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Case studies & examples
Articles, use cases, and proof points describing projects undertaken by data managers and data practitioners across the federal government
Agencies Mobilize to Improve Emergency Response in Puerto Rico through Better Data
Federal agencies' response efforts to Hurricanes Irma and Maria in Puerto Rico was hampered by imperfect address data for the island. In the aftermath, emergency responders gathered together to enhance the utility of Puerto Rico address data and share best practices for using what information is currently available.
Federal Data Strategy
BUILDER: A Science-Based Approach to Infrastructure Management
The Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) adopted a data-driven, risk-informed strategy to better assess risks, prioritize investments, and cost effectively modernize its aging nuclear infrastructure. NNSA’s new strategy, and lessons learned during its implementation, will help inform other federal data practitioners’ efforts to maintain facility-level information while enabling accurate and timely enterprise-wide infrastructure analysis.
Department of Energy
data management , data analysis , process redesign , Federal Data Strategy
Business case for open data
Six reasons why making your agency's data open and accessible is a good business decision.
CDO Council Federal HR Dashboarding Report - 2021
The CDO Council worked with the US Department of Agriculture, the Department of the Treasury, the United States Agency for International Development, and the Department of Transportation to develop a Diversity Profile Dashboard and to explore the value of shared HR decision support across agencies. The pilot was a success, and identified potential impact of a standardized suite of HR dashboards, in addition to demonstrating the value of collaborative analytics between agencies.
Federal Chief Data Officer's Council
data practices , data sharing , data access
CDOC Data Inventory Report
The Chief Data Officers Council Data Inventory Working Group developed this paper to highlight the value proposition for data inventories and describe challenges agencies may face when implementing and managing comprehensive data inventories. It identifies opportunities agencies can take to overcome some of these challenges and includes a set of recommendations directed at Agencies, OMB, and the CDO Council (CDOC).
data practices , metadata , data inventory
DSWG Recommendations and Findings
The Chief Data Officer Council (CDOC) established a Data Sharing Working Group (DSWG) to help the council understand the varied data-sharing needs and challenges of all agencies across the Federal Government. The DSWG reviewed data-sharing across federal agencies and developed a set of recommendations for improving the methods to access and share data within and between agencies. This report presents the findings of the DSWG’s review and provides recommendations to the CDOC Executive Committee.
data practices , data agreements , data sharing , data access
Data Skills Training Program Implementation Toolkit
The Data Skills Training Program Implementation Toolkit is designed to provide both small and large agencies with information to develop their own data skills training programs. The information provided will serve as a roadmap to the design, implementation, and administration of federal data skills training programs as agencies address their Federal Data Strategy’s Agency Action 4 gap-closing strategy training component.
data sharing , Federal Data Strategy
Data Standdown: Interrupting process to fix information
Although not a true pause in operations, ONR’s data standdown made data quality and data consolidation the top priority for the entire organization. It aimed to establish an automated and repeatable solution to enable a more holistic view of ONR investments and activities, and to increase transparency and effectiveness throughout its mission support functions. In addition, it demonstrated that getting top-level buy-in from management to prioritize data can truly advance a more data-driven culture.
Office of Naval Research
data governance , data cleaning , process redesign , Federal Data Strategy
Data.gov Metadata Management Services Product-Preliminary Plan
Status summary and preliminary business plan for a potential metadata management product under development by the Data.gov Program Management Office
data management , Federal Data Strategy , metadata , open data
PDF (7 pages)
Department of Transportation Case Study: Enterprise Data Inventory
In response to the Open Government Directive, DOT developed a strategic action plan to inventory and release high-value information through the Data.gov portal. The Department sustained efforts in building its data inventory, responding to the President’s memorandum on regulatory compliance with a comprehensive plan that was recognized as a model for other agencies to follow.
Department of Transportation
data inventory , open data
Department of Transportation Model Data Inventory Approach
This document from the Department of Transportation provides a model plan for conducting data inventory efforts required under OMB Memorandum M-13-13.
PDF (5 pages)
FEMA Case Study: Disaster Assistance Program Coordination
In 2008, the Disaster Assistance Improvement Program (DAIP), an E-Government initiative led by FEMA with support from 16 U.S. Government partners, launched DisasterAssistance.gov to simplify the process for disaster survivors to identify and apply for disaster assistance. DAIP utilized existing partner technologies and implemented a services oriented architecture (SOA) that integrated the content management system and rules engine supporting Department of Labor’s Benefits.gov applications with FEMA’s Individual Assistance Center application. The FEMA SOA serves as the backbone for data sharing interfaces with three of DAIP’s federal partners and transfers application data to reduce duplicate data entry by disaster survivors.
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Federal CDO Data Skills Training Program Case Studies
This series was developed by the Chief Data Officer Council’s Data Skills & Workforce Development Working Group to provide support to agencies in implementing the Federal Data Strategy’s Agency Action 4 gap-closing strategy training component in FY21.
FederalRegister.gov API Case Study
This case study describes the tenets behind an API that provides access to all data found on FederalRegister.gov, including all Federal Register documents from 1994 to the present.
National Archives and Records Administration
PDF (3 pages)
Fuels Knowledge Graph Project
The Fuels Knowledge Graph Project (FKGP), funded through the Federal Chief Data Officers (CDO) Council, explored the use of knowledge graphs to achieve more consistent and reliable fuel management performance measures. The team hypothesized that better performance measures and an interoperable semantic framework could enhance the ability to understand wildfires and, ultimately, improve outcomes. To develop a more systematic and robust characterization of program outcomes, the FKGP team compiled, reviewed, and analyzed multiple agency glossaries and data sources. The team examined the relationships between them, while documenting the data management necessary for a successful fuels management program.
metadata , data sharing , data access
Government Data Hubs
A list of Federal agency open data hubs, including USDA, HHS, NASA, and many others.
Helping Baltimore Volunteers Find Where to Help
Bloomberg Government analysts put together a prototype through the Census Bureau’s Opportunity Project to better assess where volunteers should direct litter-clearing efforts. Using Census Bureau and Forest Service information, the team brought a data-driven approach to their work. Their experience reveals how individuals with data expertise can identify a real-world problem that data can help solve, navigate across agencies to find and obtain the most useful data, and work within resource constraints to provide a tool to help address the problem.
geospatial , data sharing , Federal Data Strategy
How USDA Linked Federal and Commercial Data to Shed Light on the Nutritional Value of Retail Food Sales
Purchase-to-Plate Crosswalk (PPC) links the more than 359,000 food products in a comercial company database to several thousand foods in a series of USDA nutrition databases. By linking existing data resources, USDA was able to enrich and expand the analysis capabilities of both datasets. Since there were no common identifiers between the two data structures, the team used probabilistic and semantic methods to reduce the manual effort required to link the data.
Department of Agriculture
data sharing , process redesign , Federal Data Strategy
How to Blend Your Data: BEA and BLS Harness Big Data to Gain New Insights about Foreign Direct Investment in the U.S.
A recent collaboration between the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) helps shed light on the segment of the American workforce employed by foreign multinational companies. This case study shows the opportunities of cross-agency data collaboration, as well as some of the challenges of using big data and administrative data in the federal government.
Bureau of Economic Analysis / Bureau of Labor Statistics
data sharing , workforce development , process redesign , Federal Data Strategy
Implementing Federal-Wide Comment Analysis Tools
The CDO Council Comment Analysis pilot has shown that recent advances in Natural Language Processing (NLP) can effectively aid the regulatory comment analysis process. The proof-ofconcept is a standardized toolset intended to support agencies and staff in reviewing and responding to the millions of public comments received each year across government.
Improving Data Access and Data Management: Artificial Intelligence-Generated Metadata Tags at NASA
NASA’s data scientists and research content managers recently built an automated tagging system using machine learning and natural language processing. This system serves as an example of how other agencies can use their own unstructured data to improve information accessibility and promote data reuse.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
metadata , data management , data sharing , process redesign , Federal Data Strategy
Investing in Learning with the Data Stewardship Tactical Working Group at DHS
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) experience forming the Data Stewardship Tactical Working Group (DSTWG) provides meaningful insights for those who want to address data-related challenges collaboratively and successfully in their own agencies.
Department of Homeland Security
data governance , data management , Federal Data Strategy
Leveraging AI for Business Process Automation at NIH
The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), one of the twenty-seven institutes and centers at the NIH, recently deployed Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Machine Learning (ML) to automate the process by which it receives and internally refers grant applications. This new approach ensures efficient and consistent grant application referral, and liberates Program Managers from the labor-intensive and monotonous referral process.
National Institutes of Health
standards , data cleaning , process redesign , AI
FDS Proof Point
National Broadband Map: A Case Study on Open Innovation for National Policy
The National Broadband Map is a tool that provide consumers nationwide reliable information on broadband internet connections. This case study describes how crowd-sourcing, open source software, and public engagement informs the development of a tool that promotes government transparency.
Federal Communications Commission
National Renewable Energy Laboratory API Case Study
This case study describes the launch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Developer Network in October 2011. The main goal was to build an overarching platform to make it easier for the public to use NREL APIs and for NREL to produce APIs.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Open Energy Data at DOE
This case study details the development of the renewable energy applications built on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) platform, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and implemented by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).
open data , data sharing , Federal Data Strategy
Pairing Government Data with Private-Sector Ingenuity to Take on Unwanted Calls
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) releases data from millions of consumer complaints about unwanted calls to help fuel a myriad of private-sector solutions to tackle the problem. The FTC’s work serves as an example of how agencies can work with the private sector to encourage the innovative use of government data toward solutions that benefit the public.
Federal Trade Commission
data cleaning , Federal Data Strategy , open data , data sharing
Profile in Data Sharing - Roadside Inspection Data
The Federal CDO Council’s Data Sharing Working Group highlights successful data sharing activities to recognize mature data sharing practices as well as to incentivize and inspire others to take part in similar collaborations. This Profile in Data Sharing focuses on how the Department of Transportation collaborates with the Customs and Border Patrol and state partners to prescreen commercial motor vehicles entering the US and to focus inspections on unsafe carriers and drivers.
Profiles in Data Sharing - U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service
The Federal CDO Council’s Data Sharing Working Group highlights successful data sharing activities to recognize mature data sharing practices as well as to incentivize and inspire others to take part in similar collaborations. This Profile in Data Sharing focuses on how the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS) collaborated with the Centers for Disease Control to notify state, local, tribal, and territorial public health authorities so they can connect with individuals in their communities about their potential exposure.
SBA’s Approach to Identifying Data, Using a Learning Agenda, and Leveraging Partnerships to Build its Evidence Base
Through its Enterprise Learning Agenda, Small Business Administration’s (SBA) staff identify essential research questions, a plan to answer them, and how data held outside the agency can help provide further insights. Other agencies can learn from the innovative ways SBA identifies data to answer agency strategic questions and adopt those aspects that work for their own needs.
Small Business Administration
process redesign , Federal Data Strategy
Supercharging Data through Validation as a Service
USDA's Food and Nutrition Service restructured its approach to data validation at the state level using an open-source, API-based validation service managed at the federal level.
data cleaning , data validation , API , data sharing , process redesign , Federal Data Strategy
The Census Bureau Uses Its Own Data to Increase Response Rates, Helps Communities and Other Stakeholders Do the Same
The Census Bureau team produced a new interactive mapping tool in early 2018 called the Response Outreach Area Mapper (ROAM), an application that resulted in wider use of authoritative Census Bureau data, not only to improve the Census Bureau’s own operational efficiency, but also for use by tribal, state, and local governments, national and local partners, and other community groups. Other agency data practitioners can learn from the Census Bureau team’s experience communicating technical needs to non-technical executives, building analysis tools with widely-used software, and integrating efforts with stakeholders and users.
open data , data sharing , data management , data analysis , Federal Data Strategy
The Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Office of Minority Health (CMS OMH) Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool harnessed the power of millions of data records while protecting the privacy of individuals, creating an easy-to-use tool to better understand health disparities.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
geospatial , Federal Data Strategy , open data
The Veterans Legacy Memorial
The Veterans Legacy Memorial (VLM) is a digital platform to help families, survivors, and fellow veterans to take a leading role in honoring their beloved veteran. Built on millions of existing National Cemetery Administration (NCA) records in a 25-year-old database, VLM is a powerful example of an agency harnessing the potential of a legacy system to provide a modernized service that better serves the public.
data sharing , data visualization , Federal Data Strategy
Transitioning to a Data Driven Culture at CMS
This case study describes how CMS announced the creation of the Office of Information Products and Data Analytics (OIPDA) to take the lead in making data use and dissemination a core function of the agency.
data management , data sharing , data analysis , data analytics
PDF (10 pages)
U.S. Department of Labor Case Study: Software Development Kits
The U.S. Department of Labor sought to go beyond merely making data available to developers and take ease of use of the data to the next level by giving developers tools that would make using DOL’s data easier. DOL created software development kits (SDKs), which are downloadable code packages that developers can drop into their apps, making access to DOL’s data easy for even the most novice developer. These SDKs have even been published as open source projects with the aim of speeding up their conversion to SDKs that will eventually support all federal APIs.
Department of Labor
open data , API
U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Census Bureau collaborate on national roads and boundaries data
It is a well-kept secret that the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Census Bureau were the original two federal agencies to build the first national digital database of roads and boundaries in the United States. The agencies joined forces to develop homegrown computer software and state of the art technologies to convert existing USGS topographic maps of the nation to the points, lines, and polygons that fueled early GIS. Today, the USGS and Census Bureau have a longstanding goal to leverage and use roads and authoritative boundary datasets.
U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Census Bureau
data management , data sharing , data standards , data validation , data visualization , Federal Data Strategy , geospatial , open data , quality
USA.gov Uses Human-Centered Design to Roll Out AI Chatbot
To improve customer service and give better answers to users of the USA.gov website, the Technology Transformation and Services team at General Services Administration (GSA) created a chatbot using artificial intelligence (AI) and automation.
General Services Administration
AI , Federal Data Strategy
An official website of the Office of Management and Budget, the General Services Administration, and the Office of Government Information Services.
This section contains explanations of common terms referenced on resources.data.gov.
Case Studies Examples Scenarios Database System DBMS
Most of the time you see the case studies and scenario-based questions in the Database System (DBMS) paper. Keeping in view, I am sharing with you some of the case study base questions of the database course.
Examples of Case Studies and Scenarios questions from DBMS
- Examples of Case Studies and scenarios from the Database System.
- How you can make a database from the scenario mentioned below.
- How you can normalize the database tables from the case studies mentioned below.
- How to draw the Entity-relationship diagram from the given case study.
- How to draw the Data flow diagram from the case studies mentioned below.
- What database model is suitable for the case studies mentioned below.
- What kind of database users are suitable for the given case study.
- What kind of database redundancies and inconsistencies are possible in the given scenario.
- How You can write SQL Queries on the tables of the mentioned case study.
- Find the possible database keys from the tables of these case studies.
- Suggest the relationships among the tables of the given scenarios.
Vehicle information dissemination system for Cloud Android Project for BCS BSIT MCS BSSE
Gym and Fitness Management System Project IN C# for BCS BSIT MCS BSSE
HR Management System Project in C# and VB.NET for BCS BSIT MCS BSSE
Employees Attendance System via Fingerprint in C# and VB.NET for BCS BSIT MCS BSSE
Pharmacy Record Management System Project in PHP, ASP or C#.NET
Car information System using Android and Arduino final year Project for BSCS BSIT MCS BSSE
Agile File Master App final year project for BSCS BSIT MCS BSSE
Android Messenger App final year project for BSCS BSIT MCS BSSE
Android Call Recorder App final year project for BSCS BSIT MCS BSSE
Music Listening App final year project for BSCS BSIT MCS BSSE
Like mind matches Android application – Final year project for MCS
Financial Helper Using QR/Barcode Scanner Android Final year project for MCS BSCS BSSE
My Grocery List Mobile Application Project in Android
If you are still in reading the more case studies, then you can read 100+ case studies .
- Case Studies Examples Scenarios OOP
- History of Database System (DBMS)
- Data Independence in DBMS (Database)
- 3 Tier Database Architecture in DBMS
- Client-server Database Architecture in DBMS
- Second normal form Examples in DBMS
10 Database Examples in Real Life
You might not realize it, but database examples are everywhere. Whether or not you know very much about them, their effect on your daily life is extensive. From weather applications to the movies you watch online, databases support nearly every service you use on a regular basis.
To show you just how ubiquitous databases are, here are a few of the more well-known database examples and descriptions on how they enhance your day-to-day life. The most popular database server in the Web Hosting Industry, MySQL , is prevalent in virtually every example listed below.
But first, what exactly is a database?
What is a Database?
A database simply refers to a set of related data organized in a way that it can be easily stored, changed, and accessed at any time.
Databases underpin nearly every program you use. If a program saves your data in any way (e.g., username and password), you can be sure a database is deployed somewhere.
There are various ways in which databases can be organized. One of the most popular types of databases today is relational databases, consisting of rows and columns in a series of tables. Most of these databases use SQL for querying data (MySQL being one of the most popular database examples), but some also rely on other languages and are then referred to as NoSQL.
How Does a Database Work?
Relational databases can be imagined as many tables, each containing unique information stored in rows and columns .
For example, your row could contain all the information you need about a particular customer (name, email, phone, company). The column would be that specific type of information (company name) across all customers. If some customers work at the same company, you could also create a database table with all the relevant company information. In this way, you only have to specify it once and can change it later everywhere at the same time.
To interact with your database, you can use special software called a database management system (DBMS), of which there exist lots of varieties, depending on your needs.
10 Database Examples You Regularly Use
Here are 10 popular real-world database examples , from gaming to eCommerce, to show you how versatile databases can be.
1. On-Demand Online Video Streaming
Online streaming services, such as Hulu and Netflix, use databases to keep track of which TV shows and movies are available and your viewing preferences , so it can provide better watching recommendations every time you log in to the service. As you can imagine, streaming platforms move around petabytes of data at any given time, which they then need to organize and analyze. Hulu, for example, chose Apache Cassandra , one of the NoSQL distributed databases, for those needs because of its scalability, availability, and performance.
2. Social Gaming
Gaming done across social networks is extremely data-intensive. Gathering individual player information from around the globe and serving it to other players on-demand requires high availability database software.
One example is the popular Game of Thrones Ascent , a free role-playing game launched by Disruptor Beam based on the hit HBO series Game of Thrones. Their Percona Server-based database solution helped them eliminate data bottlenecks during high-usage periods.
With decentralized gaming on the rise, individual gaming servers are also becoming more popular today. Hypixel was included in the Guinness World Records for the most popular independent gaming server. Minecraft, one of the most popular games of all time, allows users to host or connect to other servers to play in a multiplayer mode.
See our handy guide on How to Create a Minecraft Server on CentOS 7 and get gaming today.
3. Personal Cloud Storage
If you save photos or documents to your smartphone or tablet, or even just to any online backup solution, your data is being transferred to the cloud, a large central storage environment, where just a small portion of space is dedicated to you.
Dropbox, Google Drive, Microsoft OneDrive, and iCloud are just some examples of personal cloud storage services available to you. All of them use complex data models and powerful data warehouses to ensure your data is stored securely and is available to be called upon at a moment’s notice, regardless of where you are.
Fan participation in national sports doesn’t just utilize the power of the database; it depends on it. From fantasy football leagues to March Madness brackets, the sports industry depends on massive cloud databases and data collection to keep track of everything that’s going on.
Such databases store and analyze player statistics, game performances, injury reports , and more — always calculating the odds of a win on a weekly basis.
From the stock market to your local bank, databases are abundant across the financial world. Everywhere information needs to be saved and reused, a database is involved, whether it’s your checking account or the price of gold at any given moment.
You can imagine that tracking the vast amount of information behind the global daily transactions requires extremely powerful and secure databases. Financial businesses also use models that analyze collected data to predict future activity .
6. Government Organizations
Governments worldwide are constantly collecting our data for various reasons, such as research, defense, legislation, and humanitarian purposes .
Since the information is highly sensitive, government organizations are often looking for a database designed to handle data for all different purposes as safely as possible. The data is then collected, stored, and analyzed using powerful and far-reaching database services.
7. Social Media
Every social media platform stores an abundance of user information in databases used to recommend friends, businesses, products, and topics to you (the end user). This cross-referencing of data is immensely complex and uses highly reliable and capable database software.
The choice for the social media database software can range widely. While some companies prefer NoSQL databases, Facebook, for example, still successfully runs MySQL in its data centers .
Any online organization that sells its products or services on a platform such as WooCommerce has to use a database to operate properly. In this case, databases help organize products, pricing, customer information, and purchasing history .
The eCommerce store owner can then leverage their database to recommend other potential products to customers. This data would be stored in highly secure databases, protected by the standards set through PCI Compliance .
Doctor’s offices and healthcare organizations store extensive amounts of patient data for easy accessibility. The databases behind this collection of information are massive, with complex data structures and security protecting sensitive data. All of these organizations have to ensure they comply with HIPAA standards for data management.
Healthcare.gov, for example, relies on NoSQL databases to manage their health insurance information .
Predicting the weather across the globe is incredibly complex. Weather organizations use prediction models that depend on various factors, all gathered, stored, and analyzed within databases. The databases allow the weather data to be always accessible and easily deliverable to your local TV station or smartphone app.
The Weather Company, for example, takes in over 20 terabytes of data per day . The company has used several databases to support this torrent of information, including MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server , Cassandra, and more.
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These cloud database case studies demonstrate clearly why so many enterprises and other large-scale organizations are shifting some, or all, of their data to cloud databases.
Some benefits may seem clear — the cloud provides remote access to data, for example. Other benefits are often overlooked.
Here are five examples of cloud database case studies from several industries to show the versatility cloud database solutions can provide:
Microsoft Consulting Services, along with Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), partnered with Walgreens to create the Information, Data, and Insights (IDI) platform powered by Azure. Microsoft describes the platform as having an “event-based microservices architecture that processes the company’s two key prescription processes: prescription and pharmacy inventory processing and pharmacy operations processing.”
When patients or medical providers initiate the prescription fulfillment process, Azure Databricks and Azure Synapse Analytics move hundreds of related data points through the IDI. Pharmacists can access information through a centralized dashboard interface and request data visualizations.
Pharmacists gain real-time insights, and the system can scale as needed to meet current needs. During peak times, the platform can handle more than 40,000 transactions per second. Compared with Walgreens’ previous solution, the private cloud-based architecture saves an enormous amount of time on every transaction — prescription data that once took about 48 hours to reach its data warehouse can be handled by Walgreens within minutes.
In a Microsoft case study, Lakshmi Nagaraj, managing partner at Tata Consultancy Services, says, “It is a great journey for TCS partnering with Walgreens and Microsoft to build a modern pharmacy platform with Azure, enabling intelligent data tools at the fingertips of the pharmacists to enable future growth.”
Industry: Retail (shoes)
SAP worked with Allbirds to develop a cloud-based enterprise resource planning (ERP) infrastructure to consolidate and centralize global operations. The infrastructure includes legacy e-commerce and POS platforms powered by SAP. At this point, Allbirds holds 90% of its business technology in the cloud, within private and public cloud networks.
Allbirds has been able to create immersive cross-channel experiences on their mobile and web platforms as well as in store due to better visibility into inventory. The private cloud-based system delivers real-time financial data, including up-to-the-minute sales and customer insights, which are used to create consistency across multiple sales channels and to streamline supply chains. The company has experienced better on-time delivery rates and fewer out-of-stock issues where inventory data was outdated.
Siemens Mobility is working with several European rail operators to modernize thousands of kilometers of rail traffic. Siemens’ train signal control system is intended to improve efficiency and utilization, but digitizing the routes was complex, given the extensive scope and scale of the project, which spans several European countries.
By moving key data assets to Oracle Cloud Autonomous Transaction Processing, project managers can access relevant project information from several shared resources with a few clicks, versus the several days of manual spreadsheet entry this process required prior to the move. The company reports reduced costs of 90% and improved time to market in an Oracle case study .
MineSense is a data-based tool used by several of the world’s largest mining operations in Canada, Chile and Peru to more accurately dig for resources like iron, copper, zinc and nickel. The company uses thousands of Internet of Things (IoT) devices and terabytes of data to power its operations. Data received through these devices is used to optimize the use of power and water for extraction and to minimize waste, but the company needed a large-scale solution for managing all that data.
MineSense opted for a cloud-based solution that has helped to lower DBA workloads by 65%, while still delivering accurate data insights to mining engineers, geophysicists, and data scientists. Oracle Cloud Autonomous Data Warehouse also allows MinSense to analyze the IoT data to drive future operational decisions. T he MinSense team can build and deliver apps in a week versus the six weeks it took previously, according to Oracle .
Online game publisher Gamepub was unhappy with the amount of downtime it had to tolerate in order to handle maintenance tasks. Every moment games in their catalog were inaccessible was directly related to a financial hit, and ultimately, the company felt it impacted customer loyalty and retention. “Gamers are disappointed even when there’s a short delay in access,” says Seokchan Sohn, Lead of System Team at Gamepub in the Microsoft case study .
Gamepub’s move to Microsoft’s Azure Database for MySQL – Flexible Server has given the company much more control over how it handles game maintenance.
The company can control the timing for patches and upgrades and schedule maintenance to coincide with game update releases. Sohn says the company is able to reduce downtime by running certain disk management tasks online — for example, disk volume size changes and IOPS (input/output operations per second) optimization. Ultimately, Sohn says, the company was able to eliminate about two unnecessary maintenance periods per quarter.
Cloud-based databases can significantly improve the way enterprises access and utilize data resources. Not only do these solutions reduce the amount of physical hardware space required to store and manage data, but they also offer benefits like reduced latency and the centralization of disparate data stores.
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Database Design: Normalization Example
About this article
In this article, we use one of the entities from our case study and perform a database normalization example. We start with the products table, unnormalized, and progress through the first, second, and third normal forms. Finally, we show the results of applying the same techniques to the entire Entity Relationship Diagram for our online store.
This post is the fourth on a series exploring the subject of relational databases for the full-stack developer.
For quick access, here is the list of the articles on the topic:
- Introduction to Relational Databases
- Database Design: Entities, Attributes, and Relationships
- Database Design: Entity-Relationship Diagrams
- Database Design: Normalization ( this article )
- Database Design: Entity-Relationship Diagram to Structured Query Language
- Deploying PostgreSQL for development and testing
- Structured Query Language Cheat Sheet
- Working with databases from Python
Database normalization is a process of structuring a relational database in a way that reduces data redundancy and improves data integrity.
Data redundancy is the repetition of the same data in different places in your database. Avoiding repetition is important because repetition may cause anomalies when inserting, deleting, and updating data.
You achieve normalization by applying successive normal forms to your database design. Wikipedia lists ten of these forms. In most cases, however, using the first, second, and third normal forms is enough to produce a normalized database.
Normal forms and their requirements
You should perform normalization in order. In other words, your tables must comply with the first normal form before attempting to apply the second normal form, and so on.
As it is often the case with abstract concepts, database normalization is better explained and understood by following an example.
Let’s take the products entity from the last post and create a table with it:
Unnormalized products table
First normal form (1NF)
To achieve 1NF, your tables must meet the following criteria:
- Table columns must contain atomic values.
- The table must not have any repeating groups .
- Every row in the table must be identifiable by a primary key.
In the context of database normalization, your columns have atomic values if every value in the column is a single, indivisible value.
In the unnormalized products table above, the product_color column for the iPhone XS cover stores two values: Chili Red and Steel Blue . Therefore, product_color violates the atomicity requirement. You could modify the table to store the colors in different columns as follows:
Products table after separating each color value into its own column
A table has repeating groups when several of its columns store the same type of value. In the last version of your products table, we have two columns for storing product_color and therefore you have a repeating group: product_color .
To fix the repeating group issue, you have to separate each product color into its own row. The resulting table is now:
Product table after eliminating the repeating groups
Now, let’s look at the primary key. In the previous post , you added an auto-incrementing id attribute to all entities for the primary key. If you look at the last iteration of your products table, however, the id attribute no longer works as a primary key. The first two rows in the table have the same id but refer to different products: an iPhone XS cover chili red and an iPhone XS cover steel blue.
For this table, we need a composite key: all products in the table can be identified by a combination of id and product_color . You can say that the products table meets 1NF .
There is an issue with data redundancy that you might as well fix now, before moving on to the second normal form.
If the store introduces a new product, say a Pouch, and it comes in Chili Red, Steel Blue, and Ink, your product table becomes:
Product table in 1NF after adding the item Pouch in three different colors
Notice the problem with data redundancy. If you, for marketing reasons, decide to change the color name from Chili Red to Sunset Red , you must find all uses of the original color name in the product table and update them to the new color name.
Performing these updates is not only more work than necessary, but it can also lead to inconsistent data states if some instances are updated, and others are not.
You can avoid this pitfall by separating the product_colors into a new table and creating a relationship between products and product_colors :
Products table after extracting product_colors to a separate table and relating both tables with a foreign key
New product_colors table
Now to change Chili Red to Sunset Red, you only need to update the first record in the product_colors table, and the data remains consistent.
The new composite primary key for the products table is id and product_color_id .
Second normal form (2NF)
Once your table complies with 1NF , you can satisfy 2NF by eliminating any partial dependencies .
To have partial dependencies in a table, you must have a composite primary key and have columns that do not depend on the entire composite key.
The last iteration of your products table has a composite key: id and product_color_id . However, the columns name , cost , and price depend only on id . The column quantity depends on the entire composite key.
You can see how name , cost , and price are partially dependent on the primary key. You must get rid of all partial dependencies to satisfy 2NF.
To solve this problem, you need to create a new associative table to relate products and product_colors and move the quantity column to the new table. The result follows:
Products table in 2NF
New products_product_colors table in 2NF
Product_colors table in 2NF
You can see now that all columns in the products table depend on the primary key id . Furthermore, all columns in the new products_product_colors table depend on the composite primary key product_id and product_color_id .
Third normal form (3NF)
To satisfy 3NF , your tables must be in 2NF , and you must eliminate any transitive dependencies .
A transitive dependency exists in a table when a column’s dependence in the primary key happens indirectly through another column.
In our example, there are no transitive dependencies, and, therefore, the tables already meet the requirements for 3NF .
For the sake of completeness, we are going to add to the products table two columns, supplier and county_of_origin , to illustrate what transitive dependencies are and how to avoid them.
Let’s say you have two suppliers: ACME from China and Globex from India. The products table with the modifications follows:
Products table with transitive dependency country_of_origin
You can easily see that country_of_origin is indirectly dependent on id though the supplier column, and therefore it creates a transitive dependency.
As usual, you fix the problem by moving supplier and country_of_origin to a new table and creating a relationship between the new table and the products table.
The result follows, and your products table is now in 3NF .
Products table in 3NF
Normalization for the entire Entity Relationship Diagram
Now you should review all entities and relationships in the diagram for your online store and modify them as needed to achieve 3NF. Your resulting diagram should be similar to this one:
Normalized entity-relationship diagram for our online store
In this article, you were exposed to database normalization by following a simple example. Then you had the chance to apply your knowledge by normalizing the entity-relationship diagram for your online store.
In the process, you learned about the different normal forms and about important concepts like atomic values, repeating groups, partial dependencies, and transitive dependencies.
In the next article , you will translate the normalized entity-relationship diagram into Structured Query Language statements.
- Database normalization
- First normal form
- Second normal form
- Third normal form
- Data anomalies
- Database atomic values
- What does “repeating groups” mean?
- Partial dependency (database)
- What is transitive dependency in a database
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- Knowledge Base
- What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods
What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods
Published on May 8, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on June 22, 2023.
A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.
A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods , but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing , comparing, evaluating and understanding different aspects of a research problem .
Table of contents
When to do a case study, step 1: select a case, step 2: build a theoretical framework, step 3: collect your data, step 4: describe and analyze the case, other interesting articles.
A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. It allows you to explore the key characteristics, meanings, and implications of the case.
Case studies are often a good choice in a thesis or dissertation . They keep your project focused and manageable when you don’t have the time or resources to do large-scale research.
You might use just one complex case study where you explore a single subject in depth, or conduct multiple case studies to compare and illuminate different aspects of your research problem.
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Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions , you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to:
- Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject
- Challenge or complicate existing assumptions and theories
- Propose practical courses of action to resolve a problem
- Open up new directions for future research
TipIf your research is more practical in nature and aims to simultaneously investigate an issue as you solve it, consider conducting action research instead.
Unlike quantitative or experimental research , a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. In fact, case studies often deliberately focus on unusual, neglected, or outlying cases which may shed new light on the research problem.
Example of an outlying case studyIn the 1960s the town of Roseto, Pennsylvania was discovered to have extremely low rates of heart disease compared to the US average. It became an important case study for understanding previously neglected causes of heart disease.
However, you can also choose a more common or representative case to exemplify a particular category, experience or phenomenon.
Example of a representative case studyIn the 1920s, two sociologists used Muncie, Indiana as a case study of a typical American city that supposedly exemplified the changing culture of the US at the time.
While case studies focus more on concrete details than general theories, they should usually have some connection with theory in the field. This way the case study is not just an isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. It might aim to:
- Exemplify a theory by showing how it explains the case under investigation
- Expand on a theory by uncovering new concepts and ideas that need to be incorporated
- Challenge a theory by exploring an outlier case that doesn’t fit with established assumptions
To ensure that your analysis of the case has a solid academic grounding, you should conduct a literature review of sources related to the topic and develop a theoretical framework . This means identifying key concepts and theories to guide your analysis and interpretation.
There are many different research methods you can use to collect data on your subject. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews , observations , and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g., newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data.
Example of a mixed methods case studyFor a case study of a wind farm development in a rural area, you could collect quantitative data on employment rates and business revenue, collect qualitative data on local people’s perceptions and experiences, and analyze local and national media coverage of the development.
The aim is to gain as thorough an understanding as possible of the case and its context.
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In writing up the case study, you need to bring together all the relevant aspects to give as complete a picture as possible of the subject.
How you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard scientific paper or thesis , with separate sections or chapters for the methods , results and discussion .
Others are written in a more narrative style, aiming to explore the case from various angles and analyze its meanings and implications (for example, by using textual analysis or discourse analysis ).
In all cases, though, make sure to give contextual details about the case, connect it back to the literature and theory, and discuss how it fits into wider patterns or debates.
If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.
- Normal distribution
- Degrees of freedom
- Null hypothesis
- Discourse analysis
- Control groups
- Mixed methods research
- Non-probability sampling
- Quantitative research
- Ecological validity
- Rosenthal effect
- Implicit bias
- Cognitive bias
- Selection bias
- Negativity bias
- Status quo bias
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15+ Professional Case Study Examples [Design Tips + Templates]
By Alice Corner , Jan 12, 2023
Let me ask you a question: Have you ever bought something — within the last 10 years or so — without reading its reviews or without a recommendation or prior experience of using it?
If the answer is no — or at least, rarely — you get my point.
For businesses selling consumer goods, having raving reviews is a good way to get more customers. The same thing applies to B2B and/or SaaS businesses — but for this type of business, besides regular, short reviews, having a detailed case study can help tremendously.
Case studies are an incredibly effective form of marketing that you can use to help promote your product and plan your marketing strategy effectively. You can also use it as a form of customer analysis or as a sales tool to inspire potential customers.
So what does a case study look like and how can you create one? In this article, I’m going to list over 15 marketing case study examples, case study tips, and case study templates to help you create a case study that converts.
Click to jump ahead:
- What is a Case Study?
- Marketing Case Study Examples
Sales Case Study Examples
Simple case study examples, business case study examples.
- Case Study FAQs
What is a case study?
A case study is a research method to gain a better understanding of a subject or process. Case studies involve in-depth research into a given subject, in order to understand its functionality and successes.
In the context of a business, however, case studies take customer success stories and explore how they use your product to help them achieve their business goals.
As well as being valuable marketing tools, case studies are a good way to evaluate your product as it allows you to objectively examine how others are using it.
It’s also a good way to interview your customers about why they work with you.
Related: What is a Case Study? [+6 Types of Case Studies]
What is a marketing case study?
A marketing case study is a type of marketing where you use your existing customers as an example of what your product or services can achieve. You can also create case studies of internal, successful marketing projects.
Here’s an example of a marketing case study template:
Return to Table of Contents
Marketing case study examples
Marketing case studies are incredibly useful for showing your marketing successes. Every successful marketing campaign relies on influencing a consumer’s behavior, and a great case study can be a great way to spotlight your biggest wins.
In the marketing case study examples below, a variety of designs and techniques to create impactful and effective case studies.
Show off impressive results with a bold marketing case study
Case studies are meant to show off your successes, so make sure you feature your positive results prominently. Using bold and bright colors as well as contrasting shapes, large bold fonts, and simple icons is a great way to highlight your wins.
In well-written case study examples like the one below, the big wins are highlighted on the second page with a bright orange color and are highlighted in circles.
Making the important data stand out is especially important when attracting a prospective customer with marketing case studies.
Use a simple but clear layout in your case study
Using a simple layout in your case study can be incredibly effective, like in the example of a case study below.
Keeping a clean white background, and using slim lines to help separate the sections is an easy way to format your case study.
Making the information clear helps draw attention to the important results, and it helps improve the accessibility of the design .
Business case study examples like this would sit nicely within a larger report, with a consistent layout throughout.
Use visuals and icons to create an engaging and branded business case study
Nobody wants to read pages and pages of text — and that’s why Venngage wants to help you communicate your ideas visually.
Using icons, graphics, photos, or patterns helps create a much more engaging design.
With this Blue Cap case study icons, colors, and impactful pattern designs have been used to create an engaging design that catches your eye.
Use a monochromatic color palette to create a professional and clean case study
Let your research shine by using a monochromatic and minimalistic color palette.
By sticking to one color, and leaving lots of blank space you can ensure your design doesn’t distract a potential customer from your case study content.
In this case study on Polygon Media, the design is simple and professional, and the layout allows the prospective customer to follow the flow of information.
The gradient effect on the left-hand column helps break up the white background and adds an interesting visual effect.
Did you know you can generate an accessible color palette with Venngage? Try our free accessible color palette generator today and create a case study that delivers and looks pleasant to the eye:
Add long term goals in your case study
When creating a case study it’s a great idea to look at both the short term and the long term goals of the company to gain the best understanding possible of the insights they provide.
Short-term goals will be what the company or person hopes to achieve in the next few months, and long-term goals are what the company hopes to achieve in the next few years.
Check out this modern pattern design example of a case study below:
In this case study example, the short and long-term goals are clearly distinguished by light blue boxes and placed side by side so that they are easy to compare.
Use a strong introductory paragraph to outline the overall strategy and goals before outlining the specific short-term and long-term goals to help with clarity.
This strategy can also be handy when creating a consulting case study.
Use data to make concrete points about your sales and successes
When conducting any sort of research stats, facts, and figures are like gold dust (aka, really valuable).
Being able to quantify your findings is important to help understand the information fully. Saying sales increased 10% is much more effective than saying sales increased.
In sales case study examples, like this one, the key data and findings can be presented with icons. This contributes to the potential customer’s better understanding of the report.
They can clearly comprehend the information and it shows that the case study has been well researched.
Use emotive, persuasive, or action based language in your marketing case study
Create a compelling case study by using emotive, persuasive and action-based language when customizing your case study template.
In this well-written case study example, we can see that phrases such as “Results that Speak Volumes” and “Drive Sales” have been used.
Using persuasive language like you would in a blog post. It helps inspire potential customers to take action now.
Keep your potential customers in mind when creating a customer case study for marketing
82% of marketers use case studies in their marketing because it’s such an effective tool to help quickly gain customers’ trust and to showcase the potential of your product.
Why are case studies such an important tool in content marketing?
By writing a case study you’re telling potential customers that they can trust you because you’re showing them that other people do.
Not only that, but if you have a SaaS product, business case studies are a great way to show how other people are effectively using your product in their company.
In this case study, Network is demonstrating how their product has been used by Vortex Co. with great success; instantly showing other potential customers that their tool works and is worth using.
Related: 10+ Case Study Infographic Templates That Convert
Case studies are particularly effective as a sales technique.
A sales case study is like an extended customer testimonial, not only sharing opinions of your product – but showcasing the results you helped your customer achieve.
Make impactful statistics pop in your sales case study
Writing a case study doesn’t mean using text as the only medium for sharing results.
You should use icons to highlight areas of your research that are particularly interesting or relevant, like in this example of a case study:
Icons are a great way to help summarize information quickly and can act as visual cues to help draw the customer’s attention to certain areas of the page.
In some of the business case study examples above, icons are used to represent the impressive areas of growth and are presented in a way that grabs your attention.
Use high contrast shapes and colors to draw attention to key information in your sales case study
Help the key information stand out within your case study by using high contrast shapes and colors.
Use a complementary or contrasting color, or use a shape such as a rectangle or a circle for maximum impact.
This design has used dark blue rectangles to help separate the information and make it easier to read.
Coupled with icons and strong statistics, this information stands out on the page and is easily digestible and retainable for a potential customer.
Less is often more, and this is especially true when it comes to creating designs. Whilst you want to create a professional-looking, well-written and design case study – there’s no need to overcomplicate things.
These simple case study examples show that smart clean designs and informative content can be an effective way to showcase your successes.
Use colors and fonts to create a professional-looking case study
Business case studies shouldn’t be boring. In fact, they should be beautifully and professionally designed.
This means the normal rules of design apply. Use fonts, colors, and icons to create an interesting and visually appealing case study.
In this case study example, we can see how multiple fonts have been used to help differentiate between the headers and content, as well as complementary colors and eye-catching icons.
Whether you’re a B2B or B2C company, business case studies can be a powerful resource to help with your sales, marketing, and even internal departmental awareness.
Business and business management case studies should encompass strategic insights alongside anecdotal and qualitative findings, like in the business case study examples below.
Conduct a B2B case study by researching the company holistically
When it comes to writing a case study, make sure you approach the company holistically and analyze everything from their social media to their sales.
Think about every avenue your product or service has been of use to your case study company, and ask them about the impact this has had on their wider company goals.
In business case study examples like the one above, we can see that the company has been thought about holistically simply by the use of icons.
By combining social media icons with icons that show in-person communication we know that this is a well-researched and thorough case study.
This case study report example could also be used within an annual or end-of-year report.
Highlight the key takeaway from your marketing case study
To create a compelling case study, identify the key takeaways from your research. Use catchy language to sum up this information in a sentence, and present this sentence at the top of your page.
This is “at a glance” information and it allows people to gain a top-level understanding of the content immediately.
You can use a large, bold, contrasting font to help this information stand out from the page and provide interest.
Learn how to choose fonts effectively with our Venngage guide and once you’ve done that.
Upload your fonts and brand colors to Venngage using the My Brand Kit tool and see them automatically applied to your designs.
The heading is the ideal place to put the most impactful information, as this is the first thing that people will read.
In this example, the stat of “Increase[d] lead quality by 90%” is used as the header. It makes customers want to read more to find out how exactly lead quality was increased by such a massive amount.
If you’re conducting an in-person interview, you could highlight a direct quote or insight provided by your interview subject.
Pick out a catchy sentence or phrase, or the key piece of information your interview subject provided and use that as a way to draw a potential customer in.
Use charts to visualize data in your business case studies
Charts are an excellent way to visualize data and to bring statistics and information to life. Charts make information easier to understand and to illustrate trends or patterns.
Making charts is even easier with Venngage.
In this consulting case study example, we can see that a chart has been used to demonstrate the difference in lead value within the Lead Elves case study.
Adding a chart here helps break up the information and add visual value to the case study.
Using charts in your case study can also be useful if you’re creating a project management case study.
You could use a Gantt chart or a project timeline to show how you have managed the project successfully.
Use direct quotes to build trust in your marketing case study
To add an extra layer of authenticity you can include a direct quote from your customer within your case study.
According to research from Nielsen , 92% of people will trust a recommendation from a peer and 70% trust recommendations even if they’re from somebody they don’t know.
So if you have a customer or client who can’t stop singing your praises, make sure you get a direct quote from them and include it in your case study.
You can either lift part of the conversation or interview, or you can specifically request a quote. Make sure to ask for permission before using the quote.
This design uses a bright contrasting speech bubble to show that it includes a direct quote, and helps the quote stand out from the rest of the text.
This will help draw the customer’s attention directly to the quote, in turn influencing them to use your product or service.
Case Study Examples Summary
Once you have created your case study, it’s best practice to update your examples on a regular basis to include up-to-date statistics, data, and information.
You should update your business case study examples often if you are sharing them on your website.
It’s also important that your case study sits within your brand guidelines – find out how Venngage’s My Brand Kit tool can help you create consistently branded case study templates.
Case studies are important marketing tools – but they shouldn’t be the only tool in your toolbox. Content marketing is also a valuable way to earn consumer trust.
Case Study FAQ
Why should you write a case study.
Case studies are an effective marketing technique to engage potential customers and help build trust.
By producing case studies featuring your current clients or customers, you are showcasing how your tool or product can be used. You’re also showing that other people endorse your product.
In addition to being a good way to gather positive testimonials from existing customers , business case studies are good educational resources and can be shared amongst your company or team, and used as a reference for future projects.
How should you write a case study?
To create a great case study, you should think strategically. The first step, before starting your case study research, is to think about what you aim to learn or what you aim to prove.
You might be aiming to learn how a company makes sales or develops a new product. If this is the case, base your questions around this.
You can learn more about writing a case study from our extensive guide.
Some good questions you could ask would be:
- Why do you use our tool or service?
- How often do you use our tool or service?
- What does the process of using our product look like to you?
- If our product didn’t exist, what would you be doing instead?
- What is the number one benefit you’ve found from using our tool?
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Database Management System Case Studies Case Study 1 Hospital Management System
Aim: XYZ hospital is a multi specialty hospital that includes a number of departments, rooms, doctors, nurses, compounders, and other staff working in the hospital. Patients having different kinds of ailments come to the hospital and get checkup done from the concerned doctors. If required they are admitted in the hospital and discharged after treatment. The aim of this case study is to design and develop a database for the hospital to maintain the records of various departments, rooms, and doctors in the hospital. It also maintains records of the regular patients, patients admitted in the hospital, the check up of patients done by the doctors, the patients that have been operated, and patients discharged from the hospital.
Indian Railway is world's largest human transport system which is currently dealing with a lot of problems, such as availability of confirming seat to waiting list passengers after its departure. Moreover, there is no such system/ regulation in Indian railway that instantly gives accommodation to waiting list passengers during their journey. This paper proposes the Dynamic Seat Allocation (DSA) system considering the advantage of QR code processing along with one of the standards of wireless communication. Adding to more benefits, dynamic authentication to the wireless device is incorporated with respect to which is passenger specific. Through this research paper our approach is to make fair processing in seat reservation or allocation in Indian Railway. This project will help make the daunting task of booking and confirming a waiting list ticket very easy. Railway is the most feasible and economical solution, but some middle men and agents try to extort a huge amount of sum from a common man, taking an undue advantage of his predicament. This system will hugely help in clamping down such malpractices.
In Indian Railways transport system and in most other public transport system a passenger cannot book for a ticket after the charting of train is done and a seat remains unused if a passenger did not board a train or cancels his ticket after the charting of train is done our approach to overcome it is by a dynamic seat allocation system using QR Code containing the URL to an online website for railway reservation has been developed. In a QR code a passenger specific URL is stored, when Hand held Terminal device running on android OS encodes this URL by the Check-in an passenger which is updated in the central database and any passenger who don’t board on the train his QR code check-in procedure is not done and after the specific time interval the ticket for it is automatically made available in the system for booking to other passengers.
Prof. Goutam Dutta
In this article, we provide the mathematical model for a Revenue Management System that consists of an optimizer, a simulator and a forecaster, and implement these systems on the National Railway of an Emerging Asian Economy (NREAE). We formulate a multi-period network revenue optimization model based on deterministic linear programming, which emphasizes capacity allocations adjusted to the leg-based passenger demand. This model incorporates the crucial features of NREAE like Passenger Reservation System and urgency-based booking schemes. We conduct a simulation study of passenger demand between stations and analyze the variations in revenue and also compare the performance of different pickup forecasting techniques. We illustrate and apply the concept of expected marginal seat revenue with the passenger booking data of NREAE.
Dr. Sanjay Mohapatra
Research and Scientific Innovation Society RSIS International
The existing queuing theory provides various models which are inadequate to handle “Secondary queues” generated out of the situation of the availability of the „Service Surrender‟ facility. The present paper deals with such secondary queues as applied particularly in Indian Railways ticket reservation system.
Reuse of already existing resources and solutions has always been a strategy for reducing the costs in the information systems development process. Construction and organization of small pieces of reusable solutions, also called patterns, in libraries for reuse support, has taken a central place within research during the last years. In this paper, a methodology for collecting conceptual patterns and a navigation structure for suggesting the most suitable one during the information systems analysis process are suggested.
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Databases Case Studies Samples For Students
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Do you feel the need to examine some previously written Case Studies on Databases before you start writing an own piece? In this free database of Databases Case Study examples, you are granted an exciting opportunity to examine meaningful topics, content structuring techniques, text flow, formatting styles, and other academically acclaimed writing practices. Implementing them while composing your own Databases Case Study will surely allow you to finish the piece faster.
Presenting the finest samples isn't the only way our free essays service can aid students in their writing efforts – our authors can also create from point zero a fully customized Case Study on Databases that would make a solid foundation for your own academic work.
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