no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

  • We're Hiring!
  • Help Center

paper cover thumbnail

Investigation of a Building Collapse in Delhi

by Chandan Ghosh

Forensic investigation into the Lalita Park area building collapse apparently based on unfounded construction records and history forms the basis of this report. This 5+ storey RC framed (?) building failed all in a sudden, giving no specific sign and symptoms to the occupants. The impact of prolonged inundation of the basement, incipient seepage through the untreated basement, possible weakening of the load bearing columns by contaminated (sewerage) water, are some of the causative factors that have been looked into. After 5 days of rescue and debris removal operations, it was found that one column out of twelve failed at the upper ground floor support. Doubt rose whether this column failed by punching shear and if so can a frame building collapse just due to excessive settlement of one column only? Upon excavation of foundation it was found that the building had not suffered any foundation failure rather it was a fit case of complete structural failure.

Free Related PDFs

Mabin dahal

2019, Nepal Geotechnical Society

A Brief Report on Preliminary Understanding of the Mechanism of Building Collapse in Greenhill City Housing Complex in Mulpani, Kathmandu

Genevieve Fernandes

International Journal of Engineering Research in Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IJERMCE)

All through the ages in all human civilizations men have been engaged in construction activity, not only to build their dwellings and house their activities, but also roads, bridges to facilitate means of transport, and communication etc. The main concern in this activity was to ensure safety and reduce the collapse of the buildings and other structures. But even after taking all precautions it is impossible to guarantee the safety and collapse because of several unforeseen reasons like faulty constructions, design errors, overloading, soil liquefactions, gas explosion, material degradation, terrorist attacks and economic factors are also contributing to the collapse. It is also uneconomical to design the structure for unforeseen events unless they have reasonable chance of occurrence. In order to ensure the safety and prevent collapse, many guidelines have been framed by local bodies and government authorities in many countries like United States Department of Defence (DOD), United...

Building Collapse: Factors and Resisting Mechanisms, a Review

Subhamoy Bhattacharya



2022, CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research - Zenodo

An Investigation of Building Collapses in bangladesh

Rubinoor Islam

2017, CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research - Zenodo

An Investigation of Recent Building Collapses around the World with Special References to Rana Plaza


Saudi Journal of Engineering and Technology

Forensic Engineering Investigation on a Collapsed School Building Involved Multiple Deaths: A Real Case Report

Thomas Scarangello

1992, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities

Investigation of L'Ambiance Plaza Building Collapse

Pooja Dinani

Foundation is a critical part of any structure. It is responsible for taking the load of the complete structure and then transferring it to the ground. All the load of the building ultimately falls upon the foundation of the strutter. Without a sound foundation of the buildings, the chances of the damages and structural collapse incase significantly. There are various reasons for the failure of any foundation. This case study deals with a virtual structure, with a foundation that has failed. The reason for the failure and the various methods that could be employed to avoid such an incident will be discussed in the case study. Identify the Problem The main reason for the settlement of the foundation of our stature is due to the settlement in the soil. The soil was responsible for providing adequate support to the structure. When the soil under the foundation collapsed, it made the support foundation collapse too. The soil under one of the supports settled. As a result of the settlement, the support pillar starts to skid down. This helped the stature become unbalanced. The load was shifted to the side where the support started to settle. As a result, the significant part of the load of the building was applied to the column. The unevenness of the supports also caused the building to tilt to the settled support. It became the reason for various cracks across the walls and columns of the stature. There were various reasons for the structural failure. One of them was the soil could not take the load of the stature. The reason for that maybe at the time of the foundation pouring, there was moisture in the soil. This moisture introduced an abnormal behavior in the soil that led to becoming a cohesion less material. As it is known the, cohesionless materials are not good for taking high loads.

Foundation Failure -A Case Study

IAEME Publication

2019, IAEME

In this paper, the studies of research works related to Failure and Collapse of Buildings/Structures are reviewed. A model which researchers can use for selecting the journal for publishing their research work is proposed.


Qaiser Dawar

Rare Foundation Failure of a Building in Shanghai, China


Inseun Salena

Kinerja bangunan yang sangat baik semasa penyelenggaraan tidak dapat dipisahkan dari kontribusi struktur pondasi sebagai struktur dasar yang memberikan dukungan dan stabilitas. Pondasi menerima beban dari bangunan atas dan mentransfer beban dengan menyebarkannya di wilayah yang cukup besar dengan memanfaatkan ketahanan tanah maksimum. Semua beban dan tekanan yang disalurkan ke tanah akan menghasilkan beberapa pergerakan yaitu pegerakan yang diijinkan. Pondasi yang mengalami pergerakan melebihi kemampuannya dalam menahan beban akan menyebabkan kegagalan pondasi. Distorsi dan kerusakan dari superstruktur timbul akibat kegagalan yang terjadi.Tindakan perbaikan akan membantu masalah dan meningkatkan kinerja struktur untuk mencegah kegagalan lanjut. Penelitian ini melibatkan kasus kegagalan pondasi yang terjadi di bangunan perumahan. Penelitian ini terdiri dari investigasi tapak untuk mengetahui kondisi, jenis dan penyebab kegagalan pondasi , kerusakan yang terjadi dilapangan dan jenis ...

A Case Study of Foundation Failure in The Existing Residential Building


Investigation into the Distress Failure of Structures at Manali, Chennai INVESTIGATION INTO THE DISTRESS FAILURE OF STRUCTURES AT MANALI, CHENNAI

IJERT Journal

2020, International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology (IJERT) A simplified framework is proposed for progressive collapse assessment of multi-storey buildings, considering sudden column loss as a design scenario. This framework can be applied at various levels of structural idealisation, and enables the quantification of structural robustness taking into account the combined influences of redundancy, ductility and energy absorption this study aims to provide the designer engineers with wider overview on this topic to minimize the consequences of buildings progressive collapse after the event of column removal scenario. A Seven storey reinforced concrete framed structure is considered in the study to evaluate the Demand Capacity Ratio (D.C.R.), the ratio of the member force and the member strength as per U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) guidelines. The Non Linear static analysis is carried out using software, STAAD PRO according to Indian Standard codes. To study the collapse, typical columns are removed one at a time, and continued with analysis and design. Many such columns are removed in different trials to know the effects of progressive analysis. Member forces and reinforcement details are calculated. From the analysis, DCR values of beams are calculated.

IJERT-Assessment of Progressive Collapse of G+7 RC Building


Investigation of Collapse of an Apartment Building Due to Differential Filling

2009, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering

A case study of damages of the Kandla Port and Customs Office tower supported on a mat–pile foundation in liquefied soils under the 2001 Bhuj earthquake

International Journal of Research & Review (IJRR)


Introduction: Building collapse is a common tragedy which occurs in hilly regions due to various reasons. It causes loss of precious lives. Studying the pattern of injuries in these cases will help first responders and medical staff in better assessment and management of such patients in future. Material and methods: This study comprised of the victims of building collapse brought to casualty and mortuary of Maharishi Markandeshwar Medical College and Hospital Solan, Himachal Pradesh. The cases were brought directly from the site of accident or who died after admission following building collapse. External injuries, internal injuries and cause of death were studied after pathology. Results: Multiple injuries were present in all the cases. Abrasions, contusions, lacerations, fractures were seen in almost all cases. Commonest site of injury was chest, followed by head, limbs and abdomen respectively. Majority of fatal injuries were on thorax and head. Conclusion: Deaths due to injuries from a collapse of building are a major source of multiple deaths. Rescue management training should be given to medical personals. As on site medical attention can save many lives. First aid training should be given to rescue personals. Head injuries and chest injuries are a major cause of death. Evacuation of critical patients to tertiary care centre having a well equipped trauma centre should be done at the earliest to increase the chances of survival and decrease the morbidity and mortality.

Pattern of Injuries in Fatal Cases of Mass Disaster, Caused By Building Collapse in Himachal Pradesh, India a Postmortem Study

IRJET Journal


DA Nethercot

The companion paper presents the principles of a new design-oriented methodology for progressive collapse assessment of multi-storey buildings. The proposed procedure, which can be implemented at various levels of structural idealisation, determines ductility demand and supply in assessing the potential for progressive collapse initiated by instantaneous loss of a vertical support member. This paper demonstrates the applicability of the proposed approach by means of a case study, which considers sudden removal of a ground floor column in a typical steel-framed composite building. In line with current progressive collapse guidelines for buildings with a relatively simple and repetitive layout, the two principal scenarios investigated include removal of a peripheral column and a corner column. The study shows that such structures can be prone to progressive collapse, especially due to failure of the internal secondary beam support joints to safely transfer the gravity loads to the sur...

1 Progressive Collapse of Multi-Storey Buildings due to Sudden Column Loss – Part II: Application

Dr. Amartya Kumar Bhattacharya

A Detailed Study of the Alleged Damage due to the Earthquake of 11th April, 2012, off Sumatra Coast to an Industrial Building in Bangalore

mohammad feruj alam

Journal of Nepal Geological Society

The study has been carried out for an urban hazard analyses to find out the engineering geological characteristics of subsurface sediments and causes of two storied tin shed unexpectedly and suddenly collapsed and submerged in Rampura valley, Dhaka city, Bangladesh on the 15 April, 2015. Total 12 people were spot died due to collapsed tin shed. The area is covered by valley and this valley is composed of organic material, clayey silt, silty sand and sandy silt. Atterberg limit test indicates that the sediments are slightly plastic and low compressibility inorganic silts. Specific gravity of the sediments varies from 2.66 to 2.68, natural moisture content about 34.5%, dry density about 1.37 gm/cc, wet density about 1.84 gm/cc and unconfined compression strength about 45.9 Kpa. From this result, it reveals that shallow foundation is not suitable for the study area but deep foundation particularly pile foundation would be required. Five major possible causes have been identified for th...

Unexpectedly two storied tin shed collapse: A case study of urban hazard in Dhaka city, Bangladesh

Sanin Džidić

Ilda Kovačević1 Sanin Džidić 2 UDK: 624,042 DOI: 10.14415/konferencijaGFS2018.009 Summary: Progressive collapse is collapse of the whole structure or large part of it, initiated by failure of one or more structural elements or part of the structure. Such failure or damage of one structural element or part of it initiates chain reaction, comparable to domino effect and failure of other structural damages resulting in total collapse of the structure. This effect is characteristic for high–rise structures. The structure is supposed to receive and transfer all actions to the building to the load bearing soil. In majority of cases, permanent actions are predictable. Service variable loads are usually defined through national codes. However, it is not simple issue to reliably predict lateral loads, such as wind and seismic actions to the buildings. When discuss the lateral actions, their effects are major factors for high–rise structures. Lateral actions, such as wind and seismic actions ...

Lateral and Accidental Actions Risks of Progressive Collapse in High–Rise Buildings

Mohamad Budi Hartono

2020, International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research

Building failure is a state where a building is in ruins and/or unusable after the final delivery of construction. Many factors cause building failure, ranging from imperfect planning, poor use of materials, implementation of untechnical work, incorrect use of space functionality and improper and/or imprecise maintenance. Previous studies have researched about planning, supervision and implementation, but this study focuses on the analysis of building structure deficiencies at the operational stage for 4 main multi-storey buildings of the Jember State Islamic Institute (IAIN Jember – Institut Agama Islam Negeri Jember). This study aims to determine the condition, reliability and functioning of the buildings, as an initial step to identify the occurrence of building failures. It studies on buildings above ten years using a visual method and a building structure test of hammer test method. The results showed that of the 4 buildings that suffered the highest minor damage to the structu...

Analysis of Defficiencies in Building Structure as a Contributing Factor to Building Failure

Kundan Meshram

2020, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Failures and defects in a structure are common phenomena in construction industry. Negative impacts may arise towards cost, duration and resources of project. Failures and defects can cause unnecessary expenditure and delays. Furthermore, if this situation is left unanswered and untreated, it will lead to more serious problems in the future upcoming construction projects. Therefore this study is aimed to identify contribution factors to building defect and failures, which frequently occur in construction project in order to minimize time and cost involved. This study is succeeds in identifying the common contribution factors of the structural defects and the failures in construction project. Investigation details of the failure will provide many lessons to construction professionals from past failures so that replication of such failures could be eliminated or minimize. ―Forensic Engineering is the study of materials, products, structures or components that fail or does not operate ...

Investigation Of Building Failure Using Structural Forensic Engineering

Najif Ismail

2019, Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration

Observed failure modes of unreinforced masonry buildings during the 2015 Hindu Kush earthquake


2015, Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

The research work is focused on progressive collapse analysis of reinforced concrete framed structure under column damage consideration using commercial software SAP2000. Nine story frame is selected and designed under gravity loads as per Pakistan Building Code. The frame is analyzed for progressive collapse under three damage cases; corner column damage, edge column damage and internal column damage. The frame is subjected to loading as described by General Services Administration (GSA) guideline for carrying out linear static analysis. The results include the variation of bending moment of beams and evaluation of demand capacity ratios(DCR) in the beams of the longer direction. The vertical deflections of the damaged joint are determined in cases with 0%, 40%, 60%, 80% and full damaged consideration. According to the GSA guideline atypical frame building having DCR values greater than 1.5 indicate more damage potential in the structural members. It is concluded that the edge column case with long bays is found critical because the bays with longer span have more damage as compared with smaller span bays. It can lead collapse of the frame in short interval of time and there is more possibility of loss of lives under such condition of structures. Based on this research it is suggested that the practicing engineer should incorporate the GSA guidelines for loading along with the other loads so that progressive collapse potential may be reduced up to some extent.

Progressive Collapse of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structure under Column Damage Consideration

Mohammad Biplab Mia

2022, foundation failure, scaffolding accident

The excellent building performance during its lifetime cannot be separated from foundation contribution as ground structure that provides stability and support. Foundation intercepts the loads from superstructure and substructure transferring the loads by spreading them over a large enough area to utilize the maximum soil resistance. All loads and forces transferred to the underlying soil will result in some movement, also allowable movement. Foundation which experienced movement more than they can resist will causes some failure, foundation failure and scaffolding failure. Distortion and damage from the superstructure is appearing due to the failure. Remedial action will aid the problem and increase the performance of structure to prevent further failure. This research study involves a case of foundation failure, scaffolding accident. The cases is appearing in existing residential or public building. The study consists of site investigation to determine the site condition, the types and causes of foundation failure, damaged occurred on site and also the types of remedial works carried out. All the types of failure have very strong connection with the soil and inexperienced worker because the soil behaviors determine the stability of foundation structure and inexperienced worker can't do their proper work. In that case study, ground settlement is occurred because the soil has low strength stability. The soil contains of clay/silt material which is unsuitable and has low bearing capacity to carry the loads. The ground settlement has produce large and a lot of damages in the residences structure. The remedial work has carried out by underpinning method using combination of micro pile and beam, and also ground stabilization using pressure grouting. From the remedial work that has carried out, it shows there is no more movement in the building. The technique of underpinning has good impact to stabilize the foundation structure.

Investigation on Construction site accident

Sana Fatema

2016, International journal of Emerging Trends in Science and Technology

Progressive Collapse of Reinforced Concrete Building

International Res Jour Managt Socio Human

This paper is aimed to investigate on major accident for DMRC (Delhi Metro Rail Corporation), what was the actual reason behind Delhi Metro pillar collapse. This paper presents an analyses of the benefits attributed to Delhi Metro.During the construction of metro pillar in Zamrudpur near East of kailash, this had collapsed killed six people in 2009.An unusual incident was due to mismanagement and lack of professionalism. Also Crime Branch of Delhi police has held DMRC, Gammon India Ltd and Arch consultancy responsible for causing the deaths by approving a " Faulty design ". Along with that Delhi Police also submitted their charge sheet file before a court has charged including 11 senior DMRC officials and 24 persons, , for negligence.

Analysis of factors Zamrudpur pillar collapse – A study of Delhi Metro infrastructure

rashmi chaudhari

The research investigated the causes and consequence of building collapse in Nigeria using historical data from 1974 to 2006 and also proffers appropriate solutions. Relevant books, seminar papers, workshop papers, articles, etc. were reviewed so as to examine the general view of individuals that have worked on similar study. Data for the study were obtained through historical data of past building collapse in Nigeria. The data were presented and analysed using tables, bar graphs, Pearson moment correlation coefficient (r) and linear regression analysis to generate a model. Sixty (60) buildings that collapsed in the country were gathered, upon which the analysis was carried out. The study revealed that poor maintenance culture, design error, poor quality of materials and workmanship, natural phenomenon and excessive loading contributed to about 7%, 15%, 52%, 7% and 20% respectively of building collapse in Nigeria with most of them being private residential buildings executed by indigenous contractors. The study finally recommended that Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON) should increase their effort in sanitizing building materials in the market. More so, construction professionals should ensure proper supervision of workmen and efficient checking of materials before incorporation into building works.

An Examination of the causes and effects of Building Collapse in Nigeria AN EXAMINATION OF THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF BUILDING COLLAPSE IN NIGERIA

Bhartiya Shodh

2020, isara solutions

A review of progressive collapse and the various factors which cause it has been brought in this paper. Progressive collapse of a building can be referred as the situation where the local failure of a primary load bearing or structural component lead to the collapse of the adjoining member and to an overall damage of the structure. It has been figured out that buildings which were built as per current design codes were not robust enough under the action of accidental load and it failed progressively. Progressive collapse is not proportional to the original local damage. This phenomenon is also called as disproportionate collapse, for the reason that the collapse is out of proportion in comparison to the original triggering event. Progressive collapse occur when one or more vertical load members particularly columns are damaged during extreme events (i.e. terrorist attacks, fire, explosions, vehicle impacts etc.). When a column is failed the gravity load of the building is transferred to the adjoining members of the structure and if the other members of the structure are not properly designed to bear and redistribute the additional loads, then the substantial part of the structure may collapse thus causing greater damage to the structure than the initial impact. It is always accompanied by serious personal and material losses. Since the start of the 21st century there has been growing interests in the risks associated with extreme, especially after the attacks on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma in 1995 and on the World Trade Centre in New York in 2001. Because of these collapses which have led to a huge loss of life and property, the idea has become accepted worldwide that there is a need for robust structures which can bear/sustain local failures with suffering progressive collapse.


Akinropo Olajumoke

Engineering Failure Analysis of a Failed Building in Osun State, Nigeria

P Anbazhagan

This paper presents forensic investigations of earthquake induced failures during Sikkim 2011 Earthquake, India. Detailed field geotechnical observations and geophysical investigations have been carried out at selected locations affected by 2011 Sikkim earthquake. Field observation, drilling of boreholes with sample collection (DBS), surface wave testing by Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) method and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey have been carried out at sites having slope failures, settlement and structural failures. Three different failure cases: distressed pavement over a natural slope, a school building, and secretariat building failures are discussed with reference to the field tests carried out. GPR radargram showed the cracked portion of pavement and the depth of the cracks. DBS and MASW at school building show the presence of loose cohesionless soil layer below the top dense layer, which might have undergone cyclic mobility and hence resulted in a settlement and cracks in the floor slab. GPR investigation at Sikkim secretariat building showed that the building is constructed on a sloped ground, where one side is filled with soil (damaged side) and the other side is directly resting on the rock. The study highlights the possible reasons for local seismic wave amplification and the associated damage with the help of field investigation carried out.

Forensic investigation of earthquake induced failures during Sikkim 2011 earthquake, India

2023, IRJET

In this study, the collapse of a reinforced concrete tribune structure was analyzed in order to determine the next steps for repair. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used, including visual observation, Hammer Test, and computational modeling with Staad Pro v8i. The results showed that the collapse occurred in the beams and floor, leading to the conclusion that they should be demolished, while the columns could be repaired with minor modifications. The Hammer Test revealed a range of concrete quality, with the critical stress occurring at the same location as the collapse. The computational modeling with Staad Pro v8i confirmed that the reinforcement beam design was inadequate and the scaffolding used was too weak. It was concluded that the collapse was due to a combination of factors, including insufficient reinforcement design, unhardened beams and concrete, and inadequate scaffolding support during the concrete hardening process.


Dr. Vasilis Sarhosis

Natural Hazards

This paper presents an investigation of the collapse of a 325-year-old multi-tiered heritage temple during the 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Kathmandu, Nepal. The research comprises a reconnaissance survey followed by a geotechnical investigation and numerical back-analysis carried out to understand the potential causes of the collapse. The assessment of the structural configuration of the temple indicated seismic vulnerability in the design due to the presence of discontinuous columns over the height of the temple and age-weakened bonding in the masonry walls. The geotechnical investigation revealed the presence of competent soil strata at the location, assisting the survey which indicated no differential or excessive settlement in the foundation. A series of cyclic triaxial tests were conducted on samples recovered during the geotechnical investigation to determine dynamic behaviour of the soil. Further, dynamic analysis of the plinth of the temple under the recorded acceleration–time...

Experimental, numerical and field study investigating a heritage structure collapse after the 2015 Gorkha earthquake

IJESRT Journal

Progressive collapse arises when local failure in a building member spreads to the adjacent members, this may promote further failure. In general, structures are designed to bear the normal expected loads like dead load, live load and lateral load (wind and seismic). However, some structures rarely are being exposed to sudden loads due to natural, man-made, intentional or unintentional reasons. These unexpected loads induce progressive collapse event. Therefore, many studies have been conducted to improve the building performance against extreme load hazards and progressive collapse phenomenon. In this work various position of GF column is selected and removed floor wise. As a result, the prime objective of this study is to find out the most critical location of the removed vertical-support element. Additionally, Linear static analysis of the three-dimensional (3-D) computer models of each selected building was carried out by using STAAD. Pro program. Ultimately, observations from this research demonstrate that the increase in the height of the structure and the removal of column from the bottom or near the bottom of the short side of the building is more significant to progressive collapse event.


Ali Ahmed, PhD , Md. Mahbub-ul-Alam

2014, Stamford Journal of Civil Engineering, Stamford University Press

In modern structural engineering history, many disastrous building collapses were recorded as progressive collapse events. Those collapsed buildings were code-compliant and highlight the significance of more investigative study related to progressive collapse issues. Present study is focused on such issues to shed more light so that the researchers can get more specific views on the issue. The study is extended to the core issues of this research. These issues are provide specific design recommendations to avert damages from progressive collapse events, provide design recommendations towards improving design strength and ductility of new buildings to resist potential progressive collapse, provide recommendations for improving ductility and strength of connections and provide recommendations for improving redundancy of the structural systems.

A review on progressive collapse of a reinforced concrete precast panel building subjected to blast load

Atilla Bayraktar

2019, Engineering Failure Analysis

Analysis of a multi-story reinforced concrete residential building damaged under its self-weight

2020, IRJET

A G+6 of reinforced concrete frame building was chosen for the present study. The structure was examined by different examiners for inspect its progressive collapse conduct, and the outcomes were distributed after this examination had been finished. In US, Comprehensive recommendations and protocols for progressive collapse are issued by the General Services Administration (GSA). A threat-independent approach to progressive collapse is included in the GSA criteria. For building structures to provide economical and safe design against progressive collapse. The demand capacity ratio is assessed in the critical region of the RC portion associated with column removed, as per the provisions of GSA guidelines. Member forces are obtained by analysis results carried out in ETABS 16.0. And result comparison is to be done for these parameters before and after the progressive collapse of the building. A RC framed structure was modelled and analyzed according to the Indian Standard Codes for the analysis. In this method the removal of column followed in order to check the beam capacity ratio and additional reinforcement required. Among three cases of column removal, most damaging collapse occurs when interior column is lost, next is corner column failure, finally middle column failure.


sanjay yadav

Progressive failure in india 2

Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak

2013, Civil and Environmental Research

The Study of Claims Arising from Building Collapses: Case Studies from Malaysia, Nigeria, Singapore and Thailand

2018, October 2018

Buildings collapses in the Nigerian major urban cites continues to engender an excessive number of fatalities, injuries and property damage. This study investigates whose fault, the clients, engineers, architects, quantity surveyors, town planner or contractors in the cause of incessant collapse of building in Lagos State. Two research approaches were employed - quantitative and interview protocol. The findings revealed that greed and engagement of quacks by building clients, lack of commitment by top management of contracting firms, bribery and corruption among town planning officers ranked highest. Thus, achieving sustainable environment, liveable, viable, quality buildings, and better performance deserves collective responsibilities of key participants in building construction delivery chain, particularly during the early planning and design stage. The study therefore, recommends that the key stakeholders should have a rethink and attitudinal change towards their roles and respon...

Collapsed Buildings: Whose Fault – Clients, Engineers, Architects, Quantity Surveyors, Town Planners or Contractors?

Framed structures constructed on hill slopes show different structural behavior than that on the plain ground. In this method, one or several columns of the building are removed and the building response is investigated. A parametric study has been carried out, in which hill buildings are geometrically varied in height and length such types of failure start with a local damage which extension increases, up to the whole structure. For this study, a nine-storey steel moment-resistant frame building is considered. The prime objective of this study is to analyze the framed building by removing columns at different locations and finding out critical location of column vulnerable to progressive collapse and also prevention of progressive collapse of structure using linear static analysis and non-linear analysis. The evaluation uses current General services administration progressive collapse guidelines and as per IS 1893-2002. In this study, behavior of setback and step back building is analyzed and the worst model is then retrofitted to minimize the damage. These structural models will be analyzed for dynamic analysis on flat ground. Different parameters like lateral displacement, story drift, base shear, time period, bending moment, shear force will be analyzed and compared using SAP2000 software. Reference of GSA and IS 1893: 2002 will be considered.


IJERA Journal

Almost all low rise buildings suffer with movement /distress as a result of moisture /water table variation in the soil, characteristic changes in existing soil around and below foundation due to flood/earthquake ultimately leading to differential settlement. The symptoms of foundation failure due to differential settlement in different parts of foundation is always evidenced by development of vertical cracks. However before the failure each foundation/building gives one or more of the indications such as wall rotation, separation around garage walls, cracked bricks/ sheet/ rocks / floors / foundations, displaced moldings, mis-aligned doors and windows. For the strengthening /modification of foundation obtaining information through observation of cracks, failure paten and measurement of the features/components is the unavoidable necessity to identify the failure mechanism, origin of the trouble/problem and role of ground conditions in context to failure of foundation partly or wholly. This paper deals with the novel based study of foundation problem diagnostic techniques, prospective/ constraintitve review of the strengthening techniques supplemented with the case study of almost southern half of Gorakhpur City through survey, observation and questionnaire from the occupants for the foundation problem identification and its strengthening measures.

Role and Review of Problem Diagnostic Techniques in Strengthening of Foundations: A Case Study of Southern Half of Gorakhpur City in U.P

ESV. (Amb) O Y A N I R A N Oluwaseun Babatunde

ABSTRACT It is evident that in life, shelter remains the second basic necessity of human needs after food, and as such, many individuals act desperately to have their own personal dwelling. Therefore, the need to erect solid and functional building to avoid unexpected collapse is very essential. Building Collapse occur as a result of the following factors, factors such as; Poor workmanship, bad design, use of sub-standard building materials, foundation failure, faulty construction, extra-ordinary loads, among other factors such as negligence, design flaws, ageing, material fatigue, extreme operational and environmental conditions, accidents, terrorist attacks and natural hazards. Therefore, there is need to eradicate building collapse in Nigeria, most especially, the study area which is Lagos-Island as it is believed to have the highest number incidents of building collapse and require immediate attention. In view of the aforementioned therefore, this research work shall look into the problems that result into collapse of building in Nigeria whether design or construction or other related problems. However, having identified the problems of building collapse in the country with special focus on Lagos-Island, possible solution were thereafter proffered to solving the identified problems


Ayodeji E Oke

2011, Journal of Design and Built Environment


Adnan Özdemir

2007, Environmental Geology

A geological and geotechnical investigation of the settlement area of Zümrüt Building (Konya, Turkey) which caused 92 fatalities due to its collapse


2011, Journal of Building Appraisal

Incessant building collapse: A case of a hotel in Akure, Nigeria

Margherita Neri , Giulio Zizzo

2010, The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology

Investigating the collapse of a building poses multiple and complex forensic challenges. Large numbers of specialized personnel and equipment are required, as are the combined technical skills of many different kinds of forensic investigators. Forensic pathology teams are integral to these efforts. This report describes the investigation that occurred after a building collapsed in southern Italian location. Several families were still living in small, and abandoned building built in the early 20th century. The buildings were located over cellars 3 meters underground, known locally as "the caves." Eight people were found dead under the debris of one of the collapsed houses and 6 were brought out alive. A team of forensic pathologists and engineers was appointed to investigate the causes of death and of the collapse, respectively. A complete autopsy was performed in every case, along with radiologic assessment and toxicological analysis. Autopsy findings were coded using the Abbreviated Injury Scale and the New Injury Severity Score. Systems for victim identification, arrangements for human remains, management of dead bodies, evaluation of the different patterns of injuries and, finally, detailed identification of the cause of death all played an important role.

A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Investigation of a Collapsed Building

Festival Godwin Boateng

2019, Built to Thrive: creating buildings and cities that support individual well-being and community prosperity

Building collapses are becoming a common, tragic occurrence in cities in developing countries – particularly Africa and Asia. This does not bode well for urban sustainability given the rapid growth and concentration of more and more people in cities in those parts of the world. The growing number of climate-related hazards portends an even higher disaster-risk as more buildings could collapse in such places subsequent to hydro-meteorological hazards. This raises the need for conversations toward unravelling and addressing the underlying causes. This review draws on contemporary as well as historic documents on housing and construction, media, scholarly and investigative reports on building collapses and other cognate materials on the growth and development of cities across diverse locations to confer insight into the phenomenon. In summary, it was found that accelerated demand for buildings triggered by urban expansions provides the context for how the creation of unsafe buildings arise in developing countries’ cities and are thus central to understanding the deleterious consequences of building collapses in those parts of the world. The implications of the findings for control are discussed. The review provides an exploratory reference for empirical research into the situations of specific countries and cities

A conceptual inquiry into building collapse in cities in developing countries


  •   We're Hiring!
  •   Help Center
  • Find new research papers in:
  • Health Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Cognitive Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
  • Academia ©2023


  1. Building failure case study

    building failure case study in india pdf

  2. Building failure case study

    building failure case study in india pdf

  3. Building Failure Cases

    building failure case study in india pdf

  4. Building failure case study

    building failure case study in india pdf

  5. Building failure case study

    building failure case study in india pdf

  6. Building failure case study

    building failure case study in india pdf


  1. Case Study: Successful Businesses that Nailed their Logo Designs

    When it comes to building a successful business, one of the most crucial elements is a well-designed logo. A logo serves as the face of your brand, making it instantly recognizable and memorable.

  2. Accessible and Convenient: Explore Free Bible Study Lessons in PDF

    Are you looking for a convenient way to deepen your understanding of the Bible? Whether you’re a beginner or a seasoned student of the Scriptures, free Bible study lessons in PDF format can be an excellent resource.

  3. Enhance Your Faith Journey with Free Bible Study Lessons in PDF

    Are you looking to deepen your understanding of the Bible and strengthen your faith? Look no further. In this digital age, there are numerous resources available to aid in your spiritual growth. One such resource is free Bible study lessons...

  4. investigation of a building collapse in delhi

    Doubt rose whether this column failed by punching shear and if so can a frame building collapse just due to excessive settlement of one column only? Upon.

  5. Collapse of 4storied building in Begunbari‐‐‐A pictorial case study

    PDF | On Apr 2, 2010, Md Nurul Alam published Collapse of 4storied building in Begunbari‐‐‐A pictorial case study | Find, read and cite all the research you

  6. Bridge Failures Case Studies in India (2016-2019)

    From this point it is necessary to study the past failure to strengthen the future construction. There are many failures which occur and are never heard about

  7. (PDF) Causes of structural failures of a building: Case study of a

    ... building collapses in Nigeria over different time periods. According to the study, 30 Garg et al. [4] presented a study on bridge failures in India

  8. Forensic analysis of building collapsed in Bengaluru and Review of

    The main reason for unoccu- pied building collapse found to be pressure difference on two sides of structure. Reasons for foundation failures:-.

  9. (PDF) Investigation of a Building Collapse in Delhi

    This case study deals with a virtual structure, with a foundation that has failed. The reason for the failure and the various methods that could be employed to

  10. Investigating the Causes for Failures in Construction by Taking a

    . CASE STUDY -KHED BUILDING COLLAPSE. 3.1 Introduction. The building was under

  11. Collapse of Trust

    This is the case study on the 11 storey building collapse at Moulivakkam, Porur. ... Indian Kanoon. [13] 2014 Chennai Building Collapse from

  12. A Case Study of Foundation Failure in The Existing Residential

    To identify the types of foundation failures, the causes, and structural defects due to the failure in the residential building;. 2. To identify the types of

  13. Forensic analysis of recent building collapse in India and Review of

    Forensic analysis of recent building collapse in India and Review of a case study on foundation failure. S.V. Gowthami1 and H. N. Ramesh2. 1 Department of

  14. Building Failures and Causes: Case Studies: Theory of Structures

    buildings fall under the Rent Control Act. Building collapses are common in India due to