differences in Training and Problem-Solving Performance."   Behavior Genetics  41 (6):830-839. 

  • The Chicago Manual of Style Older (15th edition) print manual, available at the Sciences, Rockefeller and Orwig libraries.
  • The Chicago Manual of Style Online Current (16th) edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, and answers to frequently asked questions. Off-campus use requires Brown username and password.

Frank, H. "Wolves, Dogs, Rearing and Reinforcement: Complex Interactions Underlying Species Differences in Training and Problem-Solving Performance."  Behavior Genetics  41.6 (2011): 830-39. Print.

  • MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing Print manual for the MLA style. Available in the Rockefeller Library.
  • MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers Print handbook for the MLA. Available in the Rockefeller Library.

Citation in Book

Source: Gabriel, R. A. (2001). Gods of Our Fathers: The Memory of Egypt in Judaism & Christianity . Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Press.

Citation in Journal Article

Source: Bradt, J., Potvin, N., Kesslick, A., Shim, M., Radl, D., Schriver, E., … Komarnicky-Kocher, L. T. (2015). The impact of music therapy versus music medicine on psychological outcomes and pain in cancer patients: a mixed methods study. Supportive Care in Cancer : Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer , 23 (5), 1261–71.

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / Book Citations / Learn how to cite “Cloud Atlas” by David Mitchell

Learn how to cite “Cloud Atlas” by David Mitchell

Learn how to create in-text citations and a full citation/reference/note for Cloud Atlas by David Mitchell using the examples below. Cloud Atlas  is cited in 14 different citation styles, including MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard, APA, ACS, and many others.

If you are looking for additional help, try the EasyBib citation generator .

Popular Citation Styles

Here are Cloud Atlas   citations for five popular citation styles: MLA, APA, Chicago (notes-bibliography), Chicago (author-date), and Harvard style.

Additional Styles

Here are Cloud Atlas   citations for 14 popular citation styles including Turabian style, the American Medical Association (AMA) style, the Council of Science Editors (CSE) style, IEEE, and more.

Find citation guides for additional books linked here .

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    Create an in-text citation that refers to a complete citation in an alphabetized reference list at the end of the work. MLA uses author/page (Jones 3) and APA uses author/date (Jones, 2009) citations. ... Map from an Atlas/Book. Elements to Include Map author. Map title [format] . Scale. In: Atlas Author. Atlas Title. Edition. Place of ...

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    A bibliography entry for a journal article lists the title of the article in quotation marks and the journal name in italics—both in title case. List up to 10 authors in full; use "et al." for 11 or more. In the footnote, use "et al." for four or more authors. Chicago format. Author last name, First name.

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    Women in the World: An International Atlas. London: Pluto Press Ltd., 1986, plate 32. Map in a Digital Atlas: Author. Map title [format]. Scale. Computer software title [format]. Edition. Place of production: Producer, Date of copyright or production. Map of Prussia in 1791 [map]. Centennia [computer atlas]. Version 1995.5.

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