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Earthquake Resistant Building : 10 Techniques Used by Architects Around the World

earthquake resistant buildings case study

Falling under the category of natural disasters, the mere mention of earthquakes does not paint a very good picture. And rightfully so… the uprooting of families, the havoc within people, the loss of life, and the list goes on! However, in earlier times when the typology of structures was typically closer to the ground, not reaching a very substantial height, there would be scope to rush to open space for minimal damage. But in the present scenario with high-rise buildings jam-packed close to each other, there is left no option but to make the buildings strong enough to withstand the tectonic activities taking place in the region. The field of Engineering and Architecture is fortunately on a constant roll in devising newer technologies and implementations day by day for earthquake-resistant buildings that take us a step closer to a safer tomorrow for our inhabitants. 

The following are the ten buildings that were designed for earthquake resistant buildings with specialized features to withstand the lashes of earthquakes:

1. Taipei 101, Taiwan | Earthquake Resistant Building

Architect: C.Y. Lee and Partners Year of completion: 2004

Standing 508 m tall, making it the 10 th tallest building in the world as of 2020, Taiwan’s giant has had to have gone through complex engineering and clever architectural planning that went into building this structure (construction began in 1998). The building uses the tuned mass damper (TMD) approach to counteract the swaying this structure may experience in events of an earthquake. There hangs a ‘ball of steel’ weighing 730 tonnes acting as a centralized pendulum that is designed to oscillate away from the lateral bend of the building to neutralize the effect of the earthquake. Despite having such a dense and heavy profile, it manages to appear intricate and aesthetic to a viewer.

Earthquake Resistant Building Techniques - TAIPEI 101, Taiwan - Sheet1

2. Utah State Capitol building, USA

Architect: Richard K. A. Kletting Year of completion: 1916 (with later seismic upgrades in 2004)

This neoclassical Corinthian-styled classic colonnaded façade of a structure resembles the strength and repose a government building was once intended to. However, there were quite a few later innovations that were introduced to the structure’s foundation to deal with the earthquake situation in the region. It was designed to withstand up to 7.3 magnitude earthquakes while keeping the classical aura of the building intact. This base isolation system bears 281 lead-rubber laminated base isolators attached to the building foundation with the help of steel plates. In the event of an earthquake, every hard impact is absorbed by the rubber isolators while also gently shaking the building back and forth, so there is no damage or collapse.

Earthquake Resistant Building Techniques - Utah State Capitol building, USA - Sheet1

3. Petronas Twin Tower, Malaysia

Architect: César Pelli Year of completion: 1999

This iconic structure remained the tallest skyscraper in the world well until the year 2004. This still, however, remains the tallest twin tower in the world at a whopping height of 452m. The two glass towers are connected with a centralized 2 storey bridge. This feature is not only aesthetic addition but also is designed to slide in and out of the building every time there seem to be substantial lateral loads acting upon the building.

Earthquake Resistant Building Techniques - Petronas Twin Tower, Malaysia - Sheet1

4. Burj Khalifa, Dubai | Earthquake Resistant Building

Architect(s): Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill Year of completion: 2010

The world’s tallest building, the Burj Khalifa Bin Zayed, is an architectural marvel standing tall and safe. All thanks to its advanced architectural and structural system designed to withstand earthquakes ranging from 5.5 to 7.0 magnitude on the Richter scale. It is equipped with a mass dampener/harmonic absorber within the structure to absorb the vibrations. The minaret-inspired building was once introduced to some tremors due to the Iran earthquake in 2008, but the structure remained unharmed and intact.

Burj Khalifa, Dubai - Sheet1

5. The Yokohama Landmark Tower

Architect: Hugh Stubbins Year of completion: 1993

The beauty of technological advancements is that it eventually makes up for the human errors that were made in the past (well, for the most part). Similarly, as we humans occupied and inhabited the geologically active island chains, regions like Japan are at a high risk of an earthquake. The buildings actively respond to the same very efficiently as well… the Yokohama Landmark Tower is no exception. This building equips within itself a Hybrid mass damper (a combination of tuned mass damper and an active control actuator) as well as something called “bandage pillars”. These are earthquake resisting pillars that are designed with the help of resin fibres that essentially may allow some chunks of the pillar to fall off but prevent it from collapsing in case of an earthquake.

Earthquake Resistant Building Techniques - The Yokohama Landmark Tower - Sheet1

6. Citigroup Center

Architect: Hugh Stubbins Year of completion: 1976

What makes this building a rather unique addition to the New York skyline is the 410-ton concrete tuned mass damper added much later into the structure. It was the first building in New York to equip the same… the initial structure was provided with much weaker bolded joints, making it a structurally unsound and hazardous building as the lateral loads were said to be too much load on them.

Earthquake Resistant Building Techniques - Citigroup Center - Sheet1

7. U.S Bank Tower, USA

Architect: Henry N. Cobb Year of completion: 1989

Situated in the seismically active area of Los Angeles, this is the second tallest skyscraper in an earthquake-prone zone following Taipei 101. This structure is designed in a way that it can withstand an earthquake of up to 8.3 magnitudes on the Richter scale.

Earthquake Resistant Building Techniques - U.S Bank Tower, USA - Sheet1

8. One Rincon Hill South Tower, USA

Architect: John C. Lahey Year of completion: 2008

The rather unique feature about this high-end residential tower is the tuned liquid mass damper atop the 60 storey structure. It is essentially a 5 feet tall tank filled with 50,000 gallons of water that flows the opposite side of the sway to decrease the impact on the inhabitants.

Earthquake Resistant Building Techniques - One Rincon Hill South Tower, USA - Sheet1

9. Sabiha Gökçen International Airport, Turkey

Architect: HEAŞ (Airport Management & Aeronautical Industries Inc)

The confluence of three major tectonic plates in the City of Istanbul makes it a major earthquake-prone area. Resultant of which came the Sabiha Gökçen International Airport. With the ability to withstand an earthquake up to the magnitude of 8 on the Richter scale. The computer-simulated triple friction pendulum isolators help the structure not only stay aloft in the event of an earthquake but also start functioning right after the passing of the same.

Earthquake Resistant Building Techniques - Sabiha Gökçen International Airport, Turkey - Sheet1

10. The Transamerica Pyramid, USA | Earthquake Resistant Building

Architect: William Pereira Year of completion: 1972

This San Francisco high rise was designed in such a way that it reflects some sunlight to its neighbors, considering the tiny heights of the buildings around. Along with those features, it also is very efficient in terms of earthquake resistance. The building is said to rest on a steel and concrete foundation that is engineered to move along with the earthquake giving subtle sways to the structure itself. The tower survived a 7.1 magnitude earthquake in 1989.

Earthquake Resistant Building Techniques - The Transamerica Pyramid, USA - Sheet1

In this never-ending road down the structural lane, there will always be a constant need to keep improving and experimenting to adapt and survive against natural calamities while experiencing minimal damage to property, as well as life. We may not have figured everything against saving one’s structure completely against the mighty quake, but we are surely in a hopeful place.

earthquake resistant buildings case study

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Original research article, seismic isolation for protecting historical buildings: a case study.

earthquake resistant buildings case study

  • 1 Department of European and Mediterranean Cultures (Architecture, Environment and Cultural Heritage), University of Basilicata, Matera, Italy
  • 2 Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

The protection of cultural heritage from seismic risk is an open issue due to the difficulties in finding technical solutions allowing a balance between their effectiveness and invasiveness. Among the available protection techniques, seismic isolation is one of the most suitable obtaining a significant performance improvement by acting on a limited portion of the structure. In this paper, it is shown an application of such technique on a reinforced concrete frame building cataloged as of historical interest by Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage. It was realized in 30's representing the “Modern Style” of Italian Architecture, also known as Italian Rationalism, and designed only for vertical loads without any specific regulation for lateral loads. Geometry, material properties and reinforcements characteristics have been derived from an extensive investigation campaign. By the means of a FEM 3D model they are simulated among them the seismic responses of both existing and retrofitted building through a seismic isolation system composed by elastomeric and sliding isolators. Furthermore, a new methodology for estimating the seismic capacity exhibited by the structure in the past is presented and applied.


To date, the strategy of seismic isolation as earthquake-resistant technique applied on existing buildings is become very common all over the World. It is based on the concept of lengthening the natural period of the structure from the predominant frequency of the ground motions, significantly reducing the transmitted acceleration to the superstructure ( Kelly, 1986 ; Alhan and Gavin, 2004 ; Ibrahim, 2008 ). The isolation plane is generally realized above the foundation and it consists of devices capable of reducing the lateral stiffness of the superstructure combing re-centering and energy dissipation action. In this way, the seismic demand on the superstructure is drastically reduced and the performance requirements are satisfied by strongly limiting or nullifying the elements damage. In addition, this strategy requires spaces of small dimensions to be realized, and in many cases not even requiring the evacuation of the occupants.

In Italy, during the last 30 years, the seismic isolation applications have been increased more and more representing, nowadays, a common technique of structural design. A proof of this is given by the fact that the Italian Design Code ( NTC, 2008 ) and its recent update ( NTC, 2018 ) recognize the seismic isolation as standard application in buildings design. First applications of this strategy may be found in Mokha et al. (1996) , Martelli and Forni (1998) , Kawamura et al. (2000) , Luca et al. (2001) , Kelly (2002) , Braga et al. (2005) , Tomazevic et al. (2009) , and Lignola et al. (2016) .

Commonly, seismic isolation is used for retrofitting of Reinforced Concrete (RC) existing buildings, since very often they were designed only for vertical loads without any detailing rule for ductility, as highlighted in some recent studies such as, among the others, ( Laterza et al., 2017a ). In these cases, the seismic isolation is preferred to widespread and more invasive local interventions, consisting in strengthening and improving the confinement of the elements ( Braga et al., 2006 ; D'Amato et al., 2012a , b ; Laterza et al., 2017b ; Caprili et al., 2018 ; Faqeer et al., 2018 ), or consisting in adding new structural elements in order to carry the seismic loads and dissipate energy ( Ciampi et al., 1995 ; Di Sarno and Manfredi, 2010 , 2012 ; Mazza and Vulcano, 2014 ; Laguardia et al., 2017 ; Braga et al., 2019 ).

This paper presents the application of the seismic base isolation for retrofitting an existing RC building, in accordance to the Italian Design Code ( NTC, 2008 ). The case study chosen is the public building named “ Archivio di Stato ” (State Archive) designed and built during the 30's in Potenza, a city located along the Apennine chain with the highest seismic hazard in Italy. Moreover, due to its architectural importance, the considered building is protected by the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage. Indeed, it is representative of the “Modern Style” of Italian Architecture, also known as Italian Rationalism. The numerical simulations are obtained through response spectrum analyses for Fixed-Base (FB) and Base-Isolated (BI) model, considering also the impact of the variability of the friction coefficient of sliding devices.

In this article, it is therefore highlighted the effectiveness of the isolating system in order to retrofit historical buildings. In the case analyzed, several local reinforcements are required to gain the assumed seismic performance level, given the need to reduce the invasiveness of the intervention, the number and the impact of these interventions by varying the retrofit strategy is discussed. Moreover, in this study it is proposed a new and simplified methodology to estimate the structural capacity on the basis of the seismic performances exhibited by the building in the past occurred earthquakes. Precisely, the estimation of the occurred seismic action at building base stems from ground motions (GMs) available and recorded in the site surrounding area. The main idea of the proposed simplified methodology is the following: if a fixed base-building has experienced an earthquake in the past with negligible or limited damages, the seismic intensity of that earthquake may be intended as an experimental proof related to the building capacity, or rather, to the capacity of the superstructure portion of the base-isolated building. The new methodology can be used as a fast and useful tool to roughly assess the seismic performances of buildings sample in a certain area, identifying the most suitable ones for a seismic isolation strategy, implying negligible or limited damages of the superstructure. The so-estimated seismic capacity can be also used as an experimental threshold to be considered in validating implemented numerical models for seismic assessment of a structure.

Case Study—“Archivio di Stato” of Potenza, Italy (1930)

The “ Archivio di Stato ” (State Archive) was designed and realized in the 30's by the architect Ernesto Puppo (1904–1987), one of the principal exponents of Italian Rationalism Movement. It is located in the city of Potenza along a hillside on a steep slope toward the City center and used as State Archive. The building consists of RC frame structures composing three intersecting volumes with a markedly non-symmetric geometry. In Figure 1 are shown some views and technical drawings of the considered buildings. In particular, in Figure 1A they are reported a transversal and a longitudinal section of the building, where it can be appreciated the hillside disposition and the relevant irregularity in elevation. The Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage has recently added this building among those to be protected due to its architectural relevance, even considering the construction period and the urban context in which it is inserted, that can be appreciated in the photos of Figure 1B . Figure 1C shows the current abandonment state of the building due to the slight damages suffered during the Irpinia earthquake on 23/11/1980, after that it was closed.


Figure 1 . Some images of the considered case study. (A) Transversal and longitudinal section of the building, (B) images from Google Maps (2019) , and (C) current conditions of the building.

This building is of considerable importance also because it was one of the first realized in Italy with RC frame-resisting structure by the “ Cooperativa Muratori e Cementisti di Ravenna” construction company between 1936 and 1939. The frame structure is characterized by columns with square or rectangular sections with deep or flat beams, the floors slabs are made of reinforced concrete with predominant unidirectional warping. The building has three underground floors and six floors above ground with an average interstory height of about 4.5 m. Due to the strong architectural variations in height, the floors surfaces significantly vary with height. Table 1 summarizes these geometrical details, where the Level 0 corresponds to the floor accessible from the main street facing the building. Moreover, each column is founded on a deep well-foundation and connected by a beam gridwork placed at a height of −9.6 m, while no connection is present for the columns of the lower part of the building, founded at −13.80 m. Finally, infills are made of bricks and placed both in the external frames and in some internal frames.


Table 1 . Floor surfaces, plan and interstory heights of the “Archivio di Stato” building.

Materials Properties and Concrete Elements Details

In order to characterize this building, in addition to an in-depth geometrical investigation, it has been also necessary to perform an extensive investigation campaign on material properties and structural reinforcement detailing disposition. To this regard, it should be noted that, at the time of construction, there were few code indications for reinforced concrete constructions or available consolidated calculation schemes. Therefore, the survey campaign has played an important role to define the structural characteristics of the case study. Totally, the investigations campaign consisted of sampling of 13 reinforcing steel bars specimens, 21 concrete core drilled, 62 SONREB tests, and over 300 sections pacometric investigations for construction details. In this study, since the elaboration data is still in progress, only the results of the material properties measured with laboratory tests on concrete and rebars samples are illustrated. More in detail, laboratory tests on concrete samples ( Figure 2B ) extracted from beams and columns were performed to evaluate the compressive strength of concrete. The mean values of compressive strength (f cm ) and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the sample are reported in Figure 2A . Since a different homogeneity along the building height was observed, the measured compressive strengths were divided in two different groups ( Figure 2A ): Group 1 from height of −9.6–0.0 m, having an average value of 24.2 MPa measured on n. 11 concrete core samples; and Group 2 , having a compressive strength of 18.8 MPa, from floor having 4.5 m height up to the roof. The so obtained compressive strengths, given the height differentiation, have been used for both beams and columns.


Figure 2 . Investigation campaign: (A) Material properties derived from extracted samples. N, number of samples; CV, coefficient of variation; f cm , average compressive strength; f ym , average tensile strength; (B) steel reinforcements disposition obtained through pacometric investigations and sampling of concrete specimen, (C) steel samples collected.

As regards the steel reinforcements, in situ investigations showed that, according to the RC existing buildings realized in 30's, only smooth bars were applied. A total of 13 samples were extracted ( Figure 2C ), 3 from hoops of 6 mm diameter, and 15 from longitudinal bars having a diameter between 8 and 16 mm. Figure 2A reports also the average tensile strength of the steel samples measured with laboratory tests. The values are separately reported for longitudinal bars and for hoops. The obtained average values are compatible with the Steel strength class Aq 42, very common in the construction period of the building ( Verderame et al., 2001 ).

Construction details of beams and columns were measured with in situ pacometric measurements and visual inspections of reinforcements by locally removing the concrete cover. A simulated design in accordance with the design practice of that period was also performed in order to compare the obtained results with those measured through the experimental campaign. Since a good agreement was obtained, the simulated design was extended to all RC elements of the building. More in detail, 2.5 and 6 kN/m 2 were used as variable loads acting at the different floors for designing the reinforcements of decks and beams in according to simple schemes of continuous beams, as usual in the design practice. On the contrary, for columns no specific design scheme was adopted, since they were designed only for vertical loads without any lateral action for taking into account the earthquake effects. Therefore, it has been reasonable to design longitudinal and transverse reinforcements by assuming the detailing rules provided in the Italian Royal Decree ( R.D., 1939 ), that is the design code temporally closer to the years of construction of the building. In particular, it gave the provision of assigning to RC columns an amount of longitudinal bars equal to 0.8% of A c if A c < 2,000 cm 2 , and equal to 0.5% of A c if A c > 5,000 cm 2 , where A c is the column gross area. Between A c = 2,000 cm 2 and A c = 5,000 cm 2 a linear interpolation was allowed. As for the hoops, on the basis of the obtained measurements with the pacometric tests, the spacing has been considered equal to 25 cm, slightly higher than the minimum requirements of R.D. (1939) . For completeness sake, Figure 3 illustrates the reinforcement details obtained for some columns and beams.


Figure 3 . Typical reinforcement details of columns and beams.

Numerical Models

Figure 4A depicts the FEM model implemented in SAP 2000 software ( Computers Structures Inc, 2015 ) for the numerical simulations of the existing building fully fixed at the base. Specifically, beams and columns have been modeled using linear elastic frames, while the decks have been modeled with shell elements having orthotropic stiffness to consider the actual heights, while the soil pressure of the underground building portions have been neglected. Finally, in order to take account of the section cracking occurring during the seismic excitation, the flexural and shear stiffness of primary columns and beams have been both reduced of 50%, in accordance with the maximum cracking level allowed by the Italian code ( NTC, 2008 ).


Figure 4 . 3D views of the implemented FEM model for fixed-base structure (A) and for base-isolated structure (B) .

In Figure 4B the base-isolated model is reported. The added elements, such as the rigid steel deck placed above the devices and the others beams, have been modeled also with linear elastic frames. The isolating system, as illustrated and detailed later in Figure 9 , is composed by elastomeric and friction isolators, both modeled as linear link elements, whose stiffness corresponds to the secant one at the design displacement for the considered design limit state.

Site Seismic Hazard and Response Spectra

The site seismic hazard and response spectra considered in the numerical simulations are shown in Figure 5 . Precisely, Figure 5A reports the parameters defining the seismic action in terms of seismic spectra referred to a rigid soil ( Type A ) for each Limit State considered by the Italian design code ( NTC, 2008 ), that are: Operativity Limit State ( OLS ), Damage Limit State ( DLS ), Life-SafetyLimit State ( LSLS ), Collapse Limit State ( CLS ). The site seismic hazard is considered for a reference period of V R of 50 years (Nominal Life V N = 50 years and Coefficient of Use C U = 1), where: T R is the return period, a g is the maximum soil accelerations in the case of rock soil, F 0 is the maximum amplification of the spectrum, T c * is the transition period between constant acceleration and constant velocity part of the spectrum.


Figure 5 . Site seismic hazard and response spectra considered. (A) Parameters defining the seismic action referred to a rigid soil (Type A) for each limit state. (B) Elastic response spectra (ξ = 5%) for a soil Type C. (C) Design spectra for isolated system for a soil type C.

In Figure 5B are reported the elastic response spectra according to NTC (2008) for the case analyzed, by considering a ground of Type C and a conventional viscous damping ratio ξ = 5%. In order to perform linear analyses, the Italian code ( NTC, 2008 ) suggests to keep in count the energy dissipated by the isolating system using an appropriate design spectrum. This spectrum is obtained by reducing of a factor η = 10 ( 5 + ξ e s i ) the spectral ordinates with period higher than 0.8 * T is (that is the range of isolating system vibrations periods), where ξ esi is the equivalent viscous damping ratio of the isolating system for the design horizontal displacement. In accordance with this, Figure 5C reports the so-obtained design spectra, where the equivalent ξ esi for each limit state is numerically reported in Figure 9 .

Numerical Results

In this section are illustrated and commented the results obtained with the implemented FEM models where, as described in the previous section, linear elastic frames are used. In the case of base-isolated building, the seismic devices are modeled as linear links, where friction sliders have a linear stiffness corresponding to the secant one at the considered design limit state. In all the analyses performed, the horizontal seismic action effects are evaluated with a modal analysis with response spectra, where the modal effects are combined with CQC combination rule.

Seismic Response of Fixed-Base Building

The results of the modal analysis in the case of fixed-base building are reported in Figure 6 where, for brevity, are reported only the first three vibration modes. The figure illustrates the shape of each vibration mode, and reports the related vibration period T , the translational modal participating mass ratios along X and Y (U X and U Y ), and the rotational one around Z (R Z ). It is found that the first mode arises mainly along the X direction, that is the direction along which the structure is more flexible and exhibits a more regular response. On the contrary, the second and the third modes are both roto-translational, involving a coupling of a translation along Y and a rotation along Z .


Figure 6 . Fixed-base model. Shapes and dynamic properties of the first three vibration modes.

It is interesting, for the purposes of this work, to compare the floor shear distribution over the building height as illustrated in Figure 7A , obtained by considering the seismic action acting for Life-Safety Limit State. Along both the directions the shear distribution is regular and linear as demonstrated by the high mass participation ratio of the first mode. Moreover, also a study of the shear distribution at a certain level may be done. For instance, in Figure 7B the shear distribution at Level 0 among the resistant frame is illustrated. As it is easy to note, the response is quite symmetric along the X direction, where the only two central vertical frames (having y = 8.5 m e y = 13.5 m) absorb more than 50% of the total shear at Level 0 . By contrast, along the Y direction a consistent irregularity in the response is observed. The two higher frames (x = 0 m e x = −6 m), representing the building tower, are stiffer, bearing a considerable amount of the floor shear. Besides the shear global distribution, in order to verify the performances for ultimate limit states, local checks of demand/capacity ratios for ductile and fragile mechanisms have been performed, according to the requirements of Italian design code ( NTC, 2008 ). By performing these checks, it emerges that about the 15% of beams and 2% of columns don't have enough flexural or shear capacity, by considering only gravity loads. Moreover, by considering the seismic loads, almost all the columns and the 30% of beams don't have enough shear capacity.


Figure 7 . Fixed-base model. Shear and drift distribution. (A) Shear distribution over the building height for Life-Safety Limit State, (B) shear distribution among the frames at Level 0 for Life-Safety Limit State, (C) drifts distribution over the building height in the y-direction for Damage Limit State.

Finally, in Figure 7C the floor drifts obtained by considering the expected horizontal seismic action for the Damage Limit State are also plotted. For brevity, in this study the maximum horizontal drifts distribution is illustrated, arising along only the Y direction. Again, as observed for the shear forces, the distribution is quite regular above the height of the building and in any case the maximum values don't exceed the 0.5%, that is the limit for damage limit state indicated by the ( NTC, 2008 ).

Seismic Response of Base-Isolated Building

The structural intervention of seismically isolating the super-structure allows a global retrofit and, simultaneously, the respect of the architectural constraints on the building, related to its historical interest. Basically, the design criterion was of reducing as much as possible the seismic action and the number of local reinforcements on the structural elements. The solution adopted is relatively easy to realize, given the fact that at a height of −4.5 m the building has an existing grid of RC beams completely free from constraints, below which the insertion of the isolation devices may be done. Then, a rigid deck may be realized above the isolation devices and among the beams grid, to provide stiffness at the base of the so-obtained superstructure, and to achieve a correct behavior of devices with respect to the lateral actions. In addition, interventions are also planned for the substructure. Specifically, all sections of existing columns will be increased to permit the allocation of devices, guaranteeing adequate stiffness and providing the required resistance by also introducing additional reinforcements. Finally, also the foundation plan will be significantly strengthened with the insertion, among the base of columns, of a RC plate. Figure 8 reports a plan and an image of the chosen floor for inserting the isolation system.


Figure 8 . Existing grid of RC beams. (A) Plan configuration (dimensions in centimeters), (B) view of current conditions.

As far as the base isolation system is concerned, it will be realized by the combination of two different devices, consisting of reinforced rubber elastomeric devices and flat low-friction sliders. Their arrangement and characteristics have been chosen to minimize the eccentricity between center of mass and stiffness, and to optimize both the equivalent viscous damping ratio and the system stiffness, to reduce as much as possible the seismic demand transmitted to the superstructure. In Figure 9 the schematic layout of the isolation system and the devices details are shown. Three different rubber devices are considered (Type A2, A3 , and A4 ) as function of the maximum vertical load capacity (P E, max ) required, having different lateral stiffness (k H ) and for an equivalent damping ratio (ξ H ) of 10%, evaluated in correspondence of the maximum displacement capacity (v max ) equal to 400 mm. Totally, 54% of devices are in rubber. The remaining devices are low-friction sliders with a friction coefficient μ equal to 2%, modeled as equivalent visco-elastic devices, having a secant stiffness and a viscous damping ratio related to the entire energy dissipated, both calculated in correspondence of maximum design displacement. In order to maximize the system torsional stiffness, the rubber devices, where possible, have been perimetrically positioned. The Figure 9 also summarizes the equivalent linear characteristics of the isolation system for each limit state considered. More in detail, T is is the period of the isolated building, S e is the spectral acceleration for the period T is , K esi is the secant stiffness of the system, ξ esi is the equivalent viscous damping ratio, η is the reduction factor for the design spectra, N L is the Non-Linearity factor ( Skinner et al., 1993 ), S De is the maximum horizontal displacement of the isolation system, S D e * is the maximum displacement of the devices assessed by considering torsional effects due to accidental eccentricity by using the expressions of Italian design code ( NTC, 2008 ) (i.e., by multiplying the displacement obtained through response spectrum analysis by a factor δ = 1 + e / r 2 · x p where e is the considered eccentricity, r is the torsional radius of the system and x p is the position of the device) and α is the isolation grade of the system (i.e., T IS /T FB ).


Figure 9 . Seismic isolating system: configuration and details. Where: A2, A3, and A4 are the three types of rubber isolator considered, C1 is the flat slider, G Mass, and G Stiffness are the positions of the center of masses and center of stiffness, respectively.

It should be remarked that the equivalent linear characteristics of the isolation system indicated in the Figure 9 are strongly dependent on the effective properties of the isolation devices and, in particular, on the friction coefficient of the flat sliders. As known, it is strictly related to several factors such as, among the others, the axial pressure, the sliding velocity, operating temperature, consumption of the material ( Mokha et al., 1988 ; Constantinou et al., 1990 ). To this aim, a series of numerical analyses have been carried out in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the seismic response by varying μ between the values μ = 1% and μ = 6%. Figure 10 shows the following obtained results by varying μ: the resulting fundamental period T is , the equivalent viscous damping ratio of the isolation system ξ esi , the demand in terms of spectral ordinate in acceleration S e ( T is ) and maximum displacement of devices S De ( T is ). All these parameters are calculated with a FEM model implemented as described before, by considering the secant stiffness and by referring to the seismic action expected at the Collapse Limit State. As it is easy to observe by examining the obtained results, by increasing the friction coefficient μ from 1 to 6%, although the equivalent isolation system stiffness increases (i.e., T is reduces) the lateral acceleration S e ( T is ) transmitted to the superstructure is almost constant. This is because if μ increases also the dissipation expressed through ξ esi increases. Whereas, the expected maximum displacement S De ( T is ) tends gradually to reduce, increasing the capacity/demand ratio and thus increasing the safety factor.


Figure 10 . Sensitivity analyses with the base-isolated FEM model by varying the friction coefficient of flat friction sliders.

In Figure 11 the results of modal analyses obtained in the case of base-isolated model are reported. It is noted that the dynamic response is significantly modified with respect to the fixed-base model. In particular, thanks to the balanced arrangement of the seismic devices reducing the eccentricity between the center of mass and stiffness, a regular dynamic behavior is obtained, by activating about the 90% of mass participating with the first three modes. It is also useful, in order to quantify the benefits of the applied strategy, to compare in Figure 12 the resulting floor shears and drifts over the height with the ones obtained with the fixed-base model.


Figure 11 . Base-isolated model. Shapes and dynamic properties of the first three vibration modes.


Figure 12 . Fixed-base vs. base-isolated model. Comparison over the height of floor shears (at Life Safety Limit State) for the X-direction (A) and Y-direction (B) and of Drift Ratios (at Damage Limit State) for Column 27 for the X-direction (C) and Y-direction (D) .

Figures 12A,B report the comparisons in terms of floor shear over the height between the fixed-base and isolated model for the LSLS action level. It can be noted that the shear demand in the case of base-isolated model is reduced more than the 70% at each level. While, in Figures 12C,D the comparisons in terms of interstory drift ratio for the DLS action level are shown. In this case the drift is reduced by over 80% between the two models, giving evidence of the effectiveness of the isolation system to contain also the non-structural damage. On this aspect, it should be observed that linear analyses do not allow to consider the impact of the effect of the of higher modes participation due to non-linearity effects, that could significantly change the shear and drift values, as observed in Braga et al. (2005) . However, given the limited value of the Non-Linearity factor ( Skinner et al., 1993 ) for the proposed system, these effects have not been taken into consideration herein.

Despite of a consistent seismic demand reduction reached with the isolation system, additional local interventions are needed in the case analyzed herein. Precisely, concrete jacketing interventions are foreseen to improve shear and flexural resistance on columns, while interventions with steel jacketing with CAM system ( Dolce et al., 2001 ) and composite material (i.e., FRP) are foreseen as shear and flexural reinforcements on beams. Figure 13 depicts the number of local reinforcements required by increasing the level of the designing seismic action, represented as the ratio between the capacity (a gC ) and the demand (a gD ), expressed in terms of ground acceleration at the LSLS. In the case analyzed, by considering a full seismic retrofit (i.e., when a gC / a gD = 100%), 19 interventions on columns are needed. More in detail, 12 columns need of interventions to improve shear resistance and 7 columns need of interventions to improve the flexural capacity, in both cases the intervention consists in increasing of the column section and adding of longitudinal and transverse reinforcements. Similarly, 55 interventions are needed on beams, 37 of them to improve shear resistance and 18 to improve flexural capacity. Specifically, the shear and flexural reinforcements in the support zones are provided by steel jacketing, while flexural reinforcements in the mid-span zones are provided by using FRP stripes. Three different load combinations are examined: only gravity loads, only seismic load, and both gravity and seismic loads. In Figure 13A the reinforcements needed on beams are shown, while Figure 13B reports the ones needed for columns. As it is clear to note, in this case many local reinforcements (45 reinforcements on beams and 4 reinforcements on columns) are mainly requested in order to carry on the gravity loads. Whereas, few interventions, are required for completely retrofitting the building with respect to the seismic action (i.e., obtaining a ratio a gC / a gD = 100%). In detail, they are 10 for beams and 15 for columns.


Figure 13 . Retrofitted structure: Number of local reinforcements on structural elements. Beams (A) , columns (B) .

The global cost of the intervention is about 330 e /sm (total 1.5 milion €). It should be observed that in these costs the realization of new structural elements are included (such as new stairs, new concrete wall systems and new decks) finalized to the architectural and functional rearrangement of the building, as foreseen in the project. The cost estimated in order to retrofit the building through traditional methods (only local reinforcements) is almost the same (about 1.5 million e ). Notwithstanding the two alternative solution have the same costs, the intervention through seismic isolation is less invasive, because it drastically reduces the need of local intervention in elevation. Moreover, it guarantees a higher reliability in estimating the structural response. Furthermore, the isolating system may induce many other advantages by adopting new assessment methodologies, as proposed herein in the following.

A New Methodology for Assessment of Seismic Response of a Building

In this study, it is also performed a preliminary seismic assessment of the case study with the following new methodology proposed. It is based on the idea of estimating, starting from the seismic events occurred in the past, the highest seismic action experienced by the building to which negligible or very limited damages are related. This action would become the minimum seismic action, experimentally experienced, for which the ideal superstructure of a base-isolated building would suffer negligible or very limited damages. Thus, it would represent the minimum capacity of the base isolated building.

With the aim of identifying this minimum action, an accelerometric record at the site would be ideal, even if in many cases such record is not available. Therefore, the seismic action occurred at the site should be estimated in alternative as herein proposed. The proposed procedure implies of using the Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) together with the Ground Motions (GMs) recorded in the surrounding area to take into account the real characteristics of the considered seismic event and, in particular, the frequencies content actually involved. Then, the GMs records are scaled in the considered site by the means of proportioning factors, assessed by using the GMPE relationships. In this way, a rough assessment of the response spectra at the site for a certain earthquake is obtained.

In the considered case study, the procedure is applied by using the GMs record available in the ESM database ( Luzi et al., 2016 ) and by using the GMPE proposed by Ambraseys et al. (1996) . The reference earthquake is the Irpinia earthquake (M L = 6.9) arisen in 1980, where the structure experienced very limited damages.

By considering the magnitude of the Irpinia earthquake (M L = 6.9) and the epicentral distance of each accelerometric station, the elastic spectral accelerations expected at the i-th station, S a , i GMPE , can be estimated through the GMPE proposed by Ambraseys et al. (1996) as follows:

where T is the oscillation period, R i is the epicentral distance, C h and h 0 are coefficients given by Ambraseys et al. (1996) .

Among the several records available, it has been chosen to refer to only the GMs of sites with an epicentral distance lower than the one of Potenza (epicentral distance of Potenza, R PZ = 45 km). Therefore, the following 5 records are available: Calitri (CLT) (epicentral distance R ep = 18.9 km, maximum ground acceleration a g = 0.175 g), Bagnoli Irpino (BGL) (R ep = 21.9 km, a g = 0.187 g), Rionero in Vulture (RNR) (R ep = 35.5 km, a g = 0.096 g), Bisaccia (BSC) (R ep = 28.3 km a g = 0.096 g), and Auletta (ALT) (R ep = 23.4 km, a g = 0.057 g). Then, the expected spectral accelerations for the site of Potenza, S a , P Z G M P E , can be assessed with the previous equations as follows:

Consequently, for each oscillation period, the ratio of the spectral accelerations estimated through GMPE equations is calculated, given by the ratio of S a , P Z G M P E , for the considered site of Potenza, and S a , i G M P E , referred to the i-th accelerometric station having a R i epicentral distance:

For each accelerometric station considered, the so-obtained scale factor may be interpreted as a relative measure of the amplification (or de-amplification) of the spectral ordinate occurred in Potenza site with respect to the i-th site. Thus, it can be used as a scaling factor to de-amplify (or amplify) the spectral accelerations recorded (i.e., derived from the recorded GMs) at the i-th site in order to estimate the spectral accelerations occurred at Potenza during the seismic event. Then, the spectral accelerations for the city of Potenza are obtained as follows

where S a , i GM is the spectral ordinate for the i-th recorded ground motion.

Figures 14A,B show the response spectra for bed-rock estimated for the site of Potenza starting from each of the 5 GMs chosen, scaled with the proposed α i coefficient of the Equation (5). The spectra are separately reported for the East-West (E-W) and North-South (N-S) directions, considering also the mean spectrum for each direction considered. The latter, are compared in Figure 14C with the design spectra proposed by the Italian code ( NTC, 2008 ) for different limit states, and by considering a sub-soil of Type C (i.e., when the velocity of propagation of seismic waves V s30 is 180 <V s30 [m/s] <360). In doing so, also each mean spectrum is amplified by the stratigraphic factor proposed in the Italian code ( NTC, 2008 ) for a soil type C. As it is possible to note, the derived mean spectra are quite similar in the two directions and lower than the one of LSLS proposed by the Italian code. By considering that the fundamental vibration period of the fixed-base building is equal to T FB = 1.683 s (indicated in the Figure 6 ), the spectral accelerations estimated through the derived spectra starting from the recorded GMs result equal to 0.13 g for the E-W direction and 0.11 g for the N-S direction. These spectral accelerations, according to the new seismic methodology here presented, may be intended as the highest seismic action to date suffered in reality by the structure, and therefore experimentally experienced, for which the ideal superstructure of the base-isolated building would suffer negligible or very limited damages.


Figure 14 . Expected demand of Irpinia earthquake for the site of Potenza. (A) Recorded GMs spectra scaled for the site of Potenza in the E-W direction, (B) Recorded GMs spectra scaled for the site of Potenza in the N-S direction, (C) Mean spectra of GMs and code spectra for a soil type C.

The so-estimated spectral accelerations are higher than the one experienced by the superstructure of the isolating building (i.e., S a,LS,BIS = 0.061 g by considering the fundamental period of the building related to the Life safety Limit state), that represents the spectral acceleration considered to design the base-isolated building. It must however be observed that the estimation of the mean spectra is affected by a considerable uncertainty, due to the high variability among the scaled GMs spectra of each site, as shown in the Figures 14A,B . Nevertheless, only the record of Auletta (ALT) has spectral accelerations lower than S aLS,BI , while all the others considered records exhibit higher values.

The proposed new methodology may be intended as a preliminary assessment of the building seismic capacity, through an analysis of its capacity exhibited during previous earthquakes, without any numerical model of the structure. Therefore, with this approach, it is possible to estimate the seismic demand to which no one or very limited interventions are required, reducing significantly their invasiveness and the structural investigations. To this regard, it should be remarked that, this design philosophy is adopted by the Italian national directive for reducing the seismic risk of cultural heritage ( G.U. N. 47, 2011 ), where light interventions are permitted even in the absence of a total retrofit of the building.


In this paper a seismic isolation intervention on the historical building of the “ Archivio di Stato ” of Potenza has been illustrated. The case study is one of the first reinforced concrete buildings built in Italy, having an architectural value such that it has been included in the list of protected properties by the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage. This building has several architectural constraints and strong irregularities in plan and elevation. Thus, among the various available intervention techniques, seismic isolation has been chosen because it allows a strong reduction of demand on structural elements with a minimal impact on the architectural components.

The comparison between structural responses of fixed-base and isolated building has been pointed out that, despite of the low values of isolating grade (i.e., α = 1.77 for the LSLS), the isolating system is effective in order to reduce the seismic demand on the building. Specifically, the floor shear for LSLS have been reduced by over 70%, while the interstory drift ratios for DLS have been reduced by over 80% at each floor. However, the strong reduction of seismic demand results not sufficient to ensure a complete retrofit of the building, requiring several local interventions.

On this aspect, it has been proposed a new and fast methodology for estimating the seismic capacity exhibited by the building during the “Irpinia earthquake” of 1980. This methodology is based on a combined use of the recorded GMs of the surrounding area in conjunction with the attenuation law (GMPE). The methodology, by avoiding an implementation of a numerical model, allows to estimate the testing seismic action occurred in reality for the superstructure of the base-isolated building to which negligible or very limited damages are related. The application of this method has shown that the spectral acceleration transmitted to the superstructure with the design Italian spectra (i.e., S e = 0.061 g) would result lower than the one experienced by the ideal superstructure during the “Irpinia earthquake” (i.e., S eN−S = 0.11 g, S eE−W = 0.13 g), where the building exhibited very limited damages. Thus, this methodology has confirmed and certified the effectiveness of the isolating system demonstrating, in addition, that no local intervention would be necessary. In the future, the new methodology here presented may be also improved by accounting for the uncertainties such as, at first, the dispersion of the recorded GMs.

Data Availability

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this manuscript will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation, to any qualified researcher.

Author Contributions

All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Keywords: cultural heritage, monuments, reinforced concrete, seismic vulnerability, seismic retrofit, seismic isolated buildings

Citation: D'Amato M, Gigliotti R and Laguardia R (2019) Seismic Isolation for Protecting Historical Buildings: A Case Study. Front. Built Environ. 5:87. doi: 10.3389/fbuil.2019.00087

Received: 15 February 2019; Accepted: 18 June 2019; Published: 03 July 2019.

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Copyright © 2019 D'Amato, Gigliotti and Laguardia. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Raffaele Laguardia, raffaele.laguardia@uniroma1.it

This article is part of the Research Topic

Seismic Analysis and Retrofitting of Historical Buildings

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Putranesia , Taufika Ophiyandri , Febrin Anas Ismail , Benny Hidayat; Assessing public knowledge of earthquake-resistant building construction can help increase community resilience: A literature study. AIP Conf. Proc. 15 June 2023; 2599 (1): 060007. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0115759

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The uncertainty of a large-scale earthquake will pose a risk to people living in disaster-prone areas. For this reason, it is necessary to study knowledge about community resilience in facing these risks. Assessing community resilience to disaster risk can be identified through community knowledge about earthquake-resistant building construction. The uncertainty of large-scale earthquakes will pose a threat to people living in disaster-prone areas. For this reason, it is necessary to study knowledge about community resilience in facing these risks. Assessing community resilience to disaster risk can be identified through community knowledge about earthquake-resistant building construction. This step needs to be taken early on to assist the government in implementing disaster risk reduction policy strategies. General knowledge of earthquake-resistant building construction can be used as an initial benchmark in making policy strategies to anticipate the risk of failure in post-disaster reconstruction efforts. A holistic approach is needed to reduce hazardous risks to the resilience of communities, infrastructure, and the construction industry in adapting to the risk of large-scale earthquakes. This study provides an overview of public knowledge about earthquake-resistant building construction and the efforts that can be made to reduce the negative impact of the risk of a major earthquake that will occur by comparing it with previous research related to efforts to increase community resilience. The study started with the research philosophy of pragmatism paradigm is used to assess public knowledge about earthquake-resistant building standards. Then, a research approach is followed by an inductive approach using case studies, investigations, and field surveys. We conducted a comprehensive literature review and questionnaire survey as part of our qualitative research, then disseminated it to the public via social media. The recommended policy measures include information and socialization, early detection of failures in post-disaster reconstruction, and efforts by the construction industry to increase the success of post-disaster reconstruction. This paper also identifies the direction of further research by strengthening the benefits and finding appropriate and rapid decision-making strategies to increase the resilience of disaster-resilient communities.

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Editor’s Note: Design for Impact is a series spotlighting architectural solutions for communities displaced by the climate crisis, natural disasters and other humanitarian emergencies.

Scenes of buildings reduced to rubble were beamed around the world this week following a 7.5 magnitude earthquake that struck Ishikawa prefecture on Japan’s western coast on Monday.

The full extent of the damage is still unknown. At least 270 homes in the region were destroyed, authorities said, though the final figure is likely to be much higher. This number does not, for instance, include Suzu or Wajima, a city of more than 27,000 people just 20 miles (32 kilometers) from the quake’s epicenter where fire department officials said about 200 buildings had burned down, according to public broadcaster NHK.

These reports speak to the personal tragedies faced by many of the region’s residents. But while no two seismic events are directly comparable, earthquakes of similar force in other parts of the world — like a 7.6 magnitude quake that caused the collapse of over 30,000 buildings in Kashmir in 2005, for example — have often wreaked far greater destruction.

By contrast, Ishikawa may have escaped lightly, according to Robert Geller, professor emeritus of seismology at the University of Tokyo.

“Modern buildings appeared to do very well,” he told CNN the day after Japan’s quake, noting that older houses “with heavy clay tile roofs” seemed to have fared the worst.

“Most single-family houses, even if they were damaged, didn’t completely collapse,” he said.

An adage of seismic design states that earthquakes don’t kill people — buildings do . And in one of the world’s most quake-prone countries, architects, engineers and urban planners have long attempted to disaster-proof towns and cities against major tremors through a combination of ancient wisdom, modern innovation and ever-evolving building codes.

From large-scale “ dampers ,” which swing like pendulums inside skyscrapers, to systems of springs or ball bearings allowing buildings to sway independent of their foundations, technology has progressed dramatically since the Great Kanto earthquake flattened large parts of Tokyo and Yokohama just over 100 years ago.

But innovations mostly center on a simple, long-understood idea: that flexibility gives structures the greatest chance of survival.

“You’ll find a lot of buildings, especially hospitals and important critical structures, are on these rubber (bearings) so that the building itself can sway,” said Miho Mazereeuw, an associate professor of architecture and urbanism at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), who explores Japan’s culture of preparedness in her forthcoming book “ Design Before Disaster. ”

“Conceptually, it all comes back to the idea that, rather than resisting the movement of the Earth, you let the building move with it.”

This principle has been used in Japan for centuries. Many of the country’s traditional wooden pagodas, for instance, have survived earthquakes (and are more likely to have succumbed to fire or war), even when modern structures did not. Take the Toji temple’s 180-foot (55-meter) tall pagoda, constructed in the 17th century near Kyoto — it famously emerged intact from the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake, also known as the Kobe quake, while many nearby buildings collapsed.

Japan’s traditional architecture has much in common with that of neighboring Korea and China, though it differs in ways that reflect the country’s higher incidence of earthquakes.

In particular, pagodas’ remarkable survival rate has long been credited to “shinbashira” — central pillars made from tree trunks and used by Japanese architects for at least 1,400 years.

Whether anchored to the ground, resting on a beam or suspended from above, these pillars bend and flex while the building’s individual floors move in the opposite direction to their neighbors. The resulting shimmying movement — often compared to that of a slithering snake — helps counter the force of tremors and is aided by interlocking joints and loose brackets, and wide roof eaves.

Learning from tragedy

Buildings in today’s Japan may not all resemble pagodas, but skyscrapers certainly do.

Although the country imposed a strict height limit of 31 meters (102 feet) until the 1960s, due to the dangers posed by natural disasters, architects have since been permitted to build upwards. Today, Japan has more than 270 buildings higher than 150 meters (492 feet), the fifth most in the world, according to data from the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.

Using steel skeletons that add flexibility to notoriously rigid concrete, high-rise designers were further emboldened by the development of large-scale counterweights and “base isolation” systems (like the aforementioned rubber bearings) that act as shock absorbers.

The property firm behind Japan’s new tallest building, which opened at the Azabudai Hills development in Tokyo last July, claims its quake-resistant design features — including large-scale dampers — will “allow businesses to continue operating” in the event of a seismic event as strong as the record 9.1 magnitude Tohoku earthquake that struck in 2011.

But for the many places in Japan without skyscrapers, like Wajima, quake resistance has been more about safeguarding everyday buildings — homes, schools, libraries and stores. And in this regard, Japan’s success has been as much a matter of policy as technology.

For one, Japan’s architecture schools have ensured — perhaps due to the country’s history of natural disasters — that students are grounded in both design and engineering, said Mazereeuw, who also directs MIT’s Urban Risk Lab, a research organization examining the seismic and climatic risks facing cities.

“Unlike in most countries, Japanese architecture schools combine architecture with structural engineering,” she said, adding that in Japan the two disciplines “are always tied together.”

Japanese officials have, over the years, also sought to learn from every major quake the country has faced, with researchers conducting detailed surveys and updating building regulations accordingly.

This process traces back to at least the 19th century, said Mazereeuw, explaining how the widespread destruction of new European-style brick and stone buildings in the 1891 Mino-Owari earthquake and 1923 Great Kanto quake led to new laws on city planning and urban buildings.

The piecemeal evolution of building regulations continued through the 20th century. But a code introduced in 1981 known as “shin-taishin,” or the New Earthquake Resistant Building Standard Amendment — a direct response to the offshore Miyagi earthquake three years earlier — proved a watershed moment.

Setting higher requirements for new buildings’ load-carrying capacity and requiring greater “story drift” (how much floors can move relative to one another), among much else, the new standards have proved so effective that homes built to pre-1981 standards (known as “kyu-taishin,” or “before earthquake resistance”) can be significantly harder to sell and more expensive to insure.

The first real test of regulations arrived in 1995 when the Great Hanshin earthquake caused widespread destruction in the southern part of Hyogo prefecture. The results were stark: 97% of the collapsed buildings had been built before 1981, according to the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery.

Earthquake Resistant Buildings

Dynamic Analyses, Numerical Computations, Codified Methods, Case Studies and Examples

  • M.Y.H. Bangash 0

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This is the first comprehensive introduction to earthquake resistant design and construction of buildings, providing the reader with a plan of the most important topics – starting from the soil analysis to the anchorage of tall buildings

Particular attention is paid to vertical movement – the most dangerous and destructive motion

Many design examples and case studies are included

Includes supplementary material: sn.pub/extras

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Table of contents (10 chapters)

Front matter, introduction to earthquake with explanatory data.

M.Y.H. Bangash

Existing Codes on Earthquake Design with and Without Seismic Devices and Tabulated Data

Basic structural dynamics, earthquake response spectra with coded design examples, dynamic finite element analysis of structures, geotechnical earthquake engineering and soil–structure interaction, response of controlled buildings – case studies, seismic criteria and design examples based on american practices, design of structural elements based on eurocode 8, earthquake – induced collision, pounding and pushover of adjacent buildings, back matter.

  • Construction of Buildings
  • Design of Buildings
  • Forensics Engineering
  • Seismic Analysis
  • Structural Engineering
  • Vertical Acceleration

Book Title : Earthquake Resistant Buildings

Book Subtitle : Dynamic Analyses, Numerical Computations, Codified Methods, Case Studies and Examples

Authors : M.Y.H. Bangash

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-93818-7

Publisher : Springer Berlin, Heidelberg

eBook Packages : Engineering , Engineering (R0)

Copyright Information : Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Hardcover ISBN : 978-3-540-93817-0 Published: 19 August 2011

Softcover ISBN : 978-3-642-42811-1 Published: 28 September 2014

eBook ISBN : 978-3-540-93818-7 Published: 19 August 2011

Edition Number : 1

Number of Pages : XXXII, 706

Topics : Building Construction and Design , Geotechnical Engineering & Applied Earth Sciences , Solid Mechanics

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