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MLA Works Cited Page
What is a works cited page.
The works cited page is a list of all the sources cited within the body and notes of your paper. A works cited page should begin on its own page after the end of the paper content and should list all the entries in alphabetical order by the first item in each entry (usually the author’s name). It should be included in order to give full credit to the sources used and avoid plagiarism, as well as to allow the reader to easily locate each source if needed. Papers in MLA format should always have a works cited page.
It is not necessary to include sources that you consulted but did not directly reference in the works cited list – it should only include the sources you directly quoted or paraphrased. Each in-text citation should therefore have a corresponding entry in the works cited list.
Creating an MLA Works Cited Page:
Citing sources in mla.
- Bibliography vs. Works Cited — What’s the Difference?
- Formatting the Works Cited Page
- Heading & Title Format
- Organizing the References in the List
- Formatting Author Names
- Formatting Author Names in Other Languages
- Title Rules: Capitalization, Italics, and Quotation Marks
Let’s get started with an explanation of what exactly a works cited page is and why creating one is necessary!
Note: This guide is not affiliated with the Modern Language Association. It was developed by EasyBib.com’s in-house librarians to serve as a quick guide and snapshot of some of the guidelines found in the MLA Handbook, 9th ed.
When students and scholars create a research paper, they seek out information in books, websites, journal articles, and many other types of sources. The information from these sources, combined with the scholar’s own thinking and knowledge, aid in the formation of a final project.
However, simply placing information from books, websites, journal articles, newspaper articles, and other source types into a project without a reference is not acceptable. Without a reference or citation, it’ll look like the paper’s author came up with everything themselves!
That means it’s necessary to call out when information is included from outside sources and originated elsewhere.
An MLA works cited page shows all the sources that were consulted and included in a project. Each source has a corresponding in-text citation within the paper.
In-text & parenthetical citations
In the body of a research project, add a short reference next to a quote or paraphrased information that came from a source. This is called a citation in prose or a parenthetical citation.
In-text Citation Example:
Langdon’s expertise is revealed in Chapter 1, when he is introduced to a group of university students. “Our guest tonight needs no introduction. He is the author of numerous books: The Symbology of Secret Sects , The Art of the Illuminati , The Lost Language of Ideograms , and when I say he wrote the book on Religious Iconology, I mean that quite literally. Many of you use his textbooks in class” (Brown 8).
In the example above, the writer displays that the quote was taken from Brown’s book, on page 8.
Even though this information is helpful, the brief reference to Brown and page 8 isn’t enough information to truly understand the origin of the quote. Other relevant information, such as the full name of the author, the title of the book, the publisher, and the year the book was published is missing.
Where can the reader find that information? In the MLA works cited list!
Full references in the works cited list
The MLA works cited list is the final page of a research project. Here, the reader can take the time to truly understand the sources included in the body of the project. The reader can turn to the MLA works cited list, look for “Brown” and see the full reference, which looks like this:
Brown, Dan. The DaVinci Code . Knopf Doubleday, 2003.
Included in the above reference is the full name of the author (Dan Brown), the title of the source ( The DaVinci Code ), the publisher of the book (Knopf Doubleday), and the year the book was published (2003).
The information provided in the reference supplies the reader with enough information to seek out the original source themselves, if he or she would like.
Works Cited Example:
Bibliography vs. Works cited – What’s the difference?
Quite often, the two terms are used interchangeably. While similar, they have some unique differences.
The remainder of this guide focuses on the placement, organization, and styling guidelines for the MLA works cited list.
Another commonly used reference style is APA. If your teacher or professor requests your references be made in APA citation style, check out this page on APA format .
Here’s more information on how to develop an MLA in-text citation and APA in-text citation .
Formatting the MLA works cited page
The reference page is the final page of a research paper and starts on its very own page.
If your project isn’t an actual research paper, but a slideshow, video, or another type of project, follow the same guidelines as above. Place the works cited list on the final slide, page, or screen of the project.
Here are the recommended guidelines for margins, spacing, and page numbers taken from the MLA Style Center’s web page “Formatting a Research Paper.”
Margins in MLA:
- Place one inch margins around the entire document.
- The only exception is the “running head.” See the “Running Head” section below to learn more about the margins of this component.
- Most word processing programs automatically default to one inch margins. In the page setup settings, you can view and modify the size of the margins.
Spacing in MLA:
- Double space the entire page. The title, references, and other components should all have double spaces.
It is not necessary to create double spaces manually by pressing the “enter” or “return” key in between each and every line. Your word processing program can automatically adjust the line spacing for you. Look for a section in the settings area called “Line spacing” or “Paragraph spacing.” You should be able to click or check off “double spacing.”
Page numbers in MLA:
- The reference list is the final page(s) of a research paper.
- If the conclusion of a research project is on page 7, page 8 would be the first page of the reference list. If the list runs onto the next page after that, it would be page 9.
For more information regarding how to display the page numbers, see the section below titled, “Running Head.”
While an APA reference page is very different from a Modern Language Association style works cited, note that APA bibliography pages also use double spacing throughout and 1 inch margins.
Heading & title format in MLA
This next section focuses on how to properly label and format the page numbers and title.
The running head is found at the top of every page of the research project. It’s also included on the reference list.
The running head displays the name of the writer or author of the research project + page number .
There is one space between the author’s name and the page number. Here is an MLA works cited page example of a running head:
The above is an example of a running head that would be seen on page 8 of a research project. The writer’s last name is Kleinman.
General running head guidelines:
- It is placed in the top right corner of every page.
- It sits half of an inch from the top of the page and along the right side’s one inch margin.
Reminder : If the concluding sentence of the research project is on page 10, the reference list starts on page 11. Even though the reference page starts on its own page, the numbering throughout the entire project includes the reference page.
Title of the page
Below the running head is the title of the page, which should either be “Work Cited” or “Works Cited.”
- Only 1 reference = “Work Cited”
- Multiple references =”Works Cited”
Whether you’re making an MLA work cited page or an MLA works cited page, here are some general rules to follow:
- Align the title to the center of the document
- Add a one-inch margin below the top edge of the paper
- Do not bold, italicize, or underline the title
- The title should be the same size and style as the rest of the document (12-point font)
- Place a double space between the title and the first citation on the page
Here’s a sample MLA works cited running head and title:
If you’re reading through this page, but have yet to determine your research paper topic, look no further! We have thorough guides on historical individuals to rev up your brainstorming engine! Check out our guides on Abraham Lincoln , Muhammad Ali , and Marilyn Monroe .
Organizing the references in the MLA works cited list
Hanging indent formatting.
- The full citation entries run along the left side of the paper, along the one inch margin.
- Double space each line.
- Each MLA work cited entry has a hanging indent, meaning the first line of the full reference starts along the one inch margin and any additional lines after the first are indented in one and a half inches from the left margin.
Hanging indent example:
Organizing the Works Cited Entries
There are two options: alphabetical order and non alphabetical order.
The majority of references are organized in alphabetical order by the first item in the reference, which is usually an author’s last name. When a source doesn’t have an author, the title is placed first in the reference. Many films and movies, for instance, begin with the title, since no author is present.
Either way, whether the reference starts with the last name of the author, or a title, the entries are placed in alphabetical order.
Works cited MLA example, organized in alphabetical order.
Benjamin, Chloe. The Immortalists . Penguin, 2018.
Black Panther. Directed by Ryan Coogler, performance by Chadwick Boseman, Marvel Studios, 2018.
Egan, Jennifer. Manhattan Beach . Scribner, 2017.
The majority of reference lists are organized in alphabetical order. However, it is acceptable to only organize “annotated bibliographies” in alphabetical order, chronological order, or subject order.
Here’s more information about the organization and creation of an MLA annotated bibliography .
Formatting Author Names in MLA
If you need help structuring or formatting the author’s name (or multiple authors’ names) in your references, this section will help.
Let’s start with the proper structure for one author’s name (taken from Section 5.6 of the official Handbook ). If the source you’re attempting to cite was created by one individual author, structure the name as follows:
Last name, First name.
The last name of the author is placed at the start of the reference, followed by a comma, and the first name of the author. Conclude this information with a period.
One author with a middle name or middle initial
Work Cited Examples:
- Burroughs, William S.
- Yeats, W. B.
- Alcott, Louisa May.
Wondering how to organize two or more works by Louisa May Alcott in your paper? It may be tricky to determine how to alphabetically arrange the references, since each MLA work cited entry begins with Louisa May Alcott.
Citing multiple sources with the same author To create a proper MLA works cited list when there are multiple sources by the same author, place the references in alphabetical order by the title. Only include the author’s name in the first reference. In place of the author’s name in subsequent entries, place three dashes, followed by a period. (Follows rules from Section 5.126 of the Handbook .)
Below is a visual representation of a properly organized and structured MLA style works cited list. All three sources in this MLA works cited page example are by the author, Louisa May Alcott.
Alcott, Louisa May. “Eight Cousins.” Project Gutenberg , 2018, www.gutenberg.org/files/2726/2726-h/2726-h.htm.
– – -. Little Women. Bantam Classics, 1983.
– – -. Rose in Bloom . CreateSpace, 2018.
Citing a Source with Two Authors in MLA
According to section 5.7 of the official Handbook , the first listed author’s name on the source is the first author seen in the reference. The second listed author’s name on the source is the second author placed in the reference.
The first author’s name is placed in reverse order, followed by a comma and the word “and.” The second author’s name is listed in standard order, followed by a period.
Last name, First name of Author 1, and First name Last name of Author 2.
Work Cited Examples
Brust, Steven, and Emma Bull.
Jory, John, and Mac Barnett.
Citing multiple sources with the same co-authors When there are multiple sources on a reference list by the same co-authors, organize those specific references alphabetically by the titles. Only include the names of the coauthors in the first entry.
Jory, John, and Mac Barnett. The Terrible Two. Amulet, 2017.
– – -. The Terrible Two Get Worse. Amulet, 2017.
Here’s a complex scenario…
There may be times when you’re attempting to add additional sources by one of the co-authors, or the lead co-author along with a different individual.
Here is an example of how a works cited page in MLA would be organized. Included is a source solely written by one of the coauthors (John Jory) and a source by John Jory with a different coauthor, Avery Monsen.
Works Cited Example
Jory, John. The Bad Seed. HarperCollins, 2017.
– – -. Giraffe Problems. Random House, 2018.
Monsen, Avery, and Jory John. All My Friends Are Dead , Chronicle, 2010.
Summary of the above examples:
- Jory John’s work, The Bad Seed , is listed first in the reference list since the single author’s name is organized first in alphabetical order.
- The second entry includes the three hyphens and a period in place of John Jory’s name since it is redundant to write out and display the author’s name again in the list.
- Entries three and four are by the coauthors Jory John and Mac Barnett. The hyphens in the fourth source replace the authors’ names in the third for the same reason as above: it’s unnecessary to write out both co-authors’ names twice. The Terrible Two book is placed before The Terrible Two Get Worse as the titles are placed in alphabetical order.
- The fifth entry is by John Jory and Avery Monsen. Monsen’s name is displayed first on the source, which is why her name is listed first in the entry. Remember: authors are placed in the order they appear on the source.
Citing a Source with Three or More Authors in MLA
When there are three or more authors listed on a source, it is unnecessary to include all individuals’ names in the reference list.
Only include the first listed author’s last name, followed by a comma and their first name, followed by another comma and the abbreviation “et al.”
Work Cited Example
Robertson, Judy, et al.
Et al. is an abbreviation used in academic works. It translates to “and others” in Latin. Replace the second, third, and any additional authors’ names with “et al.” on your work cited page in MLA.
The above example represents a journal article written by Judy Robertson, Beth Cross, Hamish Mcleod, and Peter Wiemer-Hastings. Instead of including all four authors’ names in the entry, only the first listed author’s name is included.
Robertson, Judy, et al. “Children’s Interactions with Animated Agents in an Intelligent Tutoring System.” International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education , vol. 14, no. 3-4, 2004, pp. 335-357. IOS Press , content.iospress.com/articles/international-journal-of-artificial-intelligence-in-education/jai14-3-4-05.
If including an additional reference by Judy Robertson, but with different co-authors, include her name again in the reference list.
For example, take a look at this journal article by Judy Robertson, Judith Good, and Helen Pain. The MLA work cited entry would begin with Judy Robertson, et al. and not three hyphens since there are different co-authors than the first.
Robertson, Judy, et al. “BetterBlether: The Design and Evaluation of a Discussion Tool for Education.” International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education , 1998, pp. 9, 219-236, ijaied.org/pub/1026/file/1026_paper.pdf.
The entries are listed in alphabetical order by the title of the source since the first positions are the same.
Citing Authors with proper titles in MLA
There are times when an author is graced with a prestigious title such as a Duke, Sir, Saint, and others (see Section 2.83 of the Handbook for more examples).
When an author has a specific title, it should be omitted from the body of a project and also omitted from the reference list.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle should be in the project as Arthur Conan Doyle.
On a work cited page in MLA, it would be displayed as:
Doyle, Arthur Conan.
Citing Authors with Suffixes in MLA
If an author has a suffix in his or her name, such as Junior (Jr.) or a roman numeral such as II, III, IV, or V, this information is included in the reference list.
The individual’s name is placed in reverse order, with the last name displayed in the first position. Immediately following the last name is a comma, followed by the first name and middle name. After the first and middle names, a comma is placed, and the suffix of the individual is placed at the end with a period. You should not include the comma preceding the suffix, however, if it is a numeral.
For example, Cal Ripken, Jr. would be structured as
- Ripken, Cal, Jr.
Frederick William III would be structured as:
William, Frederick III.
Citing Pen Names in MLA
If the author’s pen name is one that is well known, it is acceptable to use the pen name in place of the author’s real first and last name.
For example, Mark Twain , Dr. Seuss , George Orwell, and O. Henry are all acceptable to use in a works cited MLA section, as their pen names are well known.
If the author’s pen name is less familiar, you can include the author’s real name in brackets in the reference.
Coffey, Brian [Dean Koontz]. Blood Risk. Bobbs-Merrill, 1973.
Van Dyne, Edith [L. Frank Baum]. Aunt Jane’s Nieces At Work. 1st World Library, 2006.
Formatting Author’s Names in Other Languages
Many names in languages other than English include conventions and features that are different from names in English. This next section provides information to help you properly structure and organize the names of authors in other languages. It follows rules from section 2.73 in the official Handbook .
Citing French Names in MLA
French names often include the particles de, d’, or du. Some examples include Valery Giscard d’Estaing, Bertrand du Guesclin, and Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord.
When “de” is used in an individual’s name, it is separated from the last name. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord would be structured in a work cited MLA list as:
Talleyrand-Perigord, Charles Maurice de.
If, however, the last name is only one syllable, “de” is considered part of the last name. The reference entry would begin with de and then the last name of the individual, followed by a comma and the first name. In this instance, “de” remains lowercased.
When “du” or “des” is used in an individual’s name, it is included as part of the last name. Capitalize the “d” in “du.” Bertrand du Guesclin would be structured in a work cited MLA list as:
Du Guesclin, Bertrand.
When d’ is placed before a last name, d’ is included as part of the last name, but only when the last name begins with a vowel. Valery Giscard d’Estaing would be structured as:
d’Estaing, Valery Giscard.
Citing Asian Names in MLA
Prior to determining how to structure an Asian author’s name, consider the source. Many Asian publishers display the author’s last name first on sources. If the source was published in Asia, do not reverse the author’s name in the reference list. Write it in the order shown on the source, without any commas. End the author’s name with a period.
If the source was published in English, it is quite possible that the author’s last name is displayed first as well. This is when the researcher must do a bit of detective work to determine the author’s first name and last name. Run the name through a search engine and identify the author’s first name and last name. If the last name is placed first on the source, keep it as is in the reference entry. Do not reverse the names and write it in standard form.
If, on the source, the author’s name is placed in standard order (first name followed by last name) reverse it in the reference list. Begin the reference with the last name of the individual, add a comma, and add the first name of the author. End the field with a period.
Citing Latin Names in MLA
Famous historical figures in Roman history have names that are widely known. Some examples include Julius Caesar, Augustus, Claudius, Constantine, and others. While these individuals are known by their Roman names, their full names are in Latin.
Begin the reference entry with the Roman name. Immediately following the Roman name, add the individual’s full name in brackets. End the information with a period.
Augustus [Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus]. “The Deeds of the Divine Augustus.” The Internet Classics Archive , translated by Thomas Bushnell, 1998, classics.mit.edu/Augustus/deeds.html.
APA citation website references look much different! Make sure you check out our handy guides on EasyBib.com!
Citing German Names in MLA
Two commonly used particles in German names are “von” and “zu.” Examples include Alexander von Humboldt, Ferdinand von Zeppelin, Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, and Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied.
When a German individual’s name includes the particles “von” or “zu,” the particles are not included as part of the person’s last name. Ferdinand von Zeppelin would be organized in the work cited MLA list as:
Zeppelin, Ferdinand von.
If, on the source, von is displayed as a last name, it is acceptable to include it at the beginning of the individual’s last name. Examples include books by Dita Von Teese and Diane Von Furstenberg.
Von Furstenberg, Diane. Diane: A Signature Life . Simon & Schuster, 2009.
Citing Italian Names in MLA
If the particles d’, del, de, della, di, da, are used in an individual’s last name, and the individual is relatively current and from modern times, the particles are included as part of the last name and the reference entry begins with the capitalized particle.
Di Lampedusa, Giuseppe Tomasi.
When the individual’s name begins with one of the same particles above, but he or she is from historical or ancient times, the particle is not included as part of the individual’s last name.
Citing Spanish Names in MLA
There are two commonly used particles in Spanish names: “de” and “del.” If an individual’s name includes the particle, “de,” do not include it as part of his or her last name. When “del” is visible in an individual’s last name, the “d” in “del” is capitalized and placed at the beginning of the citation.
- Del Toro, Benicio.
- Leon, Juan Ponce de.
- Soto, Hernando de.
- Del Rio, Andres Manuel.
Capitalization rules in mla.
According to section 2.90 of the Handbook , titles should be written in title case format. This means that the first letter in the first word, the first letter in the last word, and the first letters of all other important words are capitalized. Any coordinating conjunctions (and, for, but, or, so, nor, and yet), articles (a, an, the), and prepositions in the title are not capitalized.
Here are a few MLA works cited examples of how titles should appear in references:
- A Tree Grows in Brooklyn
- The Wizard of Oz
- Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry
- Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
If the source you’re attempting to cite is in a language other than English, it is recommended to use “sentence case” form. Sentence case only has the first letter in the first word capitalized and the first letter in any proper nouns capitalized. All other words are written in lowercase letters.
Don’t forget to use EasyBib.com’s MLA work cited generator to develop your works cited page in MLA.
Italics vs. Quotation marks in MLA
Whether the source is placed in italics or quotation marks depends on where the source was found. If the title stands alone (like a book or movie), place the title in italics. If the title was found in a container, such as a website, anthology, edited book, or another type of container, place the source in quotation marks and the container in italics.
Mather, Victor. “Japan Advances in World Cup 2018 Despite Losing to Poland.” New York Times , 28 June 2018, nyti.ms/2IzyUdm.
Salinger, J. D. The Catcher in the Rye . Little Brown, 1991.
Formatting titles beginning with numbers in MLA
Titles beginning with numbers are placed in the reference list in alphabetical order, as if the title was written out alphabetically.
Here’s an MLA works cited example: The movie 2 Fast 2 Furious , would be organized in alphabetical order as if it said “ Too Fast Too Furious .” The citation would still be begin with the number even though it is organized alphabetically.
Don’t forget to try EasyBib.com’s MLA works cited generator to help you develop your references and your MLA works cited page. Our MLA works cited generator is free and simple to use!
Developing MLA references on EasyBib.com
EasyBib.com has an MLA works cited generator, which helps you produce references . This means you don’t have to spend time determining how to structure and organize the components of a citation.
To create your complete page of works cited in MLA with our tools, head to the EasyBib homepage.
Did your teacher or professor request that your references be made in MLA format? Luckily for you, MLA is the default format on EasyBib.com. If you’re not sure which style to use, ask your teacher.
- Select your source. Examples: book, website, video, etc. There are several types to choose from!
- Input information. Sources like websites, books, etc., will let you do an automatic search for citation information on your source. Input details like your source’s title, author, ISBN, DOI, or keywords.
- Select your source. Look through the results list and choose the one that matches your source.
- Review details. See what was found during the search.
- Review and edit the citation form. Feel free to add any missing details, or update any fields.
- Complete citation. Congratulations on your new citation! Copy and paste it into your document, or keep adding citations to your list.
All references are automatically organized in proper order and can be exported to Microsoft Word Documents, Google Docs, Dropbox, or One Drive. There’s even an option to email the reference!
Even better? EasyBib Plus gives you access to tools that do more than simply creating full references. References in the text are created for you, too! Whether it’s a Modern Language Association reference, or an APA parenthetical citation , APA book citation , or APA journal reference, we’ll create both types for you.
Need a bit more help? Our plagiarism checker is a one-stop shop to help you with your writing, grammar, and reference needs. Copy and paste your paper into our proofreader and receive comprehensive feedback! Stress less and submit your paper with confidence!
Follow our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.
MLA Works Cited
“Formatting a Research Paper.” MLA Style Center , Modern Language Association of America, style.mla.org/formatting-papers/.
MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021
Published October 16, 2013. Updated June 20, 2021.
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.
MLA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Page Numbers
- Sample Paper
- Works Cited
- MLA 8 Updates
- MLA 9 Updates
- View MLA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all MLA Examples
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- The title should be the same size and style as the rest of the document (12-point font)/li>
If the title stands alone, place the title in italics. If the title was found in a container, such as a website, anthology, edited book, or another type of container, place the source in quotation marks and the container in italics.
According to Section 1.2 of the Handbook, titles should be written in title case format. Any coordinating conjunctions (and, for, but, or, so, nor, and yet), articles (a, an, the), and prepositions in the title are not capitalized.
If an author has a suffix in his or her name, the last name is displayed in the first position followed by a comma, the first name, and the middle name. After the first and middle names, a comma is placed, and the suffix of the individual is placed at the end.
Cal Ripken Jr. would be structured as
Author with roman numeral suffix would be structured as
- William, Frederick, III.
An MLA works cited list contains complete details of all the sources that are cited in the text. It helps the reader locate the source in case they want to read it for further understanding. It is included at the end of the paper after the main text. Each entry provides all of the information about each source so that it can be easily located. For example, the works cited list entry for a journal article would include the following elements:
Title of the article
With the help of the mentioned elements, a reader can locate the source for future reference. In addition, the works cited list arranges entries in alphabetical order according to the surname of the first author or title (if there is no author) to help the reader locate the entry in the list quickly. A few works cited list entries are listed below as examples:
Brenner, Barbara. “Pink Ribbons and Lou Gehrig: Time to Bury Useless Symbols.” So Much to be Done: The Writings of Breast cancer Activist Barbara Brenner , edited by Barbara Sjoholm, UP of Minnesota, 2016, pp. 199–202.
Feldman, Alice E. “Dances with Diversity: American Indian Self‐Presentation Within the Re‐presentative Contexts of a Non‐Indian Museum.” Text and Performance Quarterly , vol. 14, no. 3, 1994, pp. 210–21.
Hymes, Dell H. Discovering Oral Performance and Measured Verse in American Indian Narrative . Johns Hopkins UP, 1977.
The main purpose of the works cited list is to provide the readers with the complete details of the sources cited in the text. It helps the reader locate the source in case they want to do further research or verify information. It also helps to ensure that full credit is given to the sources utilized in the paper. The works cited list is placed at the end of the paper after the main text. For example, the works cited list entry for a journal article would include the author’s name, the title of the article, the journal title, the volume and issue number of the journal, the date the article was published, the page numbers of the article, and the URL if the article was found online. With the help of the mentioned elements, a reader can locate the source for future reference.
The works cited list arranges entries in alphabetical order according to the surname of the first author or title (if there is no author) to help the reader locate the entry in the list quickly.
MLA Citation Examples
Other Citation Styles
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Creating an MLA Works cited page
General formatting information for your works cited section.
Beginning on a new page at the end of your paper, list alphabetically by author every work you have cited, using the basic forms illustrated below. Title the page Works Cited (not Bibliography), and list only those sources you actually cited in your paper. Continue the page numbering from the body of your paper and make sure that you still have 1–inch margins at the top, bottom, and sides of your page. Double-space the entire list. Indent entries as shown in the models below with what’s called a “hanging indent”: that means the first line of an entry begins at the left margin, and the second and subsequent lines should be indented half an inch from the left margin. Most word-processing programs will format hanging indents easily (look under the paragraph formatting options).
Introduction to the 8th Edition
In 2016, MLA substantially changed the way it approaches works cited entries. Each media type used to have its own citation guidelines. Writers would follow the specific instructions for how to cite a book, a translated poem in an anthology, a newspaper article located through a database, a YouTube clip embedded in an online journal, etc. However, as media options and publication formats continued to expand, MLA saw the need to revise this approach. Since a book chapter can appear on a blog or a blog post can appear in a book, how can writers account for these different formats?
MLA’s solution to this problem has been to create a more universal approach to works cited entries. No matter the medium, citations include the specifically ordered and punctuated elements outlined in the following table.
Elements of a Works Cited Entry
- Last name, First name
- Italicized If Independent ; “Put in Quotations Marks if Not.”
- Often Italicized,
- Name preceded by role title (for example: edited by, translated by, etc),
- i.e. 2nd ed., revised ed., director’s cut, etc.,
- vol. #, no. #,
- Name of Entity Responsible for Producing Source,
- i.e. 14 Feb. 2014; May-June 2016; 2017,
- i.e. pp. 53-79; Chazen Museum of Art; https://www.wiscience.wisc.edu/ (If possible, use a DOI (digital object identifier) instead of a url.)
- Optionally included when citing a web source.
If the source doesn’t include one of these elements, just skip over that one and move to the next. Include a single space after a comma or period.
The third category—”container”—refers to the larger entity that contains the source. This might be a journal, a website, a television series, etc. Sometimes a source can also appear nested in more than one container. A poem, for example, might appear in an edited collection that has been uploaded to a database. A television episode fits in a larger series which may be contained by Netflix. When a source is in a larger container, provide information about the smaller one (i.e. the edited collection or the TV series), then provide information for elements 3–10 for the larger container. For example, the works cited entry detailed below is for a chapter from an economics textbook, entitled Econometrics, that is contained on UW–Madison’s Social Science Computing Cooperative website.
Example of a Works Cited Entry
Hansen, Bruce E. “The Algebra of Least Squares.” Econometrics, University of Wisconsin Department of Economics, 2017, pp. 59-87. Social Science Computing Cooperative, UW–Madison, http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~bhansen/econometrics/Econometrics.pdf.
Here is the breakdown of these elements:
- Hansen, Bruce E.
- “The Algebra of Least Squares.”
- Other Contributors,
- University of Wisconsin Department of Economics
- Title of source.
- Social Science Computing Cooperative,
- Other contributors,
- Publication date,
- (This could be included, but this site is fairly stable, so the access date wasn’t deemed to be important.)
One of the benefits of this system is that it can be applied to any source. Whether you’re citing a book, a journal article, a tweet, or an online comic, this system will guide you through how to construct your citation.
A Few Notes
- Books are considered to be self-contained, so if you’re citing an entire book, items 2 and 3 get joined. After the author’s name, italicize the title, then include a period and move on items 4–9.
- No matter what your last item of information is for a given citation, end the citation with a period.
- Also, if it is appropriate to include an access date for an online source, put a period after the full url in addition to one after the access date information.
- It is particularly important to include access dates for online sources when citing a source that is subject to change (like a homepage). If the source you are working with is more stable (like a database), it’s not as critical to let your readers know when you accessed that material.
For more information about any of this, be sure to consult the 2016 MLA Handbook itself.
Works Cited page entry: Article
Article from a scholarly journal, with page numbers, read online from the journal’s website.
Shih, Shu-Mei. “Comparative Racialization: An Introduction.” PMLA , vol. 123, no. 5, 2008, pp. 1347-62. Modern Language Association , doi:10.1632/pmla.2008.123.5.1347.
Author last name, First name. “Article title.” Journal name , vol. number, issue number, year of publication, pp. numbers. Publisher , doi
PMLA provides DOI numbers, so this is used in this citation preceded by “doi:” instead of the url address. Also, given the enduring stability of PMLA’s page, no access date has been included, but it could be if the writer preferred.
Article from a scholarly journal, with multiple authors, without page numbers, read online from the journal’s website
Bravo, Juan I., Gabriel L. Lozano, and Jo Handelsman. “Draft Genome Sequence of Flavobacterium johnsoniae CI04, an Isolate from the Soybean Rhizosphere.” Genome Announcements , vol. 5, no. 4, 2017, doi: 10.1128/genomeA.01535-16.
First author last name, First name, Middle initial., Second author first name Middle initial. Last name, and Third author First name Last name. “Article title.” Journal name , vol. number, issue number, year of publication, doi
Article from a scholarly journal, no page numbers, read through an online database
Mieszkowski, Jan. “Derrida, Hegel, and the Language of Finitude.” Postmodern Culture , vol. 15, no. 3, 2005. Project MUSE, https://muse.jhu.edu/article/186557.
Author Last name, First name. “Article title.” Journal name , vol. number, issue number, year of publication. Database , url.
Article from a scholarly journal, with page numbers, read through an online database
Sherrard-Johnson, Cherene. “‘A Plea for Color’: Nella Larsen’s Iconography of the Mulatta.” American Literature , vol. 76, no. 4, 2004, pp. 833-69. Project MUSE , https://muse.jhu.edu/article/176820.
Author Last name, First name. “Article title.” Journal name , vol. number, issue number, year of publication, pp. numbers. Database , url.
Valenza, Robin. “How Literature Becomes Knowledge: A Case Study.” ELH , vol. 76, no. 1, 2009, pp. 215-45. Project MUSE . https://muse.jhu.edu/article/260309.
Author Last name, First name. “Article title.” Journal name , vol. number, issue number, year of publication, pp. numbers. Database , url.
Article from a scholarly journal, by three or more authors, print version
Doggart, Julia, et al. “Minding the Gap: Realizing Our Ideal Community Writing Assistance Program.” The Community Literacy Journal , vol. 2, no. 1, 2007, pp. 71-80.
First author Last name, First name, et al. “Article title.” Journal name , vol. number, issue number, year of publication, pp. numbers.
Raval, Amish N., et al. “Cellular Therapies for Heart Disease: Unveiling the Ethical and Public Policy Challenges.” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology , vol. 45, no. 4, 2008, pp. 593–601.
[The Latin abbreviation “et al.” stands for “and others,” and MLA says that you should use it when citing a source with three or more authors.]
Article from a webtext, published in a web-only scholarly journal
Butler, Janine. “Where Access Meets Multimodality: The Case of ASL Music Videos.” Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy , vol. 21, no. 1, 2016, http://kairos.technorhetoric.net/21.1/topoi/butler/index.html. Accessed 7 June 2017.
Author Last name, First name. “Article title.” Journal name , vol. number, issue number, year of publication, url. Date of access.
Balthazor, Ron, and Elizabeth Davis. “Infrastructure and Pedagogy: An Ecological Portfolio.” Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy , vol. 20, no. 1, 2015, http://kairos.technorhetoric.net/20.1/coverweb/balthazor-davis/index.html. Accessed 7 June 2017.
First author Last name, First name and Second author First name Last name. “Article title.” Journal name , vol. number, issue number, date of publication, url. Date of access.
Article from a magazine, print version
Oaklander, Mandy. “Bounce Back.” Time , vol. 185, no. 20, 1 June 2015, pp. 36-42.
Author Last name, First name. “Article title.” Magazine name , vol. number, issue number, month and year of publication, pp. numbers.
Article from a magazine, read through an online database
Rowen, Ben. “A Resort for the Apocalypse.” The Atlantic , vol. 319, no. 2, Mar. 2017, pp. 30-31. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,uid&db =aph&AN=120967144&site=ehost-live&scope=site.
Author Last name, First name. “Article title.” Magazine name , vol. number, issue number, month and year of publication, pp. numbers. Database name , url.
Article from a newspaper, read through an online database
Walsh, Nora. “For Frank Lloyd Wright’s 150th, Tours, Exhibitions and Tattoos.” New York Times , 27 May 2017, international ed. ProQuest , https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/docview/1903523834/fulltext/71B144CD12054C76PQ/2?accountid=465.
Author Last name, First name. “Article title.” Newspaper name , day month and year of publication, edition. Database name , url.
Works Cited page entry: Short Story
Short story in an edited anthology.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. “The Minister’s Black Veil.” Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Tales , edited by James McIntosh, Norton, 1987, pp. 97–107.
Author Last name, First name. “Short story title.” Anthology title , edited by Editor name, Publisher, year of publication, pp. numbers.
Works Cited page entry: Book
Book, written by one author, print version.
Bordwell, David. Figures Traced in Light: On Cinematic Staging . U California P, 2005.
Britland, Karen. Drama at the Courts of Queen Maria Henrietta . Cambridge UP, 2006.
Card, Claudia. The Atrocity Paradigm : A Theory of Evil . Oxford UP, 2005.
Cronon, William. Nature’s Metropolis . Norton, 1991.
Mallon, Florencia E. Courage Tastes of Blood: The Mapuche Community of Nicholás Ailío and the Chilean State , 1906–2001. Duke UP, 2005.
Author Last name, First name. Book title . Publisher, year of publication.
Book, written by more than one author, print version
Bartlett, Lesley, and Frances Vavrus. Rethinking Case Study Research: A Comparative Approach . Taylor & Francis, 2016.
First author Last name, First name, and Second author First name Last name. Book title . Publisher, year of publication.
Flanigan, William H., et al. Political Behavior of the American Electorate . CQ Press, 2015.
First author last name, First name Middle initial., et al. Book title . Publisher, year of publication.
Book, an edited anthology, print version
Olaniyan, Tejumola, and Ato Quayson, editors. African Literature: An Anthology of Criticism and Theory . Blackwell, 2007.
First editor Last name, First name, and Second editor first name Last name, editors. Anthology title . Publisher, year of publication.
Book, edited, revised edition, print version
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself . Edited by William L. Andrews and William S. McFeely, revised ed., Norton, 1996.
Author Last name, First name. Book title . Edited by first editor First name Middle initial. Last name and Second editor First name Middle initial. Last name, edition., publisher, year of publication.
A play in an edited collection, print version
Shakespeare, William. The Comedy of Errors: A New Variorum Edition of Shakespeare . Edited by Standish Henning, The Modern Language Association of America, 2011, pp. 1–254.
Author Last name, First name. Play title . Edited by editor First name Last name, publisher, year of publication, pp. numbers.
[Page numbers are included in this entry to draw attention to the play itself since this edition includes an additional 400 pages of scholarly essays and historical information.]
Bordwell, David. Foreword. Awake in the Dark: Forty Years of Reviews, Essays, and Interviews , by Roger Ebert, U of Chicago P, 2006, pp. xiii–xviii.
Foreward author Last name, First name. Title of work in which foreward appears , by author of work, publisher, year of publication, pp. numbers.
Chapter in an edited anthology, print version
Amodia, David, and Patricia G. Devine. “Changing Prejudice: The Effects of Persuasion on Implicit and Explicit Forms of Race Bias.” Persuasion: Psychological Insights and Perspectives , edited by T.C. Brock and C. Greens, 2nd ed., SAGE Publications, 2005, pp. 249–80.
Chapter first author Last name, First name, and Second author First name Middle initial. Last name. “Chapter title.” Anthology title , edited by first editor First initial. Middle initial. Last name and Second editor first initial. Last name, edition number, publisher, year of publication, pp. numbers.
Hawhee, Debra, and Christa Olson. “Pan–Historiography: The Challenges of Writing History across Time and Space.” Theorizing Histories of Rhetoric , edited by Michelle Ballif, Southern Illinois University Press, 2013, pp. 90–105.
Chapter first author Last name, First name, and Second author First name Last name. “Chapter title.” Anthology title, edited by editor First name Last name, publisher, date of publication, page #s.
Shimabukuro, Mira Chieko. “Relocating Authority: Coauthor(iz)ing a Japanese American Ethos of Resistance under Mass Incarceration.” Representations: Doing Asian American Rhetoric , edited by LuMing Mao and Morris Young, Utah State UP, 2008, pp. 127–52.
Author Last name, First name Middle name. “Chapter title.” Anthology title , edited by first editor First name Last name and second editor First name Last name, Publisher, year of publication, pp. numbers.
Works Cited page entry: Electronic source
Since MLA’s 8th edition does not substantially differentiate between a source that is read in print as opposed to online, see our information about citing articles for examples about citing electronic sources from periodicals.
Non-periodical web publication, with no author and no date of publication
“New Media @ the Center.” The Writing Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison . U of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center, 2012, http://www.writing.wisc.edu/[email protected]. Accessed 8 March 2017.
“Title of publication.” Title of the containing website . Publisher of the site, year of publication. Url. Accessed date.
The syntax for a non-periodical web publication is: author (if no author, start with the title); title of the section or page, in quotation marks; title of the containing Web site as a whole, italicized; version or edition used (if none is specified, omit); publisher or sponsor of the site (if none is mentioned, then just skip this); date of publication (if none is listed, just skip this); use a comma between the publisher or sponsor and the date; the source’s url address; date of access.
Non–periodical scholarly web publication, no date of publication
Stahmer, Carl, editor. “The Shelley Chronology.” Romantic Circles . University of Maryland, https://www.rc.umd.edu/reference/chronologies/shelcron. Accessed 26 March 2017.
Editor Last name, First name, editor. “Title of publication.” Title of the containing website . Publisher, Url. Accessed date.
Non–periodical web publication, web publication, corporate author
Rhetoric Society of America. “Welcome to the website of the Rhetoric Society of America and Greetings from Gregory Clark, President of RSA!” RSA , Rhetoric Society of America, 2017, http://www.rhetoricsociety.org/aws/RSA/pt/sp/home_page. Accessed 27 March 2017.
Name of Corporate Author. “Title of publication.” Title of the containing website , Publisher of the website, year of publication, url. Accessed date
The syntax for this entry is: corporate author; title, in quotation marks; title of the overall Web site, in italics; publisher or sponsor of the site; date of publication; the source’s url address; date of access.
Since the material on homepages is subject to change, it is particularly important to include an access date for this source.
Blank, Rebecca. “Re: A request and an invitation for Department Chairs and Unit Leaders.” Received by Brad Hughes, 30 August 2016.
Sender Last name, First name. “Email subject line.” Received by recipient First name Last name, day month and year email was sent and received.
@UW-Madison. “Scientists at @UWCIMSS used a supercomputer to recreate the EF-5 El Reno tornado that swept through Oklahoma 6 years ago today. #okwx.” Twitter, 24 May 2017, 2:23 p.m., https://twitter.com/UWMadison/status/867461007 362359296.
@Twitter Handle. “Entire tweet word-for-word.” Twitter, day month year of tweet, time of tweet, url.
When including tweets in the works cited page, alphabetize them according to what comes after the “@” symbol.
Include the full tweet in quotation marks as the title.
Works Cited page entry: Government publication, encyclopedia entry
National Endowment for the Humanities. What We Do . NEH, March 2017, https://www.neh.gov/files/whatwedo.pdf.
Name of Government entity. Title of publication . Publisher, date of publication, url.
This is treated as a source written by a corporate author.
Signed encyclopedia entry
Neander, Karen. “Teleological Theories of Mental Content.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , edited by Edward N. Zalta, spring ed., 2012, https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2012/entries/content-teleological/.
Author Last name, First name. “Entry title.” Title of encyclopedia , edited by editor First name Middle initial. Last name, ed., year of publication, url.
Works Cited page entry: Personal interview, film, tv program, and others
An interview you conducted.
Brandt, Deborah. Personal Interview. 28 May 2008.
Interviewee Last name, First name. Personal Interview. Day month year of interview.
A published interview, read through an online database
García, Cristina. Interview by Ylce Irizarry. Contemporary Literature , vol. 48, no. 2, 2007, pp. 174-94. EBSCOhost. http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/ehost/pdfviewer /pdfviewer?vid=5&sid=f95943f6-5364-49e7-8b83-7341edc4b434%40sessionmgr104. Accessed 26 March 2017.
Interviewee Last name, First name. Interview by interviewer First name Last name. Journal title , vol. number, issue number, year of publication, pp. numbers. Database name. Url. Accessed day month and year.
Film or DVD
Sense and Sensibility . Directed by Ang Lee, performances by Emma Thompson, Alan Rickman, and Kate Winslet, Sony, 1999.
Title of film . Directed by director First name Last name, performances by first actor First name Last name, second actor First name Last name, and third actor First name Last name, Production company, year of release.
You only need to include performers’ names if that information is relevant to your work. If your paper focuses on the director, begin this entry with the director, i.e., Lee, Ang, director. Sense and Sensibility . . . . If your primary interest is an actor, begin the entry with the actor’s name, i.e., Thompson, Emma, perf. Sense and Sensibility . . . .
“Arctic Ghost Ship.” NOVA . PBS, WPT, Madison, 10 May 2017.
“Title of episode.” Television series name . Broadcasting network, Broadcasting station, City, day month year of broadcast.
PBS is the network that broadcast this show; WPT is the Wisconsin PBS affiliate in Madison on which you watched this show.
Media accessed through streaming network
“Self Help.” The Walking Dead , season 5, episode 5, AMC, 9 Nov. 2014. Netflix , https://www.netflix.com/watch/80010531?trackId=14170286&tctx=1%2C4%2C04bba31e-60a0-4889-b36e-b708006e5d05-911831.
“Title of episode.” Title of television series , season number, episode number, Broadcasting channel, date month year of release. Name of streaming service used to access episode , url.
Gleizes, Albert. The Schoolboy . 1924, gouache or glue tempera on canvas. U of Wisconsin Chazen Museum of Art, Madison, WI.
Artist Last name, First name. Title of piece. Year of composition, medium. Name of institution housing art piece, City, State initials.
Address, lecture, reading, or conference presentation
Desmond, Matthew. “Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City.” 1 Nov. 2016, Memorial Union Theater, Madison, WI.
Lecturer Last name, First name. “Title of lecture.” Day month year lecture is given, Location of lecture, City, State initials.
Modern Language Association Documentation
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MLA Table of Contents
Orientation to MLA
Creating an MLA works cited page
Using MLA in–text citations
Abbreviating references to your sources
Generate accurate MLA citations for free
- Knowledge Base
Student's Guide to MLA Style (2021) | Citation & Format
To cite sources in MLA style, you need
- In-text citations that give the author’s last name and a page number.
- A list of Works Cited that gives full details of every source.
Make sure your paper also adheres to MLA format : one-inch margins, double spacing, and indented paragraphs, with an MLA style heading on the first page.
You can create citations automatically with our free MLA Citation Generator . Enter a URL, DOI , or ISBN, and the generator will retrieve the necessary information.
Table of contents
Mla works cited list, the nine core elements of mla citations, mla in-text citations, free lecture slides, frequently asked questions about mla style.
The Works Cited list is where you give full details of all sources you have cited in the text. Other citation styles sometimes call this the “reference list” or “bibliography.” An annotated bibliography is slightly different.
Author . “Source Title.” Container Title , Other contributors , Version , Number , Publisher , Publication date , Location .
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Begin each source entry with the name of the author(s) or creator(s). The name of the first author is always inverted (Last name, First name).
When a source has two authors, the second author’s name is shown in the normal order (First name Last name).
For sources with three or more authors, state only the first author’s name, followed by “ et al. ”
The author of a source is not necessarily a person; it can also be an organization. If so, simply use the name of the organization.
However, if the organization is both the author and publisher , start with the title of the source instead.
MLA author element
Always include the full title of the source, including subtitles (separated by a colon and space).
Use title case —capitalize all words apart from conjunctions , prepositions , and articles . If there is no title, give a short description of the source, with normal sentence case capitalization.
The styling of the title depends on the type of source:
- Italics when the source is self-contained (e.g. a whole book, movie or website).
- Quotation marks when the source is part of a larger whole (e.g. a chapter of a book , a page on a website, or an article in a journal).
- No styling when describing a source without a title.
A container is the larger work that the source you’re citing appears in. For example, a chapter is part of a book, a page is part of a website, and an article is part of a journal.
If the source you’re citing is a self-contained whole (e.g. a whole book), leave out this element.
The container title is always italicized.
Elements 3 (container title) to 9 (location) all provide information about the container.
Sources with two containers
A source can also have two containers. If you watched an episode of a TV show on Netflix, the show title is the first container and Netflix is the second container. If you accessed a journal article through the database JSTOR, the journal name is the first container and JSTOR is the second container.
In most cases, only the title and location (often the URL or DOI ) of the second container are included in the source entry. This is because databases like JSTOR don’t have relevant contributors, versions, publishers, or publication dates.
- Datta, Hannes, et al. “The Challenge of Retaining Customers Acquired with Free Trials”. Journal of Marketing Research , vol. 52, no. 2, Apr. 2015, pp. 217–234. JSTOR , www.jstor.org/stable/43832354.
Pay attention to the punctuation. The author and source title elements each end with a period. Elements within a container are separated by commas, and a period is used to close the container.
4. Other contributors
Contributors are added right after the container title and always end with a comma. Use a description like “translated by,” “directed by,” or “illustrated by” to indicate the role of the contributor. For example:
- Latour, Bruno. Politics of Nature: How to Bring the Sciences into Democracy . Translated by Catherine Porter, Harvard UP, 2004.
When a source has three or more contributors with the same role, include the name of the first contributor followed by “et al.”
If there are no other relevant contributors, leave out this element.
When there is more than one version of a source, you should include the version you used. For example, a second-edition book , an expanded version of a collection, or a director’s cut of a movie would require the version to be included:
- Porter, Michael E. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors . 2nd ed. , Simon and Schuster, 1998.
- Columbus, Chris, director. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . director’s cut, Warner Bros., 2002.
Sources such as journal articles (“vol. 18”), magazines (“no. 25”) and TV shows (“season 3, episode 5”) are often numbered. If your source has numbered parts, include this in the source entry:
- Wieseke, Jan, et al. “Willing to Pay More, Eager to Pay Less: The Role of Customer Loyalty in Price Negotiations.” Journal of Marketing , vol. 68, no. 6, 2014, pp. 17–37.
It is also possible for a source to have an edition, volume, and number. Just separate them using commas.
Book and movie citations always include the publisher element. The publisher is the company responsible for producing and distributing the source—usually a book publisher (e.g. Macmillan or Oxford UP ) or a movie production company (e.g. Paramount Pictures or Warner Bros ).
Note that “University Press” is abbreviated to “UP” in a Works Cited entry. For example, the University of Minnesota Press becomes “U of Minnesota P”; Oxford University Press becomes “Oxford UP.”
When not to add a publisher Sometimes the publisher is already included elsewhere in the source entry, such as in the container title or author element. For example, the publisher of a website is often the same as the website name. In this case, omit the publisher element.
You generally don’t need to include a publisher for the following source types:
- Newspapers and magazines
- Platforms like YouTube, Netflix, or JSTOR
8. Publication date
When available, always include the publication year . If you also know the month, day, or even time of publication, you can include this if it helps the reader to locate the source. Date ranges are also possible. For example:
- 25 Jan. 2019
- 14 Aug. 2017, 4:45 p.m.
- Jan. 2017–Apr. 2018
Multiple publication dates If there is more than one publication date, use the one that is most relevant to your research and take the date of the edition that you have used.
No date When a source does not state a publication date, add the date on which you accessed the information. For example: Accessed 22 Sep. 2018 .
What you include in the location element depends on the type of source you are citing:
- Book chapter : Page range of the chapter (e.g. pp. 164–180. )
- Web page : URL, without “https://” (e.g. www.scribbr.com/mla-style/quick-guide/. )
- Journal article : DOI , with “https://”—or stable URL, without: (e.g. https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449. or www.jstor.org/stable/43832354. )
- Physical object or live event : Name of the location and city (e.g. Moscone Center, San Francisco. or The Museum of Modern Art, New York. )
MLA in-text citations are brief references in the body of your document which direct your reader to the full reference in the Works Cited list. You must include an in-text citation whenever you quote or paraphrase a source.
A standard MLA in-text citation includes the author’s last name and a page number in parentheses. The page number refers to the exact location of the quote or information that you are citing:
- 66% of voters disagree with the policy (Smith 13) .
If the author is already named in the sentence, you only need to include the page number in parentheses:
- According to Smith , 66% of voters disagree with the policy (13) .
For a source with two authors, include the last names of both authors. If a source has three or more authors, only include the last name of the first author, followed by “et al.” if in parentheses or “and colleagues” if in the text.
- Smith and Morrison claim that “MLA is the second most popular citation style” (17) .
- According to Reynolds and colleagues , social and demographic circumstances still have a major effect on job prospects (17–19) .
If a source does not state a specific author, the in-text citation should match the first word(s) of the Works Cited entry, whether that’s an organization name or the source title.
Format titles the same as they appear in the Works Cited, with italics or quotation marks. Use the full title if mentioned in the text itself, but an abbreviated title if included in parentheses.
- The article “New Ways to Slow Down Global Warming” claims that . . . (4).
- Reducing carbon emissions slows down climate change (“New Ways” 4) .
No page number
If a source has no page numbers, but is divided into numbered sections (e.g. chapters or numbered paragraphs), use these instead:
- Morrison has shown that there is a great need for . . . (par. 38) .
- Reynolds devotes a chapter to the rise of poverty in some states in the US (ch. 6) .
For audiovisual sources (such as YouTube videos ), use a timestamp:
- In his recent video, Smith argues that climate change should be the main political priority of all governments today (03:15–05:21) .
If there is no numbering system in the original source, include only the author’s name in your citation.
Are you a teacher or professor looking to introduce your students to MLA style? Download our free introductory lecture slides, available for Google Slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.
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MLA Style is the second most used citation style (after APA ). It is mainly used by students and researchers in humanities fields such as literature, languages, and philosophy.
The MLA Handbook is currently in its 9th edition , published in 2021.
This quick guide to MLA style explains the latest guidelines for citing sources and formatting papers according to MLA.
A standard MLA Works Cited entry is structured as follows:
Only include information that is available for and relevant to your source.
The fastest and most accurate way to create MLA citations is by using Scribbr’s MLA Citation Generator .
Search by book title, page URL, or journal DOI to automatically generate flawless citations, or cite manually using the simple citation forms.
If information about your source is not available, you can either leave it out of the MLA citation or replace it with something else, depending on the type of information.
- No author : Start with the source title.
- No title : Provide a description of the source.
- No date : Provide an access date for online sources; omit for other sources.
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In MLA style, two citations are used to cite a source: a short citation used in the text (called the in-text citation) and a full citation (called the works-cited-list entry) in the works-cited list, which appears at the end of a paper.
What is an MLA works cited?
Every source cited using an in-text citation also has a corresponding works-cited entry in the list. The works-cited entry provides additional information about the cited source, enough information so the reader can find the source if needed. This usually includes additional information like the publication date, who published the source, and the location of the source (e.g., URL, DOI number, etc.).
The works-cited list appears at the end of the paper after any endnotes, if they are present.
All margins (top, bottom, left, and right) should be set at 1 inch.
Write the running head in the top right of the page at 0.5 inch from the top. Use the running head “Surname Page #.”
The font should be clear enough to read. Use Times New Roman font sized at 12 points.
Entries should be double-spaced. If any entry runs over more than a line, indent the subsequent lines 0.5 inch from the left margin.
Formatting the title
The title should be “Works Cited.” It should be aligned to the center of the page. Do not bold, italicize, or underline the title. If you cite only one source in the list, the title should be “Work Cited.”
Formatting works cited
Works-cited-list entries are arranged alphabetically. Entries should be double-spaced. If any entry runs over more than a line, indent the subsequent lines 0.5 inch from the left margin.
Examples of works-cited-list entries
Below are a few examples of different types of works-cited-list entries along with their templates. The examples given are for one author.
The title of the book is given in italics and title case.
Surname, First name Middle initial. Title of the Book . Publisher, Publication Date. Page range.
Fienup-Riordan, Ann. Boundaries and Passages: Rule and Ritual in Yup’ik Eskimo Oral Tradition . UP of Oklahoma, 1995.
The title of the article is in title case and given inside the quotation marks. The journal title is in italics. Include “vol.” before the volume number and “no.” before the issue number. Use “pp.’’ before the page range.
Surname, First name. “Title of the Article.” Journal Title , Volume, Issue, Publication Date, Page range.
MacDonald, Shauna M. “Performance as Critical Posthuman Pedagogy.” Text and Performance Quarterly , vol. 34, no. 2, 2014, pp. 164–81.
Webpage of a website
The webpage title is in plain text, while the website name is given in italics. Follow the format given in the template and example for writing the date, month, year, and URL.
Author or Organization Name. “Title of the Webpage.” Website Name . Publication Date, URL.
Carbert, Michelle. “Canada Will Not Move Embassy to Jerusalem, Federal Government Says.” The Globe and Mail . 7 Sept. 2017, www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/canada-will-not-move-embassy-to-jerusalem-federal-government-says/article37219576/ .
The video title is given in title case and inside quotation marks. This is followed by the word “YouTube.” Then the uploader’s name is given in the first name-surname format followed by the uploaded date. Finally, the URL is given.
“Title of the Video.” YouTube , uploaded by Uploader’s Name, Day Month Year, URL.
“Covid: Leaks, Lies and Incompetence.” YouTube , uploaded by Russel. Brand, 29 May 2021, www.youtube.com/watch?v=dArz2OPsGSU .
Works cited entries for different numbers of authors
The number of authors in the source decides how the author name(s) will be added to the works-cited list. Here, you will see many journal references with different numbers of authors.
List the author name in surname-first name order.
MacGill, Belinda. “Craft, Relational Aesthetics, and Ethics of Care.” Art/Research International: A Transdisciplinary Journal , vol. 4, no. 1, 2019, pp. 426–29.
The first author’s name is styled in surname-first name order, whereas the second author’s name is styled in first name-surname order. The authors’ names are separated by “and.”
Author Surname, First name. Middle initial., and First name Surname. “Title of the Article.” Journal Title , Volume, Issue, Publication Date, Page range.
Gingrich-Philbrook, Craig, and Jake Simmons. “Reprogramming the Stage: A Heuristic for Posthuman Performance.” Text and Performance Quarterly , vol. 35, no. 4, 2015, pp. 323–44.
More than two authors
List only the first author’s name in the surname-first name order followed by a comma. Then, use “et al.”
Author Surname, First name, et al. “Title of the Article.” Journal Title , Volume, Issue, Publication Date, Page range.
Meints, Samanta M., et al. “Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Experience and Treatment of Noncancer Pain.” Pain Management , vol. 9, no. 3, 2019, pp. 317–34.
Arranging works-cited list
Follow the below guidelines for arranging the entries in the works-cited list.
Entries are arranged in alphabetical order according to the surname of the first author.
If there is no author, then the title is considered for alphabetical arrangement.
For entries beginning with a title, only the main words are considered for alphabetical arrangement (e.g., exclude “A,” “An,” and “The”).
Accented characters are considered normal characters (e.g., “á” should be considered as “a”). However, “ä” should be considered “ae”)
Space between words is ignored while arranging the entries alphabetically.
Works by different numbers of authors
Works by one author
If there are two or more works by the same author, add the author’s name only for the first entry. Use three em dashes followed by a period in subsequent entries.
Dumond, Don E. “The Artic Small Tool Tradition in Southern Alaska.” Alaskan Journal of Anthropology , vol. 3, no. 2, 2005, pp. 67–78.
———. “A Reexamination of Eskimo-Aleut Prehistory.” American Anthropologist , vol. 89, 1987, pp. 32–56.
Works by two authors
If there are two or more works by the same first author but different second authors, arrange the entry according to the surname of the second author.
Fienup-Riordan, Ann, and Melia Knecht. “Irr’inarqellriit /Amazing Things: Quinhagak Elders Reflect on Their Past.” Alaskan Journal of Anthropology , vol. 13, no. 2, 2015, pp. 36–39.
Fienup-Riordan, Ann, and Alice Rearden. Ellavut, Our Yup’ik World & Weather: Continuity and Change on the Bering Sea Coast. Washington UP, 2012.
If there are two or more works by the same two authors, add the names only for the first entry. Use three em dashes followed by a period in subsequent entries.
Works by a single author and the same author with a coauthor
If there are multiple works, a few by a single author and others by the same first author with other coauthors, arrange the single author works first using three em dashes in place of the author’s name. Then arrange entries with the same first author and other coauthors according to the surname of the second author. Do not use three em dashes here, as the author is not exactly the same. The below examples will help you arrange your works-cited list entries alphabetically.
Fienup-Riordan, Ann. Hunting Tradition in a Changing World: Yup’ik Lives in Alaska Today . Rutgers UP, 2000.
———. Yup’ik Elders at the Ethnologisches Museum Berlin: Fieldwork Turned on Its Head . Washington UP, 2005.
Fienup-Riordan, Ann, and Alice Rearden. Ellavut, Our Yup’ik World & Weather: Continuity and Change on the Bering Sea Coast . Washington UP, 2012.
———. Wise Words of the Yup’ik People: We Talk to You Because We Love You . Washington UP, 2018.
Fienup-Riordan, Ann, et al. Yup’ik words of wisdom=Yupiit qanruyutait . Washington UP, 2018.
Works by titles
Arrange entries by title only when
There is no author name
There are more works by the same single author
There are more works by the same first author and same coauthor
There are more works by the same first author followed by et al.
Example works cited
“Covid: Leaks, Lies and Incompetence.” YouTube , uploaded by Russell. Brand, 29 May 2021, www.youtube.com/watch?v=dArz2OPsGSU .
For additional information on MLA format, select from one of the resource types below. For help creating MLA citations, check out the BibMe MLA citation generator .
- How to cite a Book in MLA
- How to cite a Magazine in MLA
- How to cite a Newspaper in MLA
- How to cite a Website in MLA
- How to cite a Journal Article in MLA
- How to cite a Movie in MLA
- How to cite an Interview in MLA
- How to cite a Lecture in MLA
- How to cite a TV Show / Radio Broadcast in MLA
- How to cite an Encyclopedia in MLA
- How to cite a Photograph in MLA
- In-Text Citation Basics
- Works Cited Page
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MLA Style Guide
- What is MLA Style?
- Formatting Your Paper
- In-text Citations
Creating a hanging indent - videos and instructions, works cited example.
- Sample Citations
- Annotated Bibliographies
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The Works Cited page should have a page number , continuing on from the paper.
Center the words Works Cited one inch from the top of the page.
Continue double-spacing – no extra spaces between citations.
Citations should be listed alphabetically by the first word of the citation. Alphabetical arrangement of author names is generally done letter by letter . For example:
De Sica, Vittorio
If there are multiple works by one author , use ---. in place of the author’s name. Put them in alphabetical order by title (see The Cat in the Hat , in the Works Cited Example on this page).
Use a ' hanging indent .' If the citation is longer than one line of the page, indent the remaining lines(s) approximately one-half inch from the left margin.
In Microsoft Word :
- Select and right-click on the block of text,
- From the pop-up menu, click on Paragraph
- Under the heading Special , select Hanging .
In Google Docs: Highlight text –> go to: Format –> Align and Indent –> Indentation Options –> Special Hanging
*See further instructions on this page.
- Short Video and YouTube Playlist
- Google Docs - Animated Instructions
- Microsoft Word (PC) - Animated Instructions
Do not use the space bar or tabs to line up citations in your document! Use a 'Hanging Indent'.
A hanging indent is required for your citations (Works Cited or References pages) when you use MLA or APA style citations.
For more explanations of these methods, please see the videos in the playlist below or click on the tabs above for step-by-step instructions.
- GWC Library Youtube Channel Playlist: Formatting Works Cited A playlist of additional videos that help you format hanging indents in either Word or Google Docs.
In Google Docs you will need to use the 'ruler' to set up your page for a hanging indent. Here is what that looks like:
Steps to creating a hanging indent in Google Docs:
- Make sure to 'Show Ruler'.
- Select all citations.
- Click and drag the triangle to the half inch (0.50) mark.
- Click and drag the rectangle back to the left margin (0.00).
In Microsoft Word you may also use the 'ruler' OR (easier) use the paragraph tab to format the indentation and line spacing:
Steps to creating a hanging indent in Microsoft Word:
- Click open 'Paragraph Settings' Menu.
- Choose 'Hanging.'
- Line Spacing is 'Double.'
Note: Do NOT highlight your citations.
Highlighting is used to show the alphabetical ordering of your Works Cited page and the naming of in-text citations. See the example on the In-text Citations page for how these sources would be used within an essay.
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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
MLA Works Cited Page: Books
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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
When you are gathering book sources, be sure to make note of the following bibliographic items: the author name(s), other contributors such as translators or editors, the book’s title, editions of the book, the publication date, the publisher, and the pagination.
The 8 th edition of the MLA handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. Essentially, a writer will need to take note of primary elements in every source, such as author, title, etc. and then assort them in a general format. Thus, by using this methodology, a writer will be able to cite any source regardless of whether it’s included in this list.
Please note these changes in the new edition:
- Commas are used instead of periods between Publisher, Publication Date, and Pagination.
- Medium is no longer necessary.
- Containers are now a part of the MLA process. Commas should be used after container titles.
- DOIs should be used instead of URLS when available.
- Use the term “Accessed” instead of listing the date or the abbreviation, “n.d."
Below is the general format for any citation:
Author. Title. Title of container (do not list container for standalone books, e.g. novels), Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs URL or DOI). 2 nd container’s title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).
Basic Book Format
The author’s name or a book with a single author's name appears in last name, first name format. The basic form for a book citation is:
Last Name, First Name. Title of Book . City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.
* Note: the City of Publication should only be used if the book was published before 1900, if the publisher has offices in more than one country, or if the publisher is unknown in North America.
Book with One Author
Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science . Penguin, 1987.
Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House . MacMurray, 1999.
Book with More Than One Author
When a book has two authors, order the authors in the same way they are presented in the book. Start by listing the first name that appears on the book in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in normal order (first name last name format).
Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring . Allyn and Bacon, 2000.
If there are three or more authors, list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names. (Note that there is a period after “al” in “et al.” Also note that there is never a period after the “et” in “et al.”).
Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition . Utah State UP, 2004.
Two or More Books by the Same Author
List works alphabetically by title. (Remember to ignore articles like A, An, and The.) Provide the author’s name in last name, first name format for the first entry only. For each subsequent entry by the same author, use three hyphens and a period.
Palmer, William J. Dickens and New Historicism . St. Martin's, 1997.
---. The Films of the Eighties: A Social History . Southern Illinois UP, 1993.
Book by a Corporate Author or Organization
A corporate author may include a commission, a committee, a government agency, or a group that does not identify individual members on the title page.
List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry.
American Allergy Association. Allergies in Children . Random House, 1998.
When the author and publisher are the same, skip the author, and list the title first. Then, list the corporate author only as the publisher.
Fair Housing—Fair Lending. Aspen Law & Business, 1985.
Book with No Author
List by title of the book. Incorporate these entries alphabetically just as you would with works that include an author name. For example, the following entry might appear between entries of works written by Dean, Shaun and Forsythe, Jonathan.
Encyclopedia of Indiana . Somerset, 1993.
Remember that for an in-text (parenthetical) citation of a book with no author, you should provide the name of the work in the signal phrase and the page number in parentheses. You may also use a shortened version of the title of the book accompanied by the page number. For more information see the In-text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author section of In-text Citations: The Basics .
A Translated Book
If you want to emphasize the work rather than the translator, cite as you would any other book. Add “translated by” and follow with the name(s) of the translator(s).
Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason . Translated by Richard Howard, Vintage-Random House, 1988.
If you want to focus on the translation, list the translator as the author. In place of the author’s name, the translator’s name appears. His or her name is followed by the label, “translator.” If the author of the book does not appear in the title of the book, include the name, with a “By” after the title of the book and before the publisher. Note that this type of citation is less common and should only be used for papers or writing in which translation plays a central role.
Howard, Richard, translator. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason . By Michel Foucault, Vintage-Random House, 1988.
Books may be republished due to popularity without becoming a new edition. New editions are typically revisions of the original work. For books that originally appeared at an earlier date and that have been republished at a later one, insert the original publication date before the publication information.
For books that are new editions (i.e. different from the first or other editions of the book), see An Edition of a Book below.
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble . 1990. Routledge, 1999.
Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine . 1984. Perennial-Harper, 1993.
An Edition of a Book
There are two types of editions in book publishing: a book that has been published more than once in different editions and a book that is prepared by someone other than the author (typically an editor).
A Subsequent Edition
Cite the book as you normally would, but add the number of the edition after the title.
Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students . 3rd ed., Pearson, 2004.
A Work Prepared by an Editor
Cite the book as you normally would, but add the editor after the title with the label "edited by."
Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre, edited by Margaret Smith, Oxford UP, 1998.
Note that the format for citing sources with important contributors with editor-like roles follows the same basic template:
...adapted by John Doe...
Finally, in the event that the source features a contributor that cannot be described with a past-tense verb and the word "by" (e.g., "edited by"), you may instead use a noun followed by a comma, like so:
...guest editor, Jane Smith...
Anthology or Collection (e.g. Collection of Essays)
To cite the entire anthology or collection, list by editor(s) followed by a comma and "editor" or, for multiple editors, "editors." This sort of entry is somewhat rare. If you are citing a particular piece within an anthology or collection (more common), see A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection below.
Hill, Charles A., and Marguerite Helmers, editors. Defining Visual Rhetorics . Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.
Peterson, Nancy J., editor. Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches . Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.
A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection
Works may include an essay in an edited collection or anthology, or a chapter of a book. The basic form is for this sort of citation is as follows:
Last name, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection , edited by Editor's Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page range of entry.
Harris, Muriel. "Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers." A Tutor's Guide: Helping Writers One to One , edited by Ben Rafoth, Heinemann, 2000, pp. 24-34.
Swanson, Gunnar. "Graphic Design Education as a Liberal Art: Design and Knowledge in the University and The 'Real World.'" The Education of a Graphic Designer , edited by Steven Heller, Allworth Press, 1998, pp. 13-24.
Note on Cross-referencing Several Items from One Anthology: If you cite more than one essay from the same edited collection, MLA indicates you may cross-reference within your works cited list in order to avoid writing out the publishing information for each separate essay. You should consider this option if you have several references from a single text. To do so, include a separate entry for the entire collection listed by the editor's name as below:
Rose, Shirley K, and Irwin Weiser, editors. The Writing Program Administrator as Researcher . Heinemann, 1999.
Then, for each individual essay from the collection, list the author's name in last name, first name format, the title of the essay, the editor's last name, and the page range:
L'Eplattenier, Barbara. "Finding Ourselves in the Past: An Argument for Historical Work on WPAs." Rose and Weiser, pp. 131-40.
Peeples, Tim. "'Seeing' the WPA With/Through Postmodern Mapping." Rose and Weiser, pp. 153-67.
Please note: When cross-referencing items in the works cited list, alphabetical order should be maintained for the entire list.
Poem or Short Story Examples :
Burns, Robert. "Red, Red Rose." 100 Best-Loved Poems, edited by Philip Smith, Dover, 1995, p. 26.
Kincaid, Jamaica. "Girl." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories , edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306-07.
If the specific literary work is part of the author's own collection (all of the works have the same author), then there will be no editor to reference:
Whitman, Walt. "I Sing the Body Electric." Selected Poems, Dover, 1991, pp. 12-19.
Carter, Angela. "The Tiger's Bride." Burning Your Boats: The Collected Stories, Penguin, 1995, pp. 154-69.
Article in a Reference Book (e.g. Encyclopedias, Dictionaries)
For entries in encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other reference works, cite the entry name as you would any other work in a collection but do not include the publisher information. Also, if the reference book is organized alphabetically, as most are, do not list the volume or the page number of the article or item.
"Ideology." The American Heritage Dictionary. 3rd ed. 1997.
A Multivolume Work
When citing only one volume of a multivolume work, include the volume number after the work's title, or after the work's editor or translator.
Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria . Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.
When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes in the work. Also, be sure in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number(s) ( see "Citing Multivolume Works" on our in-text citations resource .)
Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria . Translated by H. E. Butler, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980. 4 vols.
If the volume you are using has its own title, cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication.
Churchill, Winston S. The Age of Revolution . Dodd, 1957.
An Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword
When citing an introduction, a preface, a foreword, or an afterword, write the name of the author(s) of the piece you are citing. Then give the name of the part being cited, which should not be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks; in italics, provide the name of the work and the name of the author of the introduction/preface/foreword/afterword. Finish the citation with the details of publication and page range.
Farrell, Thomas B. Introduction. Norms of Rhetorical Culture , by Farrell, Yale UP, 1993, pp. 1-13.
If the writer of the piece is different from the author of the complete work , then write the full name of the principal work's author after the word "By." For example, if you were to cite Hugh Dalziel Duncan’s introduction of Kenneth Burke’s book Permanence and Change, you would write the entry as follows:
Duncan, Hugh Dalziel. Introduction. Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose, by Kenneth Burke, 1935, 3rd ed., U of California P, 1984, pp. xiii-xliv.
Book Published Before 1900
Original copies of books published before 1900 are usually defined by their place of publication rather than the publisher. Unless you are using a newer edition, cite the city of publication where you would normally cite the publisher.
Thoreau, Henry David. Excursions . Boston, 1863.
Italicize “The Bible” and follow it with the version you are using. Remember that your in-text (parenthetical citation) should include the name of the specific edition of the Bible, followed by an abbreviation of the book, the chapter and verse(s). (See Citing the Bible at In-Text Citations: The Basics .)
The Bible. Authorized King James Version , Oxford UP, 1998.
The Bible. The New Oxford Annotated Version , 3rd ed., Oxford UP, 2001.
The New Jerusalem Bible. Edited by Susan Jones, Doubleday, 1985.
A Government Publication
Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified. Otherwise, start with the name of the national government, followed by the agency (including any subdivisions or agencies) that serves as the organizational author. For congressional documents, be sure to include the number of the Congress and the session when the hearing was held or resolution passed as well as the report number. US government documents are typically published by the Government Printing Office.
United States, Congress, Senate, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearing on the Geopolitics of Oil . Government Printing Office, 2007. 110th Congress, 1st session, Senate Report 111-8.
United States, Government Accountability Office. Climate Change: EPA and DOE Should Do More to Encourage Progress Under Two Voluntary Programs . Government Printing Office, 2006.
Cite the title and publication information for the pamphlet just as you would a book without an author. Pamphlets and promotional materials commonly feature corporate authors (commissions, committees, or other groups that does not provide individual group member names). If the pamphlet you are citing has no author, cite as directed below. If your pamphlet has an author or a corporate author, put the name of the author (last name, first name format) or corporate author in the place where the author name typically appears at the beginning of the entry. (See also Books by a Corporate Author or Organization above.)
Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System . American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2006.
Your Rights Under California Welfare Programs . California Department of Social Services, 2007.
Dissertations and Master's Theses
Dissertations and master's theses may be used as sources whether published or not. Unlike previous editions, MLA 8 specifies no difference in style for published/unpublished works.
The main elements of a dissertation citation are the same as those for a book: author name(s), title (italicized) , and publication date. Conclude with an indication of the document type (e.g., "PhD dissertation"). The degree-granting institution may be included before the document type (though this is not required). If the dissertation was accessed through an online repository, include it as the second container after all the other elements.
Bishop, Karen Lynn. Documenting Institutional Identity: Strategic Writing in the IUPUI Comprehensive Campaign . 2002. Purdue University, PhD dissertation.
Bile, Jeffrey. Ecology, Feminism, and a Revised Critical Rhetoric: Toward a Dialectical Partnership . 2005. Ohio University, PhD dissertation.
Mitchell, Mark. The Impact of Product Quality Reducing Events on the Value of Brand-Name Capital: Evidence from Airline Crashes and the 1982 Tylenol Poisonings. 1987. PhD dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry if the author and publisher are not the same.
Fair Housing—Fair Lending. Aspen Law & Business, 1985.
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Last Updated: February 23, 2023 Fact Checked
This article was co-authored by Christopher Taylor, PhD . Christopher Taylor is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of English at Austin Community College in Texas. He received his PhD in English Literature and Medieval Studies from the University of Texas at Austin in 2014. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 224,594 times.
If you’re writing in MLA format, the Works Cited page is the final piece to the puzzle that is your paper.  X Research source A Works Cited page is a complete list of the works that you cite in your paper, and it’s different than a Bibliography, which includes any works you used to write your paper, whether you cite them or not. A References page is similar to Works Cited, but is used in the APA format. Once you’re sure that Works Cited is the format you need, making sure that your Works Cited page is up to par can have a huge impact on both on the professionalism of your work as well as your final grade.
Collecting Necessary Information
- Published date
- Publisher location
- Medium (Print, web, film, DVD, etc.)
- Page numbers/Act, or section and line numbers
- Chicago Manual of Style refers to the Works Cited page as a Reference page using the author-date system.
- There is a difference between a bibliography and a Works Cited page. A bibliography includes any sources that you used while researching and preparing your paper, even if you don’t reference them in your writing. A Works Cited page only includes sources that are directly referenced.
- One-inch margins all around.
- Label the page “Works Cited”, and center it on the top line.
- All citations should be double-spaced, with no extra lines between entries.
- Indent all lines after the first of an entry by 0.5 inches (1.3 cm).
- Not all instructors in the arts follow MLA guidelines for formatting, so make sure that you know how your instructor would like the Works Cited page formatted.
Writing the Works Cited Page
- If the book has more than one author, only the first listed author goes last name first. Subsequent authors are listed as First Name Last Name.
- Periodicals : Author(s). “Article Title.” Periodical Title Day Month Year: Pages. Medium.
- MLA no longer requires URLs in Works Cited. Check with your instructor for specifics for your project.
- If no publisher is available, use the abbreviation “np”
- If no date is available, use the abbreviation “nd”
- Interview : Interviewee. Personal interview. Day Month Year.
FREE MLA online
- Type ISBN, title, or key words your book to begin MLA to search and automated citation;
- Verify the information that the ISBN id number brings up.
- Click to add a citation of a chapter title, add page numbers, etc.
Sample Works Cited Page
Video . By using this service, some information may be shared with YouTube.
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- ↑ https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/wrd/back-matter/creating-a-works-cited-page/
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_works_cited_page_basic_format.html
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_formatting_and_style_guide.html
- ↑ https://irsc.libguides.com/mla/workscitedlist
About This Article
To write a works cited page using MLA style, list each work in alphabetical order with each entry on a new line. For a book, cite the author’s last name and first name, book’s title in italics, city of publication, publisher, year of publication, and medium. If you’re citing a periodical, provide the author, article’s title in quotes, periodical title in italics, publication date, relevant pages, and medium. Before you finalize your paper, check to see that the citations and footnotes are clearly marked and correspond correctly to your works cited page. For tips from our English reviewer on how to collect the information you need to write your works cited page, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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Free MLA Citation Generator
Generate accurate citations in MLA format automatically, with MyBib!
😕 What is an MLA Citation Generator?
An MLA citation generator is a software tool designed to automatically create academic citations in the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation format. The generator will take information such as document titles, author, and URLs as in input, and output fully formatted citations that can be inserted into the Works Cited page of an MLA-compliant academic paper.
The citations on a Works Cited page show the external sources that were used to write the main body of the academic paper, either directly as references and quotes, or indirectly as ideas.
👩🎓 Who uses an MLA Citation Generator?
MLA style is most often used by middle school and high school students in preparation for transition to college and further education. Ironically, MLA style is not actually used all that often beyond middle and high school, with APA (American Psychological Association) style being the favored style at colleges across the country.
It is also important at this level to learn why it's critical to cite sources, not just how to cite them.
🙌 Why should I use a Citation Generator?
Writing citations manually is time consuming and error prone. Automating this process with a citation generator is easy, straightforward, and gives accurate results. It's also easier to keep citations organized and in the correct order.
The Works Cited page contributes to the overall grade of a paper, so it is important to produce accurately formatted citations that follow the guidelines in the official MLA Handbook .
⚙️ How do I use MyBib's MLA Citation Generator?
It's super easy to create MLA style citations with our MLA Citation Generator. Scroll back up to the generator at the top of the page and select the type of source you're citing. Books, journal articles, and webpages are all examples of the types of sources our generator can cite automatically. Then either search for the source, or enter the details manually in the citation form.
The generator will produce a formatted MLA citation that can be copied and pasted directly into your document, or saved to MyBib as part of your overall Works Cited page (which can be downloaded fully later!).
MyBib supports the following for MLA style:
Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.
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Word Tips - How to Create a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in Word
Word tips -, how to create a bibliography or works cited page in word, word tips how to create a bibliography or works cited page in word.
Word Tips: How to Create a Bibliography or Works Cited Page in Word
Lesson 16: how to create a bibliography or works cited page in word.
How to create a bibliography or works cited page in Word
If you need to write a research paper, chances are you'll also be required to include a bibliography . Or you might be asked to include a works cited page or a list of references . These are all just different names for the same thing: a list of sources —such as books, articles, or even websites—that you used to research and write your paper. A bibliography makes it easy for someone else to see where you found your information. A short bibliography might look something like this:
You could create a bibliography manually, but it would take a lot of work. And if you ever decide to add more sources or use a different reference style, you’ll have to update everything all over again. But if you take the time to input your sources into Word, it can create and update a bibliography automatically. This can save you a lot of time and help ensure your references are accurate and correct.
Step 1: Choose a reference style
When you're creating a bibliography, you'll need to follow the guidelines of the required style guide . Different academic disciplines use their own styles guides, such as MLA , APA , and Chicago . Fortunately, Word comes with several built-in style guides; all you need to do is select the one you want to use, and Word will help you format your bibliography correctly.
To do this, click the References tab, then select the desired style in the Citations & Bibliography group.
You can use this same method to change the reference style at any time.
Step 2: Add citations and sources
Whenever you use information from one of your sources, you'll need to give credit—or cite them. This is known as making a citation. You'll include citations whenever you use information from a source or when you quote a source directly.
To add a citation, select the desired location for the citation in your document, click the Insert Citation command on the References tab, and select Add New Source .
A dialog box will appear. Enter the requested information for the source—like the author name, title, and publication details—then click OK .
The citation will appear in the document, and the source will be saved. You can quickly add another citation for the source by clicking Insert Citation and selecting the source from the drop-down menu.
Step 3: Insert the bibliography
Time for the easy part! Once you've added all of your sources, you can create your bibliography in just a few clicks! Just select the Bibliography command, then choose the desired style.
The bibliography will appear at the end of your document. Your sources will already be formatted to match the selected style guide. You should still double-check each of your sources against your style guide to make sure they're correct. If you need a quick reference for MLA, APA, or Chicago formatting, we recommend the Purdue Online Writing Lab .
If you add more sources to your document, you can easily update your bibliography—just click it and select Update Citations and Bibliography .
No matter how many sources you include in your document, Word's built-in tools make it easy to create and organize a bibliography. If you want further guidance with the process, check out this tutorial from Microsoft on how to Create a Bibliography .
How do I cite the works-cited quick guide from The MLA Style Center ?
Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook . For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook .
Cite the works-cited quick guide from The MLA Style Center by following the MLA format template described in the guide. If you are referring to the guide as a whole, you might cite it as follows:
“Works Cited: A Quick Guide.” The MLA Style Center, Modern Language Association of America, 2018, style.mla.org/works-cited-a-quick-guide/.
If you are citing individual web pages from the guide, create a works-cited-list entry for each page that you cite . Since each page has the same title, you might use the page header as the title of the source, followed by the title of the website as the title of the container. Then provide the name of the publisher, the copyright date of the page, and the URL:
“A Source in a Single Container.” The MLA Style Center, Modern Language Association of America, 2018, style.mla.org/works-cited-a-quick-guide-book/.
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How to Cite a PowerPoint in MLA Style The Beginner’s Guide
Understanding MLA citation is crucial for academic integrity. In this guide, we'll walk you through the process of citing a PowerPoint presentation in MLA style. We'll provide clear examples and valuable tips to ensure your citations are accurate and in compliance with MLA guidelines.
What Is MLA Citation? (With Examples)
MLA citation, an essential component of academic writing, provides a standardized format for acknowledging sources. It stands for Modern Language Association, an organization that developed this style guide to ensure consistency and credibility in scholarly work.
Overview of MLA Style Citation:
MLA citation encompasses various elements, including the author's name, title of the source, publisher, and publication date. It offers a structured approach to attributing information to its original creators. This not only upholds academic integrity but also allows readers to trace the sources of information.
Examples of MLA Citation :
Author: Smith, John.
Title: "The Art of Writing."
Publisher: Penguin, 2020.
Example MLA Citation : Smith, John. The Art of Writing. Penguin, 2020.
Author: Brown, Sarah.
Title: "Exploring Linguistic Patterns."
Journal: Language Studies Quarterly, vol. 45, no. 3, 2019, pp. 123-135.
Example MLA Citation : Brown, Sarah. "Exploring Linguistic Patterns." Language Studies Quarterly, vol. 45, no. 3, 2019, pp. 123-135.
Author (if available): Davis, Emily.
Title: "The Impact of Climate Change on Wildlife."
Website: Environmental Insights, 2021.
Example MLA Citation : Davis, Emily. "The Impact of Climate Change on Wildlife." Environmental Insights, 2021.
Purpose and Benefits of In-Text Citation:
In-text citations serve a dual purpose in academic writing. Firstly, they give credit to the original author or source, acknowledging their intellectual contribution. This prevents plagiarism and supports academic honesty. Secondly, in-text citations provide a roadmap for readers to locate the full citation in the Works Cited page.
When Do You Need an In-Text Citation?
You should include an in-text citation whenever you directly quote or paraphrase someone else's work. This applies to any information, idea, or data that is not considered common knowledge. Even if you summarize a concept from a source, it's essential to attribute it to the original author.
How to Cite a PowerPoint Presentation in MLA Format
Citing a PowerPoint presentation in MLA format is essential to give proper credit to the original creator and ensure academic integrity. Here's a guide on how to do it:
There are two main formats for citing a PowerPoint presentation in MLA format:
1. PowerPoint presentation that is available online:
Author last name, First name. “Presentation Title.” Website Name, Day Month Year, URL. PowerPoint presentation.
Smith, Jane. “Introduction to MLA Style.” Academic Citation 101, 15 Nov. 2018, https://www.company.meetings/teams. PowerPoint presentation.
2. PowerPoint presentation that is not available online:
Author last name, First name. “Presentation Title.” Course Name, Day Month Year, University Name, City. PowerPoint presentation.
Jones, Michael. “The History of the Civil Rights Movement.” American History 101, 12 Feb. 2023, Yale University, New Haven. PowerPoint presentation.
If there are multiple authors for the PowerPoint presentation, make sure to list all their last names followed by their first names, using commas to separate them.
In case the presentation was part of a conference or workshop, be sure to mention the name of the event in your citation.
If the PowerPoint presentation is accessible on the internet, don't forget to include the URL in your citation.
If the presentation is not accessible online, provide details about where you viewed it, such as the university name and city.
Always conclude the citation by adding the term "PowerPoint presentation" to clarify the type of source you're referencing.
In-text citation for a PowerPoint presentation:
To cite a PowerPoint presentation in-text, simply include the author's last name and the year of the presentation in parentheses. For example:
If you are citing a specific slide from the presentation, you can include the slide number in parentheses after the year. For example:
(Smith 2018, slide 5)
By following these guidelines, you can cite PowerPoint presentations in MLA format correctly and give your readers the information they need to find the sources that you have used.
Easiest Way to Cite in a PowerPoint with MLA Format
Citing in MLA format within a PowerPoint presentation can be a seamless process. Follow these steps for a hassle-free experience:
Step 1 : Go to www. Scribbr.com .
Step 2 : Select MLA style.
Step 3 : Click on the Citation generator tab.
Step 4 : Enter the information for your PowerPoint presentation.
Source type: Select Presentation from the drop-down menu.
Author: Enter the last name and first name of the author(s) of the presentation.
Title: Enter the title of the presentation.
Date: Enter the date that the presentation was given.
URL: If the presentation is available online, enter the URL in the URL field.
Slide number: If you are citing a specific slide from the presentation, enter the slide number in the Slide number field.
Step 5 : Click on the Generate citation button.
This will generate an MLA citation for your PowerPoint presentation.
Step 6: Copy and paste the citation into your PowerPoint presentation.
To do this, simply select the citation and press Ctrl+C to copy it. Then, go to your PowerPoint presentation and press Ctrl+V to paste the citation.
You can also use a citation manager tool to help you cite your sources in MLA format. Citation manager tools can automatically generate citations for you and add them to your PowerPoint presentation.
If you are citing multiple sources in your PowerPoint presentation, you can create a separate References slide at the end of your presentation. This is a good way to keep your citations organized and easy to find.
Edit PowerPoint Presentations for Free with WPS Office
WPS Office is a free and open-source office suite that includes a word processor, spreadsheet editor, presentation editor, and PDF editor. It is compatible with a wide range of file formats, including Microsoft Office formats. This means that you can open, edit, and save PowerPoint presentations created in Microsoft Office using WPS Office.
Features in WPS Office that Microsoft Office does not offer for free:
PDF editing: WPS Office includes a built-in PDF editor that allows you to edit PDF files directly. This is a feature that is not available in the free version of Microsoft Office.
Built-in free delicate templates store: WPS Office includes a built-in store with thousands of free templates for presentations, documents, and spreadsheets. This is another feature that is not available in the free version of Microsoft Office.
Step-by-step guide on how to use PowerPoint for free in WPS Office:
Step 1 : Go to the WPS Office website and download the free version of WPS Office.
Step 2 : Install WPS Office on your computer.
Step 3 : Open WPS Office Presentation.
Step 4 : To create a new presentation, click on the New button.
Step 5 : To open an existing presentation, click on the Open button and select the presentation that you want to open.
Step 6 : To edit a presentation, simply click on the element that you want to edit and start typing.
Step 7 : To save a presentation, click on the Save button.
WPS Office is a great free alternative to Microsoft Office for editing PowerPoint presentations. It includes all of the essential features that you need to create and edit presentations, and it also includes some features that are not available in the free version of Microsoft Office, such as PDF editing and a built-in template store.
How do I create an MLA citation for lecture materials I attended in person?
Author's Name (if available):
Last Name, First Name.
Title of the Lecture:
In quotation marks.
Name of the Event or Course:
Location and Date:
Doe, John. "Advancements in Quantum Physics." Physics Conference 2022, University of Science, New York City, 25 Mar. 2022.
How do I create an MLA citation when the source has no author or page numbers?
Title of the Source:
In quotation marks or italics.
Title of the Container (if applicable):
Other Identifying Information (version, volume, issue, etc.):
Publisher or Website Name:
Publication Date (if available):
Use "n.d." if no date.
URL (if applicable):
Example (Online Article):
"Title of the Article." Title of the Website, Publisher (if available), Publication Date (if available), URL.
Example (Book with No Author):
Title of the Book. Edited by Editor's Name, Publisher, Publication Year.
Remember, for websites, use the specific page's URL.
In this guide, we've covered the essentials of citing PowerPoint presentations in MLA style. Additionally, we've highlighted the benefits of using WPS Office, a versatile and free alternative to Microsoft Office. With its extensive features, including PDF editing and a vast template library, WPS Office offers a seamless and efficient experience for creating presentations.
Remember, accurate citations are vital for academic integrity. By following these guidelines, you can ensure your presentations meet MLA standards while utilizing the impressive capabilities of WPS Office.
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- 4. How to Cite in a PowerPoint (APA, MLA, Chicago Style) The Ultimate Guide
- 5. How To Do MLA Format [Complete Step By Step Guidelines]
- 6. How to Cite Sources in a PowerPoint: A Comprehensive Guide
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